→ Around 500 B.C., Indian philosopher Maharishi Kanad, postulated the theory if we go on dividing

matter (padarth), we will obtain smallest particle beyond which further division can't be possibile

which is known as 'parmanu'.

→ Ancient Greek philosophers – Democritus and Leucippus called these particles atoms.

→ Antoine L. Lavoisier laid the foundation of chemical sciences by establishing two important laws

of chemical combination.

Laws of Chemical Combination

• This law established after the experiments by Lavoisier and Joseph L. Proust.

• The chemical reaction between two or more substances give rise to products which is governed

by certain laws called Laws of Chemical Combination.

• Law of Conservation of Mass

→ During a chemical reaction, the total mass of reactants will be equal to the total mass of the products.

→ Mass can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.

→ Example: A (reactant) + B (reactant) → AB (product)

        mass of A + mass of B = mass of AB

• Law of Constant Proportions

→ In a chemical reaction, compounds always contain the same elements present in definite proportions by mass irrespective of their source.

→ It was given by Lavoisier.

→ For example:

(i) 18 gm of H2O = 2 gm of hydrogen + 16 gm of oxygen

⇒ mass of hydrogen/mass of oxygen = 2/16 = 1/8

(ii) 36 gm of H2O = 4 gm of hydrogen + 32 gm of oxygen

⇒ mass of hydrogen/mass of oxygen = 4/32 = 1/8

(iii) 9 gm of H2O = 1 gm of hydrogen + 8 gm of oxygen

⇒ mass of hydrogen/mass of oxygen = 1/8

This verifies law of constant proportions as the ratio of mass of hydrogen to oxygen is always same.