## Mathematics Syllabus of CBSE Class 9

### Unit - 1 Number Systems

#### "Chapter - 1 REAL NUMBERS"

Review of representation of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers on the number line.Representation of terminating / non-terminating recurring decimals, on the number line through successive magnification., Rational numbers as recurring/terminating decimals., Examples of non-recurring / non-terminating decimals. , Existence of non-rational numbers (irrational numbers) such as √2, √3 and their representation on the number line., Explaining that every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line and conversely, every point on the number line represents a unique real number., Existence of √x for a given positive real number x (visual proof to be emphasized).

Definition of nth root of a real number., Rationalization (with precise meaning) of real numbers of the type 1/(a+b√x) and 1/(√x+√y) (and their combinations) where x and y are natural number and a and b are integers., Recall of laws of exponents with integral powers. Rational exponents with positive real bases (to be done by particular cases, allowing learner to arrive at the general laws.),

### "Unit - 2 Algebra"

#### "Chapter - 1 POLYNOMIALS "

Definition of a polynomial in one variable, with examples and counter examples. Coefficients of a polynomial, terms of a polynomial and zero polynomial. , Degree of a polynomial. Constant, linear, quadratic and cubic polynomials. Monomials, binomials, trinomials., Factors and multiples., Zeros of a polynomial., Motivate and State the Remainder Theorem with examples., Statement and proof of the Factor Theorem.

Factorization of ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 where a, b and c are real numbers, and of cubic polynomials using the Factor Theorem., Recall of algebraic expressions and identities., Verification of identities: (x + y + z)2 = x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx , (x ± y)3 = x3 ± y3 ± 3xy (x ± y), x³ ± y³ = (x ± y) (x² ± xy + y²), x3 + y3 + z3 - 3xyz = (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 + z2 - xy - yz - zx) and their use in factorization of pol,

#### Chapter - 2 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES

Recall of linear equations in one variable.Introduction to the equation in two variables., Focus on linear equations of the type ax+by+c=0., Prove that a linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions and justify their being written as ordered pairs of real numbers, plotting them and showing that they lie on a line., Graph of linear equations in two variables., Examples, problems from real life, including problems on Ratio and Proportion and with algebraic and graphical solutions being done simultaneously.,

### "Unit - 3 Coordinate Geometry"

#### "Chapter - 1 COORDINATE GEOMETRY"

The Cartesian planecoordinates of a point, names and terms associated with the coordinate plane, notations, plotting points in the plane,

### "Unit - 4 Geometry"

#### "Chapter -1 INTRODUCTION TO EUCLID'S GEOMETRY"

History - Geometry in India and Euclid's geometry. Euclid's method of formalizing observed phenomenon into rigorous mathematics with definitions, common/obvious notions, axioms/postulates and theorems,

#### Chapter - 2 LINES AND ANGLES

(Motivate) If a ray stands on a line, then the sum of the two adjacent angles so formed is 180° and the converse.(Prove) If two lines intersect, vertically opposite angles are equal., (Motivate) Results on corresponding angles, alternate angles, interior angles when a transversal intersects two parallel lines., (Motivate) Lines which are parallel to a given line are parallel., (Prove) The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180°., (Motivate) If a side of a triangle is produced, the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles.,

#### Chapter - 3 TRIANGLES

Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if any two sides and the included angle of one triangle is equal to any two sides and the included angle of the other triangle (SAS Congruence).(Prove) Two triangles are congruent if any two angles and the included side of one triangle is equal to any two angles and the included side of the other triangle (ASA Congruence)., (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if the three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle (SSS Congruence)., (Motivate) Two right triangles are congruent if the hypotenuse and a side of one triangle are equal (respectively) to the hypotenuse and a side of the other triangle., (Prove) The angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal., (Motivate) The sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal., (Motivate) Triangle inequalities and relation between 'angle and facing side' inequalities in triangles.

#### Chapter - 4 QUADRILATERALS

(Prove) The diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles.(Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite sides are equal, and conversely., (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite angles are equal, and conversely., (Motivate) A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if a pair of its opposite sides is parallel and equal., (Motivate) In a parallelogram, the diagonals bisect each other and conversely., (Motivate) In a triangle, the line segment joining the mid points of any two sides is parallel to the third side and (motivate) its converse.,

#### Chapter - 5 AREA

Review concept of area, recall area of a rectangle.(Prove) Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels have the same area., (Motivate) Triangles on the same (or equal base) base and between the same parallels are equal in area.,

#### Chapter - 6 CIRCLES

Through examples, arrive at definitions of circle related concepts, radius, circumference, diameter, chord, arc, secant, sector, segment subtended angle.(Prove) Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the center and (motivate) its converse., (Motivate) The perpendicular from the center of a circle to a chord bisects the chord and conversely, the line drawn through the center of a circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the chord., (Motivate) There is one and only one circle passing through three given non-collinear points., (Motivate) Equal chords of a circle (or of congruent circles) are equidistant from the center (or their respective centers) and conversely., (Prove) The angle subtended by an arc at the center is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle., (Motivate) Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.

(Motivate) If a line segment joining two points subtends equal angle at two other points lying on the same side of the line containing the segment, the four points lie on a circle., (Motivate) The sum of either of the pair of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180° and its converse.,

#### Chapter - 7 CONSTRUCTIONS

Construction of bisectors of line segments and angles of measure 60°, 90°, 45° etc., equilateral triangles.Construction of a triangle given its base, sum/difference of the other two sides and one base angle., Construction of a triangle of given perimeter and base angles.,

### "Unit -5 Mensuration"

#### "Chapter - 1 AREAS"

Area of a triangle using Heron's formula (without proof) and its application in finding the area of a quadrilateral.

#### Chapter - 2 SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES

Surface areas and volumes of cubes, cuboids, spheres (including hemispheres) and right circular cylinders/cones.

### "Unit -6 Statistics and Probability"

#### "Chapter - 1 STATISTICS"

Introduction to StatisticsCollection of data, presentation of data - tabular form, ungrouped / grouped, bar graphs, histograms (with varying base lengths), , frequency polygons, qualitative analysis of data to choose the correct form of presentation for the collected data, Mean, median, mode of ungrouped data.,

#### Chapter - 2 PROBABILITY

History, Repeated experiments and observed frequency approach to probability.Focus is on empirical probability. (A large amount of time to be devoted to group and to individual activities to motivate the concept; the experiments to be drawn from real - life situations, and from examples used in the chapter on statistics).,

## Science Syllabus of CBSE Class 9

### Unit 1 Matter - Its Nature & Behaviour

#### Chapter 1 Definition of matter

solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density, change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation

#### Chapter 2 Nature of matter

Elements, compounds and mixtures.Heterogenous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions,

#### Chapter 3 Particle nature, basic units

Atoms and molecules,Law of constant proportions, Atomic and molecular masses, Mole concept : Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers,

#### Chapter 4 Structure of atoms

Electrons, protons and neutrons,valency, chemical formula of common compounds, Isotopes and Isobars,

### Unit 2 Organisation in the Living World

#### Chapter 1 Cell - Basic Unit of life

Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms, cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles, chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number

#### Chapter 2 Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism

tructure and functions of animal and plant tissues (four types in animals; meristematic and permanent tissues in plants).

#### Chapter 3 Biological Diversity

Diversity of plants and animalsbasic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification, Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thalophyta, Bryo phyta, Pteridophyta, gymnosperms and Angiosperms)., Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).,

#### Chapter 4 Health and Diseases

Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation, Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and protozoans) and their prevention, Principles of treatment and prevention, Pulse Polio programmes.,

### Unit 3 Motion, Force and Work

#### Chapter 1 Motion

Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line, acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, equations of motion by graphical method, elementary idea of uniform circular motion.,

#### Chapter 2 Force and Newton's laws

Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and reaction forces, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and Acceleration

Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum,

#### Chapter 3 Gravitation

Gravitation; universal law of gravitation, force of gravitation of the earth (gravity), acceleration due to gravity, mass and weight, free fall,

#### Chapter 4 Floatation

Thrust and pressure. Archimedes' principle, buoyancy, elementary idea of relative density,

#### Chapter 5 Work, energy and power

Work done by a force, energy, power; kinetic and potential energy, law of conservation of energy,

#### Chapter 6 Sound

Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans, ultrasound, reflection of sound, echo and SONAR, Structure of the human ear (auditory aspect only),

### Unit 4 Our Environment

#### Chapter 1 Physical resources

Air, Water, Soil.Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures, movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India., Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction), Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages,

#### Chapter 2 Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature

Water, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen.

## Social Science Syllabus of CBSE Class 9

### Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - I

#### I. The French Revolution:

The Ancient Regime and its crisesThe social forces that led to the revolution, The different revolutionary groups and ideas of the time, The legacy. (Compulsory Chapter-1), The basis of Hitler’s rise to power,

#### II. Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution:

The crises of Tzarism.The nature of social movements between 1905 and 1917., The First World War and foundation of Soviet state., The legacy. (Chapter 2),

#### III. Nazism and the Rise of Hitler:

The growth of social democracyThe crises in Germany, The ideology of Nazism, The impact of Nazism. (Chapter 3),

#### IV. Forest Society and Colonialism:

Relationship between forests and livelihoods.Changes in forest societies under colonialism.,

#### V. Pastoralists in the Modern World:

Pastoralism as a way of life.Different forms of pastoralism, What happens to pastoralism under colonialism and modern states?,

#### VI. Peasants and Farmers:

Histories of the emergence of different forms of farming and peasant societies.Changes within rural economies in the modern world.,

### Unit 2: Contemporary India - I

#### 1. India

Size and Location

#### 2. Physical Features of India

relief, structure, major physiographic unit.

#### 3. Drainage:

Major rivers and tributaries, lakes and seas, role of rivers in the economy, pollution of rivers, measures to control river pollution.,

#### 4. Climate:

Factors influencing the climate;monsoon- its characteristics, rainfall and temperature distribution, seasons, climate and human life.,

#### 5. Natural Vegetation and Wild Life:

Vegetation types, need for conservation and various measures, distribution as well as altitudinal variation, need for conservation and various measures, Major species, their distribution,

#### 6. Population:

Size, distribution, age sex composition, population change migration as a determinant of population change, literacy, health, occupational structure and national population policy, adolescents as under-served population group with special needs. ,

### Unit 3: Democratic Politics - I

#### 1. What is Democracy? Why Democracy?:

What are the different ways of defining democracy? Why has democracy become the most prevalent form of government in our times? , What are the alternatives to democracy? , Is democracy superior to its available alternatives? , Is democracy superior to its available alternatives? , Must every democracy have the same institutions and values?,

#### 2. Constitutional Design:

How and why did India become a democracy? How was the Indian constitution framed? , What are the salient features of the Constitution? , How is democracy being constantly designed and redesigned in India?,

#### 3. Electoral Politics:

Why and how do we elect representatives? Why do we have a system of competition among political parties?, How has the citizens’ participation in electoral politics changed?, What are the ways to ensure free and fair elections? ,

#### 4. Working of Institutions:

How is the country governed? What does Parliament do in our democracy?, What is the role of the President of India, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers?, How do these relate to one another?,

#### 5. Democratic Rights:

Why do we need rights in a constitution? What are the Fundamental Rights enjoyed by the citizen under the Indian constitution? , How does the judiciary protect the Fundamental Rights of the citizen? , How is the independence of the judiciary ensured?,

### Unit 4: Economics

#### 1. The Story of Village Palampur:

Economic transactions of PalamporeIts interaction with the rest of the world through which the concept of production (including three factors of production (land, labour and capital) can be introduced.,

#### 2. People as Resource:

Introduction of how people become resource / asseteconomic activities done by men and women;, unpaid work done by women, quality of human resource, role of health and education, unemployment as a form of non utilisation of human resource, sociopolitical implication in simple form.

#### 3. Poverty as a Challenge:

Who is poor (through two case studies: one rural, one urban); indicatorsabsolute poverty (not as a concept but through a few simple examples)-why people are poor, unequal distribution of resources, comparison between countries, steps taken by government for poverty alleviation. ,

#### 4. Food Security in India:

Source of Food grains, variety across the nation, famines in the past, the need for self sufficiency, role of government in food security, procurement of food grains, overflowing of granaries and people without food

public distribution system, role of cooperatives in food security (foodgrains, milk and vegetables ration shops, cooperative shops, two-three examples as case studies),

## English Syllabus of CBSE Class 9

### UNIT - C

#### Chapter 1: Literature Textbook and Supplementary Reading Text

BEEHIVEMOMENTS,

#### Prose

The Fun They HadThe Sound of Music, The Little Girl, A Truly Beautiful Mind, The Snake and the Mirror, My Childhood, Packing

Reach for the Top, The Bond of Love, Kathmandu, If I were you,

#### Poetry

The Road Not TakenWind, Rain of the Roof, The Lake Isle of Innisfree, A Legend of the Northland, No Men are Foreign, The Duck and the Kangaroo

On Killing a Tree, The Snake Trying, A Slumber did my Spirit Seal,

#### Supplementary Reader

The Lost ChildThe Adventures of Toto, Iswaran the Storyteller, In the Kingdom of Fools, The Happy Prince, Weathering the Strom in Ersama, The Last Leaf

A Hose s Not a Home, The Accidental Tourist, The Beggar,

### UNIT - B

#### Chapter 1: Writing Skills With Grammar

TensesModals, Use of passive voice, Subject-verb concord, Reporting Commands and requests (ii) Statements (iii) Questions, Clauses: (i) Noun clauses (ii) Adverb clauses of condition and time (iii) Relative clauses, Determiners

Prepositions,

### UNIT - A

#### Chapter 1: Reading Skills

A Factual passage of 300-350 words with eight Very Short Answer Type Questions.A Discursive passage of 350-400 words with four Short Answer Type Questions to test inference, evaluation, and analysis with four Very Short Answer Questions to test vocabulary,

## Hindi Syllabus of CBSE Class 9

### Unit 1. Hindi A

#### Chapter 1. अपठित गद्यांश व काव्यांश पर शीर्षक का चुनाव, विषय-वस्तु का बोध, अभिव्यक्ति आदि पर अति लघुत्तरात्मक एवं लघुत्तरात्मक प्रश्न

1. एक अपठित गद्यांश

#### Chapter 2. व्याकरण के लिए निर्धारित विषयों पर विषय-वस्तु का बोध, भाषिक बिंदु/संरचना आदि पर प्रश्न

1. शब्द निर्माण

#### Chapter 3. पाठ्यपुस्तक क्षितिज भाग-1 व पूरक पाठ्यपुस्तक कृतिका

1. गद्य खण्ड

#### Chapter 4. लेखन

1. निबंध

### Unit 2. Hindi B

#### Chapter 1. अपठित गद्यांश व काव्यांश पर शीर्षक का चुनाव, विषय-वस्तु का बोध, अभिव्यक्ति आदि पर अति लघु प्रश्न एवं लघु प्रश्न

1. अपठित गद्यांश

#### Chapter 2. व्याकरण के लिए निर्धारित विषयों पर विषय-वस्तु का बोध, भाषिक बिंदु/संरचना आदि पर प्रश्न पूछे जाएंगे

1. वर्ण विच्छेद

#### Chapter 3. पाठ्यपुस्तक स्पर्श भाग-1 व पूरकपाठ्यपुस्तक संचयन भाग-1

1. गद्य खण्ड

#### Chapter 4. लेखन

1. अनुच्छेद

### Unit 1: Hindi A

#### Chapter 1: पठन कौशल गद्यांश व काव्यांश पर शीर्षक का चुनाव, विषय-वस्तु का बोध, भाषिक बिंदु /संरचना आदि पर अति त्रघूत्तरात्मक एवं त्रघूत्तरात्मक प्रश्न

अ. एक अऩदठत गद्माॊश