The state consists of super energetic and super excited particles. These particles are in the form

ionised gases. The fluorescent tube and neon sign bulbs consist of plasma.

Bose-Einstein Condensate

→ Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose made a study regarding the fifth state of matter. Base

his study, Albert Einstein predicted a fifth state of matter called the Bose-Einstein Condensate.

→ The Bose-Einstein Condensate or BEC is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density to

low temperatures.

 Conversion of Temperature

→ Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature, C = 273.16

For convenience, we take 0° C = 273 K

after rounding off the decimal. To change a temperature

on the Kelvin scale to the Celsius scale you have to subtract 273 from the given temperature, and to convert a temperature on the

Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale you have to add 273 to the given temperature.

Atmosphere (atm) is a unit of measuring pressure exerted by a gas. The unit of pressure is Pascal.

(Pa): 1 atmosphere = 101325 Pa.

 The pressure of air in atmosphere is called atmospheric pressure & atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1 atmosphere, and is taken as the normal atmospheric


Some measurable quantities and its units