## Mathmatics

### Unit-I

#### Chapter 1: Sets

• 1.Sets and their Representations,Types of Sets
• 2. Venn Diagrams and Operations on Sets
• 3. Practical Problems on Union and Intersection(Applications of Sets)

#### Chapter 2: Relations and Functions

• 1. Cartesian Products of Sets
• 2. Relations and Types of Relations
• 3. Functions and Types of Functions
• 4. Some Special functions,Domain,Range and their graphs
• 5. Algebra of real functions

#### Chapter 3: Trigonometric Functions

• 2. Trigonometric Functions ,Sign,Domain ,Range and their graphs
• 3. Trigonometric Functions of Sum and Difference of Two Angles
• 4. Trigonometric Equations

### Unit-ll

#### Chapter 4: Principle of Mathematical Induction

• 1. Motivation and Process of proof by induction
• 2. Principles of Mathematical induction and simple applications

#### Chapter 5: Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations

• 1. Imaginary Numbers and Powers
• 2. Complex Numbers and Algebra of Complex Numbers
• 3. The Modulus and the Conjugate of a Complex Numbers
• 4. Solving Quadratic equations in complex numbers
• 5. Square Root and Cube Root Of Complex Numbers

#### Chapter 6: Linear Inequalities

• 1. Inequalities and Algebraic Solutions of Linear Inequalities in One Variable and their Graphical Representation
• 2. Graphical methods and Solution of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables

#### Chapter 7: Permutation and Combinations

• 1. Fundamental Principle of Counting
• 2. Permutations and Factorial notation
• 3. Combinations and Simple applications

#### Chapter 8: Binomial Theorem

• 1. Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices
• 2. Pascal’s triangle
• 3. General and Middle Terms

#### Chapter 9: Sequence and Series

• 1. Sequences and Series
• 2. Arithmetic Progression (AP) and Arithmetic Mean (AM)
• 3. Geometric Progression (GP) and Geometric Mean (GM)
• 4. Sum to n Terms of Special Series
• 5. Infinite GM and its sum

### Unit-III

#### Chapter 10: Straight Lines

• 1. The slope of line and angles between two lines
• 2. Conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity of lines and Collinearity of three points
• 3. Various Forms of the Equation of a Line
• 4. General Equation of a Line
• 5. Distance of a Point From a Line and Distance between two parallel lines

#### Chapter 11: Conic Sections

• 1. Sections of a cone: parabola, hyperbola, ellipse
• 2. Standard equations, Properties and Application of a circle
• 3. Standard equations, Properties and Application of a parabola
• 4. Standard equations, Properties and Application of a ellipse
• 5. Standard equations, Properties and Application of a hyperbola

#### Chapter 12: Introduction to Three-dimensional Geometry

• 1. Coordinate axes and planes in 3D
• 2. Distance between 2 points, section formula
• 3. Coordinates of a points

### Unit-IV

#### Chapter 13: Limits and Derivatives

• 1. Intuitive idea of limits and Derivatives
• 2. Limits ,Types Of limits ,Existence of limits and Algebra of limits
• 3. Limits of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions
• 4. Derivatives ,Existence of Derivative and Algebra of Derivatives
• 5. The derivative of the sum, difference, quotient, and product of functions
• 6. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions

### Unit-V

#### Chapter 14: Mathematical Reasoning

• 1. Statements and Connecting words
• 2. Understanding of conditions such as “if-then”, “only if” and “if and only if ”, “and/or”, “implies” , “implies by” and Quantifiers and their uses
• 3. Validating the statements involving the connecting words and statements
• 4. Difference between contradiction, contrapositive, and converse

### Unit-VI: Statistics and Probability

#### Chapter 15: Statistics

• 1. Statistics :Measures of Dispersion
• 2. Mean deviation, range, variance and standard deviation of grouped and ungrouped data
• 3. Discrete and Continuous distributions
• 4. Frequency distributions analysis
• 5. Shortcut method to find variance and standard deviation

#### Chapter 16: Probability

• 1. Probability and Random experiments
• 2. Sample spaces,events and types of events,Algebra of events
• 3. Axiomatic Approach to probability
• 4. Probability of an event
• 5. Probability of “not”, “and” and “or” events

## English

### HORNBILL

• 1. The Portrait of a Lady
• 2.We're Not Afraid to Die... If We can call be Together
• 3.Discovering Tut : the saga Continues
• 4.Landscape of the soul
• 5.The Ailing Planet :the Green Movement's Role
• 6.The Browning Version

#### POEM

• 1.A Photograph
• 2.The Laburnum
• 3.The voice of the Rain
• 4.Childhood
• 5.Father to Son

### SNAPSHOTS

#### Chapter 1: The Summer of The Beautiful Horse

• Story Explanation

• Story Explanation

#### Chapter 3: Ranga's Marriage

• Ranga's Marriage explanation

#### Chapter 4: Albert Einstein at School

• Albert Einstein at School

• Mother's Day

#### Chapter 6: The Ghat of the Only World

• The Ghat of the Only World

• Birth

#### Chapter 8: The Tale of Melon City

• The Tale of Melon City poem explanation

## Accountancy

### Unit 1: Theoretical Framework

#### Chapter 1: Introduction to Accounting

• Accounting: objectives, advantages and limitations, types of accounting information; users of accounting information and their needs.
• Basic accounting terms: business transaction, account, capital, drawings, liability (Non - current and current); asset (Non - current; tangible and intangible assets and current assets), receipts (capital and revenue), expenditure (capital, revenue and de

#### Theory Base of Accounting

• Fundamental accounting assumptions: going concern, consistency and accrual.
• Accounting principles: accounting entity, money measurement, accounting period, full disclosure, materiality, prudence, cost concept, matching concept and dual aspect.
• Accounting Standards and IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards): concept and objectives
• Double entry system of accounting.
• Bases of accounting - cash basis and accrual basis.

### Unit 2: Accounting Process

#### Chapter 3: Recording of Transactions

• Accounting equation: analysis of transactions using accounting equation.
• Rules of debit and credit: for assets, liabilities, capital, revenue and expenses
• Origin of transactions- source documents (invoice, cash memo, pay in slip, cheque), preparation of vouchers - cash (debit and credit) and non cash (transfer).
• Books of original entry: format and recording - Journal.
• Cash Book: Simple Cash Book, Cash Book with Discount Column and Cash Book with Bank and Discount Columns, Petty Cash Book.
• Other books: purchases book, sales book, purchases returns book, sales returns book and journal proper.

#### Preparation of Bank Reconciliation Statement, Ledger and Trial Balance.

• Bank reconciliation statement- calculating bank balance at accounting date: need and preparation. Corrected cash book balance.
• Ledger - format, posting from journal, cash book and other special purpose books, balancing of accounts.
• Trial balance: objectives and preparation

#### Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves

• Depreciation: concept need and factors affecting depreciation; methods of computation of depreciation: straight line method, written down value method (excluding change in method)
• Accounting treatment of depreciation: by charging to asset account, by creating provision for depreciation/ accumulated depreciation account, treatment of disposal of asset.
• Provisions and reserves: concept, objectives and difference between provisions and reserves; types of reserves- revenue reserve, capital reserve, general reserve and specific reserves.

#### Accounting for Bills of Exchange

• Bills of exchange and promissory note: definition, features, parties, specimen and distinction.
• Important terms : term of bill, due date, days of grace, date of maturity, discounting of bill, endorsement of bill, bill sent for collection, dishonour of bill, noting of bill, retirement and renewal of a bill.
• Accounting treatment of bill transactions.

#### Rectification of Errors

• Errors: types-errors of omission, commission, principles, and compensating; their effect on Trial Balance.
• Detection and rectification of errors; preparation of suspense account.

### Unit 3: Financial Statements of Sole Proprietorship

#### Chapter 3: Financial Statements of Sole Proprietorship

• Financial Statements: objective and importance.
• Trading and profit and loss account: gross profit, operating profit and net profit.
• Balance Sheet: need, grouping, marshalling of assets and liabilities.
• Adjustments in preparation of financial statements : with respect to closing stock, outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued income, income received in advance, depreciation, bad debts, provision for doubtful debts, provision for discount on debtor
• Preparation of Trading and Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet of sole proprietorship.
• Incomplete records: use and limitations.
• Ascertainment of profit/loss by statement of affairs method.

### Unit 4: Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations

#### Chapter 4: Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations

• Not-for-profit organizations: concept.
• Receipts and Payment account: features.
• Income and Expenditure account: features. Preparation of Income and Expenditure account and Balance Sheet from the given Receipts and Payments account with additional information.

### Unit 5: Computers in Accounting

#### Chapter 5: Computers in Accounting

• Introduction to Computer and Accounting Information System {AIS}: Introduction to computers (Elements, Capabilities, Limitations of Computer system),
• Introduction to operating software, utility software and application software. Introduction to Accounting Information System (AIS), as a part of MIS
• Automation of Accounting Process. Meaning
• Stages in automation

### Unit 1: Foundation of Business

• Introduction
• Role of Business in the Development of Economy
• Comparison of Business, Profession and Employment
• Classification of Industry - types: primary, secondary, tertiary

#### Chapter 2: Forms of Business organizations

• Introduction
• Sole Proprietorship-1st form of Business Organisation
• Partnership-2nd form of Business Organisation
• Cooperative Societies-4th Form of Business Organisation
• Company-5th Form of Business Organisation
• Formation of company

#### Chapter 3: Public, Private and Global Enterprises

• Introduction
• Private Sector and Public Sector
• Forms of Organising Public Sector Enterprises
• Departmental Undertakings
• Statutory Corporations
• Government Company
• Changing role of public sector.
• Global Enterprises
• Joint Ventures
• Public Private Partnership (PPP)

• Introduction
• Nature of Services
• Difference between Services and Goods
• Types of Services
• Banking
• Insurance
• Communication Services
• Transportation and Warehousing

#### Chapter 5: Emerging Modes of Business

• Introduction
• Online Transactions
• Outsourcing

• Introduction
• Need for Social Responsibility
• Kinds of Social Responsibility
• Social Responsibility Towards Different Interest Groups

### Unit 2: Finance and Trade

#### Chapter 7:Formation of a Company

• Introduction
• Formation of a Company
• Promotion
• Incorporation
• Capital Subscription

#### Chapter 8: Sources of Business Finance

• Introduction
• Classification of Sources of Funds
• Retained Earnings
• Factoring
• Lease Financing
• Public Deposits
• Commercial Paper
• Issue of Shares
• Debentures
• Commercial Banks
• Financial Institutions
• International Financing
• Factors Affecting the Choice of the Source of Funds

#### Chapter 9: Small Business & Entrepreneurship

• Introduction
• Role of Small Business in Rural India
• Government assistance to small business units
• MSME and Entrepreneurship Development
• Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)

• Introduction
• Deparatmental stores
• Chain stores/multiple shops
• Mail order houses
• Consumer cooperative store
• Super Market
• Vending machines
• Goods & services tax
• Role of commerce & Industry associations in promotion of internal trade

• Introduction
• Meaning and Reason of International Business
• Modes of Entry into International Business
• Export-Import Procedures and Documentation
• Foreign Trade Promotion: Incentives and Organisational Support

## Economics

### Statistics for Economics

#### Introduction

• SCHOLAR'S DEFINITIONS
• ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

• STATISTICS

#### COLLECTION OF DATA

• STATISTICAL ENQUIRY & RELATED CONCEPTS
• SOURCES OF DATA
• TYPES OF DATA
• METHODS OF COLLECTING PRIMARY DATA - SUITABILITY, MERITS & DEMERITS
• CONSTRUCTION OF QUESTIONAIRE
• CENSUS
• SAMPLING
• TYPES OF SAMPLING
• PRINCIPLES OF SAMPLING
• STATISTICAL ERRORS
• SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA & PRECAUTIONS
• CENSUS OF INDIA
• NSSO

#### ORGANISATION OF DATA

• CLASSIFICATION
• METHODS OF CLASSIFICATION
• VARIABLES
• FREQUENCY
• STATISTICAL SERIES
• INDIVIDUAL SERIES - ORGANISED & UNORGANISED
• DISCRETE SERIES & TALLY MARKS
• CONTINUOUS SERIES
• BIVARIATE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

#### TABULAR PRESENTATION

• TABULATION
• TYPES OF TABLES
• TABULATION

#### DIAGRAMATIC PRESENTATION

• DIAGRAMATIC PRESENTATION
• TYPES OF DIAGRAMS
• PIE DIAGRAM
• DIAGRAMS

#### GRAPHIC PRESENTATION

• GRAPHIC PRESENTATION
• CONSTRUCTION OF GRAPHS
• TYPES OF GRAPHS
• GRAPHS

#### MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY -MEAN

• MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
• TYPES OF AVERAGES
• CHARLIER'S ACCURACY CHECK
• CALCULATION OF MISSING VALUE
• ARITHMETIC MEAN
• COMBINED MEAN
• CORRECTED MEAN
• WEIGHTED MEAN

#### MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY - MODE & MEDIAN

• MEDIAN
• MEAN v/s MEDIAN
• QUARTILES
• MODE
• COMPUTATION OF MODE
• MEAN, MODE & MEDIAN

#### MEASURES OF DISPERSION

• DISPERSION
• ABSOLUTE v/s RELATIVE DISPERSION
• GOOD MEASURE OF DISPERSION
• MEASURES OF DISPERSION
• RANGE
• QUARTILE DEVIATION
• MEAN DEVIATION
• STANDARD DEVIATION
• VARIANCE
• CHOICE OF SUITABL;E MEASURE OF DISPERSION
• LORENZ CURVE

#### MEASURES OF CORRELATION

• CORRELATION
• TYPES OF CORRELATION
• DEGREES OF CORRELATION
• INTERPRETATION OF CORRELATED COEFFICIENT
• METHODS OF MEASUREMENT OF CORRELATION
• COMPARISION BETWEEN KARL PEARSON'S METHOD & SPEARMAN'S METHOD

#### INDEX NUMBERS

• INDEX NUMBERS
• TYPES OF INDEX NUMBERS
• METHODS OF CONSTRUCTING PRICE INDEX NUMBERS
• INDEX NUMBERS
• CONSUMER PRICE INDEX
• METHODS OF CONSTRUCTING CPI
• REAL WAGES
• INDEX OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION
• WPI

### Microeconomics

#### INTRODUCTION

• ECONOMY
• PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY CURVE
• MICROECONOMICS VS MACROECONOMICS

#### CONSUMER'S EQUILIBRIUM

• UTILITY CONCEPTS
• DIMINISHING MARGINAL UTILITY
• CONDUMER'S EQUILIBRIUM

#### DEMAND

• DEMAND
• LAW OF DEMAND
• DETERMINANTS OF DEMAND
• DEMAND CURVE
• ELASTICITY
• SLOPE OF DEMAND CURVE & ELASTICITY

#### SUPPLY

• Supply
• LAW OF SUPPLY
• SUPPLY CURVE
• INDIVIDUAL SUPPLY & MARKET SUPPLY
• DETERMINANTS OF SUPPLY
• SUPPLY FUNCTION
• CHANGE IN SUPPLY v/s CHANGE IN QUANTITY SUPPLIED
• REASONS FOR LEFTWARD AND RIGHTWARD & LEFTWARD SHIFT IN SUPPLY CURVE
• ELASTICITY

#### PRODUCTION FUNCTION

• TPP, APP, MPP
• LAW OF VARIABLE PROPORTION

#### COST

• TC, TVC, TFC, AC, AFC, AVC, MC
• TYPES OF COST
• RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN COSTS

#### REVENUE

• TR, MR & AR
• RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TR, AR & MR

#### PRODUCER'S EQUILIBRIUM

• PRODUCER'S EQUILIBRIUM
• MR = MC APROACH

#### FORMS OF MARKET

• MARKET
• TYPES OF MARKET
• PERFECT COMPETITION
• MONOPOLY
• MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION
• OLIGOPOLY
• COMPARISION BETWEEN DIFFERENT MARKET FORMS

#### PRICE DETERMINATION

• MARKET EQUILIBRIUM
• EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN MARKET FORCES ON MARKET AND EQUILIBRIUM PRICES
• APPLICATIONS OF TOOLS OF DEMAND & SUPPLY

## Physics

### Unit I: Physical World and Measurement

#### Chapter - 1: Physical World

• Physics - scope and excitement
• nature of physical laws
• Physics, technology and society.

#### Chapter - 2: Units and Measurements

• Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
• Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

### Unit II: Kinematics

#### Chapter - 3: Motion in a Straight Line

• Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.
• Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.
• Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity.
• Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity time and position-time graphs.
• Relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

#### Chapter - 4: Motion in a Plane

• Scalar and vector quantities; Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and their notations; equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors.
• Relative velocity.
• Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane - rectangular components.
• Scalar and Vector product of vectors.
• Motion in a plane, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion.
• Uniform circular motion.

### Unit III: Laws of Motion

#### Chapter - 5: Laws of Motion

• Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum and Newton's second law of motion; impulse; Newton's third law of motion.
• Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
• Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
• Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

### Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power

#### Chapter - 6: Work, Engery and Power

• Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
• Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies);
• non-conservative forces: motion in a vertical circle;
• elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

### Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

#### Chapter - 7: System of Particles and Rotational Motion

• Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion.
• Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of a uniform rod.
• Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, laws of conservation of angular momentum and its applications.
• Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions.
• Moment of inertia, radius of gyration.Values of moments of inertia, for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

### Unit VI: Gravitation

#### Chapter - 8: Gravitation

• Keplar's laws of planetary motion.The universal law of gravitation.
• Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
• Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential.
• Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.

### Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter

#### Chapter - 9: Mechanical Properties of Solids

• Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's law, Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus of rigidity, Poisson's ratio; elastic energy.

#### Chapter - 10: Mechanical Properties of Fluids

• Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.
• Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, critical velocity.
• Bernoulli's theorem and its applications.
• Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure across a curved surface, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

#### Chapter - 11: Thermal Properties of Matter

• Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, anomalous expansion of water; specific heat capacity; Cp, Cv - calorimetry; change of state - latent heat capacity.
• Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Qualitative ideas of Blackbody radiation, Wein's displacement Law, Stefan's law, Green house effect.

### Unit VIII: Thermodynamics

#### Chapter - 12: Thermodynamics

• Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics).
• Heat, work and internal energy.
• First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
• Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes.
• Heat engine and refrigerator.

### Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases

#### Chapter - 13: Kinetic Theory

• Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas.
• Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, concept of pressure.
• Kinetic interpretation of temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equi-partition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro's number.

### Unit X: Oscillations and Waves

#### Chapter - 14: Oscillations

• Periodic motion - time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.
• Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M.
• inetic and potential energies; simple pendulum derivation of expression for its time period.
• Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

#### Chapter - 15: Waves

• Wave motion.
• Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion.
• Displacement relation for a progressive wave.
• Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.

## Chemistry

### Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

#### Chapter 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

• General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.
• Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
• Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

### Unit II: Structure of Atom

#### Chapter 2: Structure of Atom

• Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars.
• Thomson's model and its limitations.
• Rutherford's model and its limitations
• Bohr's model and its limitations
• concept of shells and subshells
• dual nature of matter and light
• de Broglie's relationship
• Heisenberg uncertainty principle
• concept of orbitals
• quantum numbers
• shapes of s, p and d orbitals
• rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule
• electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

### Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

#### Chapter 3: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

• Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table
• modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table
• periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency.
• Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.

### Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

#### Chapter 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

• Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond
• bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory
• resonance, geometry of covalent molecules
• VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization
• involving s,p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules
• molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

### Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

#### Chapter 5: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

• Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding
• melting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule
• Boyle's law, Charles law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law
• ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number, ideal gas equation.
• Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea)Liquid State- vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)

### Unit VI: Chemical Thermodynamics

#### Chapter 6: Chemical Thermodynamics

• Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.
• First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition,
• Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction)
• Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb's energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.
• Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).

### Unit VII: Equilibrium

#### Chapter 7: Equilibrium

• Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium
• law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle, ionic equilibrium-ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes
• degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH
• Henderson Equation, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

### Unit VIII: Redox Reaction

#### Chapter 8: Redox Reaction

• Concept of oxidation and reduction
• redox reactions
• oxidation number
• balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number
• applications of redox reactions.

### Unit IX: Hydrogen

#### Chapter 9: Hydrogen

• Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence
• isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen
• hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial
• physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water
• hydrogen peroxide -preparation, reactions and structure and use
• hydrogen as a fuel

### Unit X: s -Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

#### Chapter 10: Group 1 and Group 2 Elements

• General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group
• diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii)
• trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses.

#### Chapter 11: Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds

• Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogencarbonate
• Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium.
• Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses
• biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.
• biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.

### Unit XI: Some p -Block Elements

#### Chapter 12: Group 13 Elements

• General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence
• variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity
• anomalous properties of first element of the group
• Boron - physical and chemical properties
• some important compounds, Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides, Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses.

#### Chapter 13: Group 14 Elements

• General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence
• variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity
• anomalous behaviour of first elements
• Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides.
• Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites, their uses.

### Unit XII: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Technique

#### Chapter 14: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Technique

• General introduction
• methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
• Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
• Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

### Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons

#### Chapter 15: Hydrocarbons

• Classification of Hydrocarbons
• Aliphatic Hydrocarbons:
• Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
• Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonoly
• Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
• Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of

### Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry

#### Chapter 16: Environmental Chemistry

• Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollution
• chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants
• acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer
• greenhouse effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategies for control of environmental pollution.

## Biology

### Unit I: Diversity of Living Organism

#### Chapter-1: The Living World

• What is living?
• Diversity in the Living World
• Taxonomic Categories
• Taxonomical Aids

#### Chapter-2: Biological Classification

• Kingdom Systems of Classification
• Kingdom: Monera
• Kingdom: Protista
• Kingdom: Fungi
• Kingdom: Plantae
• Kingdom: Animalia

#### Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom

• Classification Systems and taxonomy branches
• Algae
• Bryophytes
• Pteridophytes
• Gymnosperms
• Angiosperms
• Plant Life Cycles and Alteration of Generations

#### Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom

• Basis of Classification
• Classification of Animals
• Phylum : Porifera
• Phylum : Coelenterata (Cnidaria)
• Phylum : Ctenophora
• Phylum: Platyhelminthes
• Phylum: Aschelminthes / Nemathelminthes
• Phylum : Annelida
• Phylum : Arthropoda
• Phylum : Mollusca
• Phylum : Echinodermata
• Phylum : Hemichordata / Stomachordata
• phylum chordata

### Unit 2: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

#### Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

• The Root
• The Stern
• The Leaf
• The Inflorescence
• The Flower
• The Fruit
• The Seed
• Semi-Technical Description of a Typical Flowering Plant
• Some important families

#### Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants

• The Tissues
• The Tissue System
• Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants
• Secondary Growth

#### Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals

• Animal Tissues
• Epithelial Tissue
• Connective Tissue
• Muscular Tissue
• Nervous (Neural) Tissue
• organ and organ system
• Cockroach
• earthworm
• frog

### Unit 3: Cell Structure and Function

#### Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life

• What is a cell ?
• Cell Theory
• An overview of cell
• Prokaryotic Cells
• Eukaryotic Cells

#### Chapter-9: Biomolecules

• How to Analyse Chemical Composition?
• Primary and Secondary Metabolites
• Carbohydrates
• Amino Acids
• Proteins
• Lipids
• Nucleic Acids
• Concept of Metabolism and living state
• Enzymes

#### Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

• Cell cycle
• Phases of the Cell Cycle
• Mitosis and it's significance
• meiosis and it's significance

### Unit 4: Plant Physiology

#### Chapter-11: Transport in Plants

• different types of transport
• plant water relations
• water transport
• transpiration
• uptake and transport of mineral nutrients
• transport by phloem

#### Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition

• methods to study the mineral requirements of plants
• mineral elements that are essential
• absorption of elements
• translocation of solutes
• soil contains essential elements
• Metabolism of Nitrogen

#### Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

• cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation and The Electron Transport
• Prior knowledge of the photosynthesis and early experiments
• where does photosynthesis occur?
• Photosynthetic Pigments
• Photosynthetic Units / Pigment Systems
• Mechanism of Photosynthesis
• Non - Cyclic Photophosphorylation
• Splitting of water
• Chemiosmotic Hypothesis
• Where are ATP and NADPH used ?
• The C4 Pathway {Hatch and Slack Pathway}
• Photorespiration
• Factors affecting Photosynthesis

#### Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants

• Do Plants Breathe
• Glycolysis
• Fermentation
• Aerobic Respiration
• The Respiratory Balance Sheet
• why respiration is amphibolic?
• Respiratory Quotient

#### Chapter-15: Plant - Growth and Development

• Growth
• Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and redifferentiation
• Development
• Plant Growth Regulators
• Photoperiodism
• Vernalisation

### Unit 5: Human Physiology

#### Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption

• Digestive System
• mechanism of food digestion
• Absorption of Digested Products
• Disorders of Digestive System

#### Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

• Respiratory Organs
• Human Respiratory System
• Mechanism of Breathing
• Exchange of Gases
• Transport of Gases
• Regulation of Respiration
• Disorders of Respiratory System

#### Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation

• Blood
• Lymph (Tissue Fluid)
• Circulatory Pathways
• Regulation of Cardiac Activity
• Electrocardiogram (ECG)
• Disorders of Circulatory System

#### Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination

• Human Excretory System
• Urine Formation
• Functions of the Tubules
• Mechanism of Concentration of the Filter
• Regulation of Kidney Function
• Micturition
• Role of other organs in Excretion
• Disorders of the Excretory System

#### Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement

• Types of Movement
• Muscles
• Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
• Skeletal System
• Joints
• Disorder of Muscular and Skeletal System

#### Chapter-21: Neural Control and Co-ordination

• Human Neural System
• structure of neuron
• generation and conduction of impulse
• transmission of impulse
• Central Neural System
• Reflex Action and Reflex Arc
• Sensory Reception and processing
• Eye and Ear

#### Chapter-22: Chemical Co-ordination and Integration

• Endocrine glands and endocrine system
• Pituitary and pineal gland
• Thyroid gland and Parathyroid gland
• Pineal and Thymus gland
• Pancreas
• Testes and ovary
• Hormones of heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract
• Mechanism of hormone action

## Introductory Microeconomics

### Unit 4 Forms of Market

#### Perfect Competition

• Meaning and features.

### Unit 2 Consumer's Equilibrium

#### Elasticity of Demand

• Factors affecting price elasticity of demand

## History

### Unit 1: Themes in World History

#### Chapter 1: 1.From the Beginning of Time

• early societies
• Early Humans: Ways of Obtaining Food

#### Chapter 2: Writing and city life

• Mesopotamia and its Geography
• Urbanism
• A Trading Town in a Pastoral Zone

#### Chapter 3: Empire Across Three Continents

• An Empire Across Three Continents

#### Chapter 4: Central Islamic Lands

• Rise of Islam in Arabia
• Central Islamic Lands
• The Abbasid Revolution

• Economy
• New empires

#### Chapter 6: The Three order

• Feudalism
• Factors Affecting Social and Economic Relations

#### Chapter 7: Changing Cultural Traditions

• Revival of Italian Cities
• Copernican Revolution

#### Chapter 8: Confrontation of Cultures

• Communities of the Caribbean and Brazil
• Cortes and the Aztecs

#### Chapter 9: Industrial Revolution

• Women, Children and Industrialisation

#### Chapter 10: Displacing Indigenous Peoples

• Native Peoples

#### Chapter 11: Paths to modernization

• Political System
• Rise of the Communist Party of China

## Geography

### Unit 1: GEOGRAPHY AS A DISCIPLINE

#### Chapter 1: GEOGRAPHY AS A DISCIPLINE

• GEOGRAPHY AS AN INTEGRATING DISCIPLINE

### Unit 2: THE EARTH

• THE EARTH

#### Chapter 3: INTERIOR OF THE EARTH

• SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE INTERIOR
• STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

#### Chapter 4: DISTRIBUTION OF OCEANS

• CONTINENTAL DRIFT
• PLATE TECTONICS

### Unit 3: LANDFORM

#### Chapter 5: MINERALS AND ROCKS

• PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

#### Chapter 6: GEOMORPHIC PROCESSES

• GEOMORPHIC PROCESSES

#### Chapter 7: 7. LANDFORMS AND THEIR EVOLUTION

• EROSIONAL LANDFORMS
• WAVES AND CURRENTS

### Unit 4: CLIMATE

#### Chapter 8:COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF ATMOSPHERE

• COMPOSITION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

#### Chapter 9: SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE

• HEATING AND COOLING OF ATMOSPHERE

#### Chapter 10: ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION AND WEATHER SYSTEMS

• ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
• THE GENERAL CIRCULATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

#### Chapter 11: WATER IN THE ATMOSPHERE

• EVAPORATION AND CONDENSATION

#### Chapter 12: WORLD CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE

• KOEPPE N’S SCHEME OF CLASSIFICATION
• CLIMATE CHANGE

### Unit 5: WATER (OCEANS)

#### Chapter 13: WATER (OCEANS)

• HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

#### Chapter 14: MOVEMENT OF OCEAN WATER

• SALINITY OF OCEAN WATERS

### Unit 6: LIFE ON THE EARTH

• ECOLOGY

#### Chapter 16: BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION

• GENETIC DIVERSITY

### Part 2: (INDIA: PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT)

#### Chapter 1: INDIA – LOCATION

• LOCATION
• INDIA’S NEIGHBOURS

### Unit 2: PHYSIOGRAPHY

#### Chapter 2: STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY

• MAJOR PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS

#### Chapter 3: DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

• DRAINAGE
• RIVER SYSTEM
• ROLE OF RIVERS IN THE ECONOMY

### Unit 3: CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND SOIL

#### Chapter 4: CLIMATE

• CLIMATE
• FACTORS AFFECTING INDIA’S CLIMATE
• THE INDIAN MONSOON
• THE SEASONS

#### Chapter 5: NATURAL VEGETATION

• RELIEF
• TYPES OF VEGETATION

#### Chapter 6: SOILS

• CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS

### Unit 4:NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND MANAGEMENT

#### Chapter 7: NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS

• 7. NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS

## Political Science

### Unit 1: India Constitution at Work

#### Chapter 1: CONSTITUTION WHY AND HOW?

• NEED FOR CONSTITUTION
• AUTHORITY OF A CONSTITUTION

#### Chapter 2: RIGHTS IN THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

• FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

#### Chapter 3: ELECTION AND REPRESENTATION

• ELECTIONS AND DEMOCRACY

• EXECUTIVE

#### Chapter 5: LEGISLATURE

• NEED A PARLIAMENT

#### Chapter 6: JUDICIARY

• NEED FOR AN INDEPENDENT JUDICIARy

• FEDERALISM

#### Chapter 8: LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

• LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

#### Chapter 9: CONSTITUTION AS A LIVING DOCUMENT

• CONSTITUTION AND FUNCTIONS

#### Chapter 10: THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE CONSTITUTION

• MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY