## Mathmatics Syllabus of CBSE Class 11

### Unit-I: Sets and Functions

**Chapter 1. Sets**

Sets and their representations.Empty set., Finite and Infinite sets. , Equal sets., Subsets., Subsets of a set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations)., Power set. Universal set., Venn diagrams. , Union and Intersection of sets., Difference of sets., Complement of a set. , Properties of Complement Sets., Practical Problems based on sets.,

**Chapter 2. Relations & Functions**

Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets.Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets. , Cartesian product of the sets of real (upto R x R)., Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, co-domain and range of a relation. , Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another., Pictorial representation of a function, domain, co-domain and range of a function. , Real valued functions, domain and range of these functions: constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum, exponential, logarithmic and greatest integer functions, with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.,

**Chapter 3. Trigonometric Functions**

Positive and negative angles.Measuring angles in radians and in degrees and conversion of one into other., Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle., Signs of trigonometric functions., Domain and range of trignometric functions and their graphs., Expressing sin (x±y) and cos (x±y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx & cosy and their simple application., Identities related to sin 2x, cos 2x, tan 2x, sin 3x, cos 3x and tan 3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sin y = sin a, cos y = cos a and tan y = tan a.,

### Unit-II: Algebra

**Chapter 1. Principle of Mathematical Induction**

Process of the proof by inductionThe principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.,

**Chapter 2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations**

Need for complex numbers, especially √1, to be motivated by inability to solve some of the quardratic equations. Algebraic properties of complex numbers., Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers., Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system., Square root of a complex number.,

**Chapter 3. Linear Inequalities**

Linear inequalities.Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line., Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. , Graphical solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables. ,

**Chapter 4. Permutations and Combinations**

Fundamental principle of counting.Factorial n., (n!)Permutations and combinations, derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.,

**Chapter 5. Binomial Theorem**

History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices.Pascal's triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.,

**Chapter 6. Sequence and Series**

Sequence and Series.Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)., Arithmetic Mean (A.M.), Geometric Progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P.,, Arithmetic and Geometric series infinite G.P. and its sum,, geometric mean (G.M.),, relation between A.M. and G.M

### Unit-III: Coordinate Geometry

**Chapter 1. Straight Lines**

Brief recall of two dimensional geometry from earlier classes.Shifting of origin., Slope of a line and angle between two lines., Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axis, point-slope form, slope-intercept form, two-point form, intercept form and normal form. , General equation of a line. , Equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. , Distance of a point from a line.

**Chapter 2. Conic Sections**

Sections of a cone: circles, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola; a point, a straight line and a pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section.Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. , Standard equation of a circle.,

**Chapter 3. Introduction to Three-dimensional Geometry**

Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions.Standard equation of a circle., Distance between two points and section formula.,

### Unit-IV: Calculus

**Chapter 1. Limits and Derivatives**

Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically.Intutive idea of limit. , Limits of polynomials and rational functions, trignometric, exponential and logarithmic functions., Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of a curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. , The derivative of polynomial and trignometric functions.,

### Unit-V: Mathematical Reasoning

**Chapter 1. Mathematical Reasoning**

Mathematically acceptable statements.Connecting words/ phrases - consolidating the understanding of "if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition", "implies", "and/or", "implied by", "and", "or", "there exists" and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathema, Validating the statements involving the connecting words difference between contradiction, converse and contrapositive.,

### Unit-VI: Statistics and Probability

**Chapter 1. Statistics**

Measures of dispersion; Range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data.Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.,

**Chapter 2. Probability**

Random experiments; outcomes, sample spaces (set representation).Events; occurrence of events, 'not', 'and' and 'or' events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. , Probability of an event, probability of 'not', 'and' and 'or' events.,

## English Syllabus of CBSE Class 11

## Hindi Syllabus of CBSE Class 11

## Accountancy Syllabus of CBSE Class 11

### Unit 1: Theoretical Framework

**Chapter 1: Introduction to Accounting**

Accounting: objectives, advantages and limitations, types of accounting information; users of accounting information and their needs.Basic accounting terms: business transaction, account, capital, drawings, liability (Non - current and current); asset (Non - current; tangible and intangible assets and current assets), receipts (capital and revenue), expenditure (capital, revenue and de,

**Theory Base of Accounting**

Fundamental accounting assumptions: going concern, consistency and accrual.Accounting principles: accounting entity, money measurement, accounting period, full disclosure, materiality, prudence, cost concept, matching concept and dual aspect., Accounting Standards and IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards): concept and objectives, Double entry system of accounting., Bases of accounting - cash basis and accrual basis.,

### Unit 2: Accounting Process

**Chapter 3: Recording of Transactions**

Accounting equation: analysis of transactions using accounting equation.Rules of debit and credit: for assets, liabilities, capital, revenue and expenses, Origin of transactions- source documents (invoice, cash memo, pay in slip, cheque), preparation of vouchers - cash (debit and credit) and non cash (transfer)., Books of original entry: format and recording - Journal., Cash Book: Simple Cash Book, Cash Book with Discount Column and Cash Book with Bank and Discount Columns, Petty Cash Book., Other books: purchases book, sales book, purchases returns book, sales returns book and journal proper.,

**Preparation of Bank Reconciliation Statement, Ledger and Trial Balance.**

Bank reconciliation statement- calculating bank balance at accounting date: need and preparation. Corrected cash book balance.Ledger - format, posting from journal, cash book and other special purpose books, balancing of accounts., Trial balance: objectives and preparation,

**Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves**

Depreciation: concept need and factors affecting depreciation; methods of computation of depreciation: straight line method, written down value method (excluding change in method)Accounting treatment of depreciation: by charging to asset account, by creating provision for depreciation/ accumulated depreciation account, treatment of disposal of asset., Provisions and reserves: concept, objectives and difference between provisions and reserves; types of reserves- revenue reserve, capital reserve, general reserve and specific reserves.,

**Accounting for Bills of Exchange**

Bills of exchange and promissory note: definition, features, parties, specimen and distinction.Important terms : term of bill, due date, days of grace, date of maturity, discounting of bill, endorsement of bill, bill sent for collection, dishonour of bill, noting of bill, retirement and renewal of a bill., Accounting treatment of bill transactions.,

**Rectification of Errors**

Errors: types-errors of omission, commission, principles, and compensating; their effect on Trial Balance.Detection and rectification of errors; preparation of suspense account.,

### Unit 3: Financial Statements of Sole Proprietorship

**Chapter 3: Financial Statements of Sole Proprietorship**

Financial Statements: objective and importance.Trading and profit and loss account: gross profit, operating profit and net profit., Balance Sheet: need, grouping, marshalling of assets and liabilities., Adjustments in preparation of financial statements : with respect to closing stock, outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued income, income received in advance, depreciation, bad debts, provision for doubtful debts, provision for discount on debtor, Preparation of Trading and Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet of sole proprietorship., Incomplete records: use and limitations., Ascertainment of profit/loss by statement of affairs method.

### Unit 4: Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations

**Chapter 4: Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations**

Not-for-profit organizations: concept.Receipts and Payment account: features., Income and Expenditure account: features. Preparation of Income and Expenditure account and Balance Sheet from the given Receipts and Payments account with additional information.,

### Unit 5: Computers in Accounting

**Chapter 5: Computers in Accounting**

Introduction to Computer and Accounting Information System {AIS}: Introduction to computers (Elements, Capabilities, Limitations of Computer system),Introduction to operating software, utility software and application software. Introduction to Accounting Information System (AIS), as a part of MIS, Automation of Accounting Process. Meaning, Stages in automation,

## Business Studies Syllabus of CBSE Class 11

### Unit 1: Foundation of Business

**Chapter 1: Nature and Purpose of Business**

Concept and characteristics of business.Business, profession and employment - Meaning and their distinctive features., Objectives of business - Economic and social, role of profit in business., Classification of business activities: Industry and Commerce., Industry - types: primary, secondary, tertiary - Meaning and sub types., Commerce - trade: types (internal, external, wholesale and retail; and auxiliaries to trade: banking, insurance, transportation, warehousing, communication, and advertising., Business risks - Meaning, nature and causes.

**Chapter 2: Forms of Business organizations**

Sole Proprietorship - meaning, features, merits and limitations.Partnership - Features, types, merits and limitations of partnership and partners, registration of a partnership firm, partnership deed. Type of partners., Hindu Undivided Family Business: features., Cooperative Societies- features, types, merits and limitations., Company: private and public company -features, merits and limitations., Formation of a company- four stages, important document (MOA, AOA, relevances of certificate of incorporation and certificate of commencement., Starting a business - Basic factors.

**Chapter 3: Public, Private and Global Enterprises**

Private sector and public sector enterprises.Forms of public sector enterprises: features, merits and limitations of departmental undertakings, statutory corporation and Government Company., Changing role of public sector enterprises., Global enterprises, Joint ventures, Public Private Partnership - Features,

**Chapter 4: Business Services**

Banking: Types of bank accounts- savings, current, recurring, fixed deposit and multiple option deposit account.Banking services with particular reference to issue of bank draft, banker's cheque (pay order), RTGS (Real Time Gross Settlement) NEFT (National Electronic Funds Transfer), bank overdraft, cash credits and e- banking., Insurance: principles, concept of life, health, fire and marine insurance., Postal and telecom services: mail (UPC, registered post, parcel, speed post and courier) and other services.,

**Chapter 5: Emerging Modes of Business**

E-business - scope and benefits, resources required for successful e-business implementation, online transactions, payment mechanism, security and safety of business transactions.Outsourcing-concept, need and scope of BPO (business process outsourcing) and KPO (knowledge process outsourcing)., Smart cards and ATM's meaning and utility,

**Chapter 6: Social Responsibility of Business and Business Ethics**

Concept of social responsibilityCase for social responsibility, Responsibility towards owners, investors, consumers, employees, government and community, Environment protection and business,

### Unit 2: Finance and Trade

**Chapter 7: Sources of Business Finance**

Concept of business financeOwner's funds - equity shares, preference share, GDR, ADR, IDR and retained earnings., Borrowed funds: debentures and bonds, loan from financial institution, loans from commercial banks, public deposits, trade credit, ICD (inter corporate deposits).,

**Chapter 8: Small Business**

Small scale enterprise as defined by MSMED Act 2006 (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Development Act).Role of small business in India with special reference to rural areas., Government schemes and agencies for small scale industries: (National Small Industries Corporation) and DIC (District Industrial Center) with special reference to rural, backward and hilly areas.,

**Chapter 9: Internal Trade**

Services rendered by a wholesaler and a retailerTypes of retail - trade - Itinerant and small scale fixed shops, Large scale retailers - Departmental stores, chain stores, mail order business, Concept of automatic vending machine, Chambers of Commerce and Industry: Basic functions, Main documents used in internal trade: Performa invoice, invoice, debit note, credit note. LR (Lorry receipt) and RR (Railway Receipt), Terms of Trade: COD (Cash on Delivery), FOB (Free on Board), CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight), E&OE (Errors and Omissions Excepted)

**Chapter 10: International Trade**

Meaning, difference between internal trade and external trade: Meaning and characteristics of international trade.Problems of international trade: Advantages and disadvantages of international trade, Export Trade - Meaning, objective and procedure of Export Trade, Import Trade - Meaning, objective and procedure: Meaning and functions of import trade; purpose and procedure, Documents involved in International Trade; documents involved in export trade, indent, letter of credit, shipping order, shipping bills, mate's receipt, bill of lading, certificate of origin, consular invoice, documentary bill of exchange (DA/DP), specime, World Trade Organization (WTO) meaning and objective,

## Economics Syllabus of CBSE Class 11

### Unit 1:Statistics for Economics

**Chapter 1: Introduction**

What is Economics?Meaning, scope and importance of statistics in Economics,

**Chapter 2: Collection, Organisation and Presentation of Data**

Collection of data - sources of data - primary and secondary; how basic data is collected; methods of collecting data; some important sources of secondary data: Census of India and National Sample Survey Organisation.Organisation of Data: Meaning and types of variables; Frequency Distribution., Presentation of Data: Tabular Presentation and Diagrammatic Presentation of Data: (i) Geometric forms (bar diagrams and pie diagrams), (ii) Frequency diagrams (histogram, polygon and ogive) and (iii) Arithmetic line graphs (time series graph).,

**Chapter 3: Statistical Tools and Interpretation**

Measures of Central Tendency - mean (simple and weighted), median and modeMeasures of Dispersion - absolute dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard deviation); relative dispersion (co-efficient of quartile-deviation, co-efficient of mean deviation, co-efficient of variation); Lorenz Curve: Meaning and, Correlation - meaning, scatter diagram; Measures of correlation - Karl Pearson's method (two variables ungrouped data) Spearman's rank correlation., Introduction to Index Numbers - meaning, types - wholesale price index, consumer price index and index of industrial production, uses of index numbers; Inflation and index numbers.,

### Unit 2: Indian Economic Development

**Chapter 4: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991**

A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Common goals of Five Year Plans.Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy, etc.), industry (industrial licensing, etc.) and foreign trade., Economic Reforms since 1991: Need and main features - liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation; An appraisal of LPG policies,

**Chapter 4: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991**

A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Common goals of Five Year Plans.

**Chapter 5: Current challenges facing Indian Economy**

Poverty - absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment; Rural development: Key issues - credit and marketing - role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming - organic farming , Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India , Employment: Formal and informal, growth and other issues: Problems and policies., Inflation: Problems and Policies, Infrastructure: Meaning and Types: Case Studies: Energy and Health: Problems and Policies- A critical assessment;, Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming.

**Chapter 6: Development Experience of India**

A comparison with neighboursIndia and Pakistan, India and China, Issues: growth, population, sectoral development and other developmental indicators.,

## Physics Syllabus of CBSE Class 11

### Unit I: Physical World and Measurement

**Chapter - 1: Physical World**

Physics - scope and excitementnature of physical laws, Physics, technology and society.,

**Chapter - 2: Units and Measurements**

Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.,

### Unit II: Kinematics

**Chapter - 3: Motion in a Straight Line**

Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion., Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. , Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity time and position-time graphs., Relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).,

**Chapter - 4: Motion in a Plane**

Scalar and vector quantities; Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and their notations; equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity., Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane - rectangular components., Scalar and Vector product of vectors., Motion in a plane, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion., Uniform circular motion.,

### Unit III: Laws of Motion

**Chapter - 5: Laws of Motion**

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum and Newton's second law of motion; impulse; Newton's third law of motion.Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications., Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication., Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on banked road).,

### Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power

**Chapter - 6: Work, Engery and Power**

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies);, non-conservative forces: motion in a vertical circle; , elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.,

### Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

**Chapter - 7: System of Particles and Rotational Motion**

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of a uniform rod., Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, laws of conservation of angular momentum and its applications., Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions., Moment of inertia, radius of gyration.Values of moments of inertia, for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.,

### Unit VI: Gravitation

**Chapter - 8: Gravitation**

Keplar's laws of planetary motion.The universal law of gravitation.Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth., Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential. , Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.,

### Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter

**Chapter - 9: Mechanical Properties of Solids**

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's law, Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus of rigidity, Poisson's ratio; elastic energy.

**Chapter - 10: Mechanical Properties of Fluids**

Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, critical velocity., Bernoulli's theorem and its applications., Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure across a curved surface, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.,

**Chapter - 11: Thermal Properties of Matter**

Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, anomalous expansion of water; specific heat capacity; Cp, Cv - calorimetry; change of state - latent heat capacity.Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Qualitative ideas of Blackbody radiation, Wein's displacement Law, Stefan's law, Green house effect.,

### Unit VIII: Thermodynamics

**Chapter - 12: Thermodynamics**

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics).Heat, work and internal energy. , First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes., Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes., Heat engine and refrigerator.,

### Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases

**Chapter - 13: Kinetic Theory**

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas.Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, concept of pressure., Kinetic interpretation of temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equi-partition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro's number.,

### Unit X: Oscillations and Waves

**Chapter - 14: Oscillations**

Periodic motion - time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. , inetic and potential energies; simple pendulum derivation of expression for its time period., Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.,

**Chapter - 15: Waves**

Wave motion.Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion., Displacement relation for a progressive wave. , Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.,

## Chemistry Syllabus of CBSE Class 11

### Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

**Chapter 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry**

General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules., Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.,

### Unit II: Structure of Atom

**Chapter 2: Structure of Atom**

Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars.Thomson's model and its limitations. , Rutherford's model and its limitations, Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship

Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.,

### Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

**Chapter 3: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties**

Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic tablemodern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency., Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.,

### Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

**Chapter 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure**

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bondbond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s,p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.,

### Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

**Chapter 5: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids**

Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bondingmelting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charles law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number, ideal gas equation., Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea)Liquid State- vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations),

### Unit VI: Chemical Thermodynamics

**Chapter 6: Chemical Thermodynamics**

Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition,, Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction) , Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb's energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium., Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).,

### Unit VII: Equilibrium

**Chapter 7: Equilibrium**

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibriumlaw of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle, ionic equilibrium-ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, Henderson Equation, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).,

### Unit VIII: Redox Reaction

**Chapter 8: Redox Reaction**

Concept of oxidation and reductionredox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions.,

### Unit IX: Hydrogen

**Chapter 9: Hydrogen**

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrenceisotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial, physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide -preparation, reactions and structure and use, hydrogen as a fuel,

### Unit X: s -Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

**Chapter 10: Group 1 and Group 2 Elements**

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each groupdiagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses.,

**Chapter 11: Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds**

Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium HydrogencarbonateBiological importance of Sodium and Potassium. , Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium., biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.,

### Unit XI: Some p -Block Elements

**Chapter 12: Group 13 Elements**

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron - physical and chemical properties, some important compounds, Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides, Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses.,

**Chapter 13: Group 14 Elements**

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements, Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides., Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites, their uses.,

### Unit XII: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Technique

**Chapter 14: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Technique**

General introduction methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds., Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation., Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.,

### Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons

**Chapter 15: Hydrocarbons**

Classification of Hydrocarbons Aliphatic Hydrocarbons:, Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis., Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonoly, Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water., Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of,

### Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry

**Chapter 16: Environmental Chemistry**

Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollutionchemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategies for control of environmental pollution.,

## Biology Syllabus of CBSE Class 11

### Unit I: Diversity of Living Organism

**Chapter-1: The Living World**

What is living? Need for classification., Biodiversity., Three domains of life., taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy., Binomial nomenclature., tools for study of taxonomy-museums. zoological parks., Herbaria., Botanical gardens.,

**Chapter-2: Biological Classification**

Five kingdom classification. Salient features and classification of MoneraSalient features and classification of Monera., Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids., Viruses and Viroids.,

**Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom**

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups - Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae.Angiosperms - classification upto class., characteristic features and examples.,

**Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals**

Animal tissues: Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach).

**Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom**

Salient features and classification of animals non chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples of each category).

### Unit 2: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

**Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants**

Morphology and modifications: Tissues

**Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals**

Animal tissues: Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach).

**Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals**

Animal tissues: Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach).

**Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants**

Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).

### Unit 3: Cell Structure and Function

**Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life**

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Plant cell and animal cell., Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall., Cell organelles - structure and function., Endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles., Mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function)., Nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

**Chapter-9: Biomolecules**

Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action. Structure and function of proteins, Carbodydrates., Lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action.,

**Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division**

Cell cycle Mitosis., Meiosis and their significance.,

### Unit 4: Plant Physiology

**Chapter-11: Transport in Plants**

Transport in plants Movement of water, gases and nutrients., Cell to cell transport, Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport., plant-water relations, Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis., long distance transport of water - Absorption, apoplast, simplest, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation., transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients - Transport of food, phloem transport, massflow hypothesis., diffusion of gases.

**Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition**

Essential minerals deficiency symptoms., mineral toxicity., elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition., nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.,

**Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants**

Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea)., photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis., cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation.,

**Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants**

Exchange of gases;

**Chapter-15: Plant - Growth and Development**

Seed germination;

### Unit 5: Human Physiology

**Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption**

Alimentary canal and digestive glands

**Chapter-17: Breating and Exchange of Gases**

Respiratory organs in animals (recall only)

**Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation**

Composition of blood, blood groups.

**Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination**

Modes of excretion - ammonotelism.

**Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement**

Types of movement - ciliary, flagellar.

**Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination**

Neuron and nerves.

**Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration**

Endocrine glands and hormones.