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Publisher Update Release -> 23/8/2021  4:45 PM

Introduction

We use numbers and know many things about them. Numbers help us count concrete objects. They help us to say which collection of objects is bigger and arrange them in order e.g., first, second, etc. Numbers are used in many different contexts and in many ways. Think about various situations where we use numbers. List five distinct situations in which numbers are used. 
We have added, subtracted, multiplied and divided them. In this chapter, we shall move forward on such interesting things with a bit of review and revision as well.  

USE OF COMMAS
You must have noticed that in writing large numbers in the sections above, we have often used commas. Commas help us in reading and writing large numbers. In our Indian System of Numeration we use ones, tens, hundreds, thousands and then lakhs and crores. Commas are used to mark thousands, lakhs and crores. The first comma comes after hundreds place (three digits from the right) and marks thousands. The second comma comes two digits later (five digits from the right). It comes after ten thousands place and marks lakh. The third comma comes after another two digits (seven digits from the right). It comes after ten lakh place and marks crore.
Ex:    5, 08, 01, 592
         3, 32, 40, 781
         7, 27, 05, 062

Suppose a newspaper report states that Rs.2500 crore has been allotted by the government for National Highway construction. The same amount of Rs.2500 crore is sometimes expressed as Rs. 25 billion. In the Indian system, we express it as Rs. 2500 crore and in the International system, the same number is expressed as 25 billion. Hence we need to understand both the systems and their relationship.

Ascending order 
    Ascending order means arrangement from the smallest to the greatest.

Descending order 
    Descending order means arrangement from the greatest to the smallest.

Ex:    Arrange the following numbers in ascending order :
        257536, 38952, 385081, 365062
Sol.    The smallest number is 38952. Other numbers greater than 38952, in order are 257536, 365062 and 385081.
        The numbers in ascending order are  38952, 257536, 365062, 385081.    

    Ex:    Arrange the following numbers in descending order :  19710, 887151, 453212, 925473
    Sol.     The greatest number is 925473. Other numbers smaller than 925473 in order are 887151, 453212 and 19710.
       The numbers in descending order are 925473, 887151, 453212, 19710.]

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We just looked at the number of digits and found the answer. The greatest number has the most thousands and the smallest is only in hundreds or in tens. Make five more problems of this kind and give them to your friends to solve. Now, how do we compare 4875 and 3542? This is also not very difficult. These two numbers have the same number of digits. They are both in thousands. But the digital the thousands place in 4875 is greater than that in 3542. Therefore, 4875 is greater than 3542. Next tell which is greater, 4875 or4542? Here too the numbers have the same number of digits. Further, the digits at the thousands place are the same in both. What do we do then? We move to the next digit, that is to the digit at the hundreds place. The digit at the hundreds place is greater in 4875 than in 4542. Therefore, 4875 is greater than 4542.

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