Mathmatics Syllabus of CBSE Class 12

Unit I: Relations and Functions

1. Relations and Functions

Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relationsOne to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function., Binary operations.,

2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. , Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.,

Unit II: Algebra

1. Matrices

Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices.Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar., Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication., Noncommutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2)., Concept of elementary row and column operations., Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).,

2. Determinants

Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices)properties of determinants, minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle., Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix., Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.,

Unit III: Calculus

1. Continuity and Differentiability

Continuity and differentiabilityderivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions, Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions., Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions.

Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms., Second order derivatives., Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretation.,

2. Applications of Derivatives

Applications of derivativesrate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool), Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).

3. Integrals

Integration as inverse process of differentiation.Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts,, Evaluation of simple integrals., Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof)., Basic propertiesof definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.,

4. Applications of the Integrals

Applications in finding the area under simple curvesApplications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).,

5. Differential Equations

Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equationFormation of differential equation whose general solution is given., Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree., Solutions of linear differential equation of the type: dy/dx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constants. & dx/dy + px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants.,

Unit IV: Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry

1. Vectors

Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector.Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector., Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment, Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product of vectors.,

2. Three - dimensional Geometry

Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points.Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines., Cartesian and vector equation of a plane., Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane., Distance of a point from a plane.,

Unit V: Linear Programming

1. Linear Programming

Introductionrelated terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization,, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems,, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, , graphical method of solution for problems in two variables,, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded and unbounded),, feasible and infeasible solutions,

optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).,

Unit VI: Probability

1. Probability

Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability.independent events, total probability,, Baye's theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable., Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution., 

English Syllabus of CBSE Class 12

English Literature


The Last Lesson - Explanation of the StoryThe Last Lesson - Analysis, Lost Spring - Explanation , Lost Spring - Analysis, Deep Water - Explanation , Deep Water - Analysis, The Rattrap - Explanation

The Rattrap - Analysis, Indigo - Explanation , Indigo - Analysis , Poets and Pancakes - Explanation , Poets and Pancakes - Analysis , Going Places - Analysis, Going Places - Explanation , The Interview - Part II - Analysis, The Interview - Part II - Explanation , The Interview - Part I - Analysis, The Interview - Part I - Explanation ,


The Third Level - Explanation Memories of Childhood - The Cutting of My Long Hair - Explanation , Memories of Childhood - The Cutting of My Long Hair - Analysis , Memories of Childhood - We Too are Human Beings - Explanation , Memories of Childhood - We Too are Human Beings - Analysis , Evans Tries an O-level - Analysis , Evans Tries an O-level - Explanation

On the face of It - Analysis , On the face of It - Explanation , Should Wizard hit Mommy - Analysis , Should Wizard hit Mommy - Explanation , The Enemy - Analysis , The Enemy - Explanation , Journey to the end of the Earth - Analysis, Journey to the end of the Earth - Explanation , The Tiger King - Analysis, The Tiger King - Explanation , The Third Level - Analysis, 

Hindi Syllabus of CBSE Class 12

Unit 1. हिंदी (आधार)

Chapter 1. अपठित अंश

1. अपठित गद्यांश – बोध

Chapter 2. कार्यालयी हिंदी और रचनात्मक लेखन

1. रचनात्मक लेखन

Chapter 3. पाठ्यपुस्तक

1. आरोह भाग-2

Accountancy Syllabus of CBSE Class 12

Unit 1: Accounting for Partnership Firms and Companies

Chapter 1. Accounting for Partnership Firms

Partnership: features, Partnership Deed. Provisions of the Indian Partnership Act 1932 in the absence of partnership deed., Fixed v/s fluctuating capital accounts.Preparation of Profit and Loss Appropriation account- division of profit among partners, guarantee of profits., Past adjustments (relating to interest on capital, interest on drawing, salary and profit sharing ratio)., Goodwill: nature, factors affecting and methods of valuation - average profit, super profit and capitalization., Accounting for Partnership firms - Reconstitution and Dissolution., Change in the Profit Sharing Ratio among the existing partners - sacrificing ratio, gaining ratio, accounting for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities and treatment of reserves and accumulated profits. Preparation of revaluation account a

Admission of a partner - effect of admission of a partner on change in the profit sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill (as per AS 26), treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities, treatment of reserves and accumulated profits, adju, Retirement and death of a partner: effect of retirement / death of a partner on change in profit sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill (as per AS 26), treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities, adjustment of accumulated profits an, Calculation of deceased partner‟s share of profit till the date of death. Preparation of deceased partner‟s capital account, executor‟s account and preparation of balance sheet., Dissolution of a partnership firm: types of dissolution of a firm. Settlement of accounts -preparation of realization account, and other related accounts: capital accounts of partners and cash/bank a/c (excluding piecemeal distribution, sale to a company ,

Chapter 2. Accounting for Companies

Accounting for Share Capital - Share and share capital: nature and types.Accounting for share capital: issue and allotment of equity shares, private placement of shares, Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP). Public subscription of shares - over subscription and under subscription of shares; issue at par and at premium, calls in a, Concept of Private Placement and Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP)., Accounting treatment of forfeiture and re-issue of shares., Disclosure of share capital in company‟s Balance Sheet., Accounting for Debentures, Debentures: Issue of debentures at par, at a premium and at a discount. Issue of debentures for consideration other than cash; Issue of debentures with terms of redemption; debentures as collateral security-concept, interest on debentures.

Redemption of debentures: Lump sum, draw of lots and purchase in the open market (excluding ex-interest and cum-interest). Creation of Debenture Redemption Reserve., Conversion method.,

Unit 2: Financial Statement Analysis

Chapter 3. Analysis of Financial Statements

Financial statements of a company: Statement of Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet in the prescribed form with major headings and sub headings (as per Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013).Financial Statement Analysis: Objectives, importance and limitations., Tools for Financial Statement Analysis: Comparative statements, common size statements, cash flow analysis, ratio analysis., Accounting Ratios: Objectives, classification and computation., Liquidity Ratios: Current ratio and Quick ratio., Solvency Ratios: Debt to Equity Ratio, Total Asset to Debt Ratio, Proprietary Ratio and Interest Coverage Ratio., Activity Ratios: Inventory Turnover Ratio, Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio, Trade Payables Turnover Ratio and Working Capital Turnover Ratio.

Profitability Ratios: Gross Profit Ratio, Operating Ratio, Operating Profit Ratio, Net Profit Ratio and Return on Investment.,

Chapter 4. Cash Flow Statement

Meaningobjectives and preparation (as per AS 3 (Revised) (Indirect Method only),

Unit 3. Computerized Accounting

Chapter 3. Computerized Accounting

Overview of Computerised Accounting System.Accounting Application of Electronic Spreadsheet. , Using Computerized Accounting System. , Database Management System (DBMS) , 

Business Studies Syllabus of CBSE Class 12

Unit 1: Principles and Functions of Management

Chapter 1: Nature and Significance of Management

Management - concept, objectives and importanceManagement as Science, Art and Profession, Levels of management, Management functions - planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling, Coordination - concept, characteristics and importance,

Chapter 2: Principles of Management

Principles of Management - concept, nature and significanceFayol's principles of management, Taylor's Scientific Management - principles and techniques,

Chapter 3: Management and Business Environment

Business Environment - concept and importanceDimensions of Business Environment - Economic, Social, Technological, Political and Legal, mpact of Government policy changes on business with special reference to liberalization, privatization and globalisation in India.,

Chapter 4: Planning

Concept, importance and limitationsPlanning process, Single use and Standing Plans - Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, Method, Rule, Budget and Programme.,

Chapter 5: Organising

Concept and importance.Organizing Process., Structure of organization - functional and divisional., Formal and informal organization., Delegation: concept, elements and importance., Decentralization: concept and importance.,

Chapter 6: Staffing

Concept and importance of staffingStaffing as a part of Human Resource Management, Staffing process: Recruitment - sources; Selection - process, Training and Development - Concept and importance. Methods of training- on the job and off the job- Induction training, vestibule training, apprenticeship training and internship training.,

Chapter 7: Directing

Concept and importanceElements of Directing: - Supervision - concept, functions of a supervisor.; - Motivation - Concept, Maslow's hierarchy of needs; Financial and non-financial incentives.; - Leadership - concept, styles - authoritative, democratic and laissen faire.; - Comm,

Chapter 8: Controlling

Concept, nature and importanceRelationship between planning and controlling, Steps in the process of control,

Unit 2: Business Finance and Marketing

Chapter 9: Financial Management

Concept and objectives of financial management.Financial decisions : investment, financing and dividend and factors affecting., Financial planning - concept and importance., Capital Structure - concept and factors affecting., Fixed and Working Capital - concept and factors affecting their requirements.,

Chapter 9: Financial Management

Concept and objectives of financial management.

Chapter 10: Financial Markets

Financial Markets: concept and types.Money market and its instruments., Capital market and its types (primary and secondary)., Stock Exchange - functions and training procedure. Depository Services and D'mat Account., Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) - objectives and functions.,

Chapter 11: Marketing Management

Marketing - concept and functions.Marketing management philosophies., Marketing Mix - concept, Product - concept, branding, labeling and packaging. Price - factors determining price., Physical distribution- concept, channels of distribution: types, choice of channels., Promotion - concept and elements; advertising- concept, role, objections against advertising, personal selling - concept and qualities of a good salesman, sales promotion - concept and techniques, public relations - concept and role.,

Chapter 12: Consumer Protection

Concept and importance of consumer protection.Consumer Protection Act 1986 1. Meaning of consumer and consumer protection. 2. Rights and responsibilities of consumers 3. Who can file a complaint and against whom? 4. Redressal machinery. 5. Remedies available., Consumer awareness - Role of consumer organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)., 

Economics Syllabus of CBSE Class 12

Unit 1 Introductory Microeconomics

Chapter 1: Introduction

Meaning of microeconomics and macroeconomicsWhat is an economy?, Central problems of an economy : what, how and for whom to produce; , Concepts of production possibility frontier and opportunity cost.,

Chapter 2: Consumer Equilibrium and Demand

Consumer's equilibriummeaning of utility, marginal utility, law of diminishing marginal utility, , conditions of consumer's equilibrium using marginal utility analysis., Indifference curve analysis of consumer's equilibrium-the consumer's budget (budget set and budget line), preferences of the consumer (indifference curve, indifference map) and conditions of consumer's equilibrium., Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve and its slope, movement along and shifts in the demand curve, price elasticity of demand - factors affecting price elasticity of demand, measurenment of price elasticity of demand - (a) percentage-change method and (b) geometric method (linear demand curve); relationship between price elasticity of demand and total expenditure.

Chapter 3: Producer Behaviour and Supply

Production function - Short-Run and Long-RunTotal Product, Average Product and Marginal Product., Returns to a Factor., Cost and Revenue: Short run costs - total cost, total fixed cost, total variable cost; Average cost; Average fixed cost, average variable cost and marginal cost-meaning and their relationship., Revenue - total, average and marginal revenue - meaning and their relationship., Producer's equilibrium-meaning and its conditions in terms of marginal revenue-marginal cost., Supply, market supply, determinants of supply, supply schedule, supply curve and its slope, movements along and shifts in supply curve, price elasticity of supply; measurement of price elasticity of supply - (a) percentagechange method and (b) geometric m

Chapter 4: Forms of Market and Price Determination

Perfect competition - FeaturesDetermination of market equilibrium and effects of shifts in demand and supply., Other Market Forms - monopoly, monopolistic competition, oligopoly - their meaning and features., Simple Applications of Demand and Supply: Price ceiling, price floor.,

Unit 2 Introductory Macroeconomics

Chapter 5: National Income and related aggregates

Some basic conceptsConsumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods, stocks and flows, gross investment and depreciation., Circular flow of income, Methods of calculating National Income - Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method., Aggregates related to National Income: Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross and Net Domestic Product (GDP and NDP) - at market price, at factor cost; National Disposable Income (gross and net), Private Income, Personal Income an

GDP and Welfare,

Chapter 6: Money and Banking

Money - its meaning and functions.Supply of money - Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks., Money creation by the commercial banking system., Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker's Bank, Controller of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.,

Chapter 7: Determination of Income and Employment

Aggregate demand and its components.Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal)., Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism. , Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment., Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them - change in government spending, taxes and money supply.,

Chapter 8: Government Budget and the Economy

Government budget - meaning, objectives and components.Classification of receipts - revenue receipts and capital receipts; classification of expenditure - revenue expenditure and capital expenditure., Measures of government deficit - revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning.,

Chapter 9: Balance of Payments

Balance of payments account - meaning and components;balance of payments deficit-meaning. , Foreign exchange rate - meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating., Determination of exchange rate in a free market., 

Physics Syllabus of CBSE Class 12

Unit I: Electrostatics

Chapter-1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric ChargesConservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges, superposition principle and continuous charge distribution., Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field., Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).,

Chapter-2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potentialpotential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges, equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field., Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor., Dielectrics and electric polarisation,, capacitors and capacitance,, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel

capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates,, energy stored in a capacitor.,

Unit II: Current Electricity

Chapter-3: Current Electricity

Electric currentflow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current, Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity., Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors, series and parallel combinations of resistors, temperature dependence of resistance., Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,combination of cells in series and in parallel.

Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications., Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge., Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells, measurement of internal resistance of a cell.,

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

Chapter-4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic fieldOersted's experiment., Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop., Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire., Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields., Cyclotron.

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field., Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere., Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field, moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.,

Chapter-5: Magnetism and Matter

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment.Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron., Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis., Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines, Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements., Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples.

Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths., Permanent magnets.,

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic inductionFaraday's laws, induced emf and current, Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. , Self and mutual induction.,

Chapter-7: Alternating Current

Alternating currentspeak and rms value of alternating current/voltage, reactance and impedance;, LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance, power in AC circuits, wattless current. , AC generator and transformer.,

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves

Chapter-8: Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement currentElectromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only)., Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.,

Unit VI: Optics

Chapter-9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics:: Reflection of lightspherical mirrors, mirror formula., Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker's formula., Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror., Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism., Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset., Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter-10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principlereflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts., Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle., Interference Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light., Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum., Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes., Polarisation, plane polarised light Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiationPhotoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations;, Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light., Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation., Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).,

Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei

Chapter-12: Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experimentRutherford's model of atom, Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.,

Chapter-13: Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleusatomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones., Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. , Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.,

Unit IX: Electronic Devices

Chapter-14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Energy bands in conductorssemiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only), Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;, Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator., Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).,

Unit X: Communication Systems

Chapter-15: Communication Systems

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only)bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data), bandwidth of transmission medium, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication., Need for modulation, amplitude modulation., 

Chemistry Syllabus of CBSE Class 12

Unit I: Solid State

Chapter 1: Solid State

Classification of solids based on different binding forcesmolecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea)., Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties. , Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n & p type semiconductors.,

Unit II: Solutions

Chapter 2: Solutions

Types of solutionsexpression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids,, solubility of gases in liquids,, solid solutions,, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point,

depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, van't Hoff factor.,

Unit III: Electrochemistry

Chapter 3: Electrochemistry

Redox reactionsNernst equation and its application to chemical cells, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea)

dry cell -electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.,

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics

Chapter 4: Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous)factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst, order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment), Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.

Unit V: Surface Chemistry

Chapter 5: Surface Chemistry

Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption,factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity, enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension, lyophilic , lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids, properties of colloids, Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.,

Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Chapter 6: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extractionconcentration, oxidation, reduction, electrolytic method and refining, occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.,

Unit VII: p - Block Elements

Chapter 7: Group 15 Elements

General introductionelectronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties, nitrogen preparation properties & uses, compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (Structure only), Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides PCl3 , PCl5 and oxoacids (elementary idea only).,

Chapter 8: Group 16 Elements

General introductionelectronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties,dioxygen, Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, Sulphure -allotropic forms, compounds of sulphure: Preparation properties and uses of sulphur-dioxide, sulphuric acid:, industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; oxoacids of sulphur (Structures only).,

Chapter 9: Group 17 Elements

General introductionelectronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, compounds of halogens, Preparation properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).,

Chapter 10: Group 18 Elements

General introductionelectronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.,

Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements

Chapter 11: d and f Block Elements

General introductionelectronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals, metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, , interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactvity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences., Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.,

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds

Chapter 12: Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds - general introductionligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. , Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT, structure and stereo isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).,

Unit X : Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Chapter 13: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes: Nomenclaturenature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation., Haloarenes: Nature of C -X bond,, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only.

Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform freons, DDT.,

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Chapter 14: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclaturemethods of preparation, physical and chemical properties( of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol., Phenols: Nomenclature

methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols., Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.,

Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Chapter 15: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclaturenature of carbonyl group,, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophillic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes: uses., Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature

Carboxylic Acids: acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.,

Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

Chapter 16: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

Amines: NomenclatureAmines: classification, structure, methods of preparation, Amines: physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines., Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context., Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.,

Unit XIV: Biomolecules

Chapter17: Biomolecules

Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses)Carbohydrates - monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose),, Carbohydrates - D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose),, Carbohydrates - Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) importance., Proteins - Elementary idea of α - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.

denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure., Vitamins - Classification and functions., Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.,

Unit XV: Polymers

Chapter 18: Polymers

Classification - natural and syntheticmethods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.,

Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life

Chapter 19: Chemistry in Everyday life

Chemicals in medicines - analgesicsChemicals in medicines - tranquilizers antiseptics, Chemicals in medicines - disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, Chemicals in medicines - antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines. , Chemicals in food - preservations, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants., Cleansing agents - soaps and detergents, cleansing action., 

Biology Syllabus of CBSE Class 12

Unit VI. Reproduction

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms

Reproductiona characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species, Asexual reproduction Modes of reproduction-Asexual and sexual reproduction, Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation, vegetative propagation in plants.,

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structureDevelopment of male and female gametophytes, Pollination-types, agencies and examples, Outbreedings devices, Pollen-Pistil interaction, Double fertilization, Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit

Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony, Significance of seed and fruit formation.,

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systemsMicroscopic anatomy of testis and ovary, Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis, Menstrual cycle, Fertilisation embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation, Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea), Parturition (Elementary idea)

Lactation (Elementary idea).,

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD)Birth control – Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP), Amniocentesis, Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).,

Unit VII. Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Mendelian InheritanceDeviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy, Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance, Chromosome theory of inheritance, Chromosomes and genes, Sex determination - in humans, birds, honey bee, Linkage and crossing over

Sex linked inheritance - Haemophilia, Colour blindness, Mendelian disorder in humans - Thalassemia, chromosomal disorders in humans, Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.,

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic materialStructure of DNA and RNA, DNA packaging, DNA replication, Central dogma, Transcription, genetic code, translation, Gene expression and regulation - Lac Operon

Genome and human ganeome project, DNA fingerprinting.,

Chapter-7: Evolution

Origin of lifeBiological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence), Darwin's contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution, Mechanism of evolution - Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection, Gene flow and genetic drift, Hardy - Weinberg's principle, Adaptive Radiation

Human evolution.,

Unit VIII. Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogensparasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm), Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines, Cancer, HIV and AIDs, Adolescene, drug and alcholol abuse.,

Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Improvement in food productionPlant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculature and Animal husbandry., industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers., Antibiotics; production and judicious use.,

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

In household food processing

Unit IX. Biotechnology and Its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes

Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application

Application of Biotechnology in health and agricultureHuman insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy, Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops, Transgenic Animals, biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.,

Unit X. Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

Organisms and environmentHabitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations, Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism, Population attributesgrowth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.,

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

Patternscomponents, productivity and decomposition, energy flow, pyramids of number, biomass, energy, nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous), ecological succession

ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).,

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Concept of biodiversitypatterns of biodiversity, importance of biodiversity, loss of biodiversity, biodiversity conservation, hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.,

Chapter-16: Environmental Issues

Air pollution and its controlwater pollution and its control, agrochemicals and their effects, solid waste management, radioactive waste management, greenhouse effect and climate change, ozone layer depletion

deforestation, any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).,