Stone tools and uses of fire

Archaeologists have found traces of ash in Kurnool caves. This made them conclude that early people were familiar with the uses of fire. They used fire for many purposes like as a source of light, to scare away wild animals, to roast their meat.

Archaeologists have called the earliest period as the paleolithic age which ranged from 2 millions to 12000 years ago. After that from 12000 years ago, a drastic environment changes could be seen. The Age was called mesolithic age.

The term paleolithic is derived from the Greek words paleo meaning old, while lithos meaning stone. The Paleolithic age covered the maximum era of human history. Mesolithic means middle stone. In this period tiny stone were available. These tiny stones were bind to the bones to make saws and sickles.

The age after mesolithic was called Neolithic age. This age started 10000 years ago.


  • Archaeologists describe the time period of Hunters-Gatherers as STONE AGE.
  • Stone was used as tools and weapons and they took shelters in the caves in diverse climatic conditions.
  • Stone age can be divided into three periods-


  • The earliest period.
  • Comes from two Greek words, 'palaeo' means old, and 'lithos' means stone.
  • Period extends from 2 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago.
 Palaeolithic Tools
  • The long span further divided into three parts –
    • Lower Palaeolithic
    • Middle Palaeolithic
    • Upper Palaeolithic
  • This period covers 99% of human history.


  • It is also called Middle Stone Age.
 Mesolithic tools
  • The period of environmental changes.
  • Began about 12,000 years ago till about 10,000 years ago.
  • Tiny stone tools found in this period, called MICROLITHS.
  • Handles of bone or wood attached with the Microliths to make tools i.e. saws and sickles.

  • Old tools continued with the new ones.


  • 'Neo' means new, it's a New stone age.
  • From about 10,000 years ago
 Neolithic Tools


  • Traces of ashes have been found in the Kurnool Caves of Andhra Pradesh.
Archaeological Sites
  • The people were familiar with the use of fire.
    • a source of light
    • to roast meat
    • to scare away animals
  • The first reported use of fire in the Indian subcontinent was from 18,000-20,000 years ago.