Changing of environment

Around 12000 years ago, there was a remarkable change in the environment condition. The weather became warmer. This shift in the environment condition led to the development of grasslands.

With the development of grassy lands, animals like deer, antelopes, cattle, increased in number. Their survival were based on grassy lands.

Hunters now instead of hunting them started studying their food habits and breading habits. They started herding and rearing these animals. Relatively fishing became an important occupation for them.


  • Around 12,000 years ago major changes were seen in the climate of the world.
  • It was a shift to relatively warm conditions.
  • This led to the development of the Grasslands.

  • Which increased the number of dependent on grasslands, such as
    • antelope
    • deer
    • cattle
    • goat
    • sheep
  • Hunters of these animals now started following them.
    • Learning about their food habits.
    • Their breeding seasons.
  • Now people started herding and rearing animals.
  • Fishing was also an important activity.


  • Several grain bearing grasses  grew naturally
    • wheat
    • barley
    • rice
  • This led them to grow plants on their own and became farmers.


  • People started taming animals by leaving food near their shelters.
  • The first tamed animal was the wild ancestor of the dog.
  • Later, relatively gentle animals who ate grass lived in herds-
    • sheep
    •  goat
    •  cattle and
    •  pigs

Domestication: A process in which people grow plants and look after animals.

  • Gradually plants and animals looked different from their wild variety as they were tamed.
  • Then people selected plants and animals for domestication.
  • People selected them wisely
    • those plants and animals that are not prone to disease
    • plants that yield large-
      • size grain
      • have strong stalks
      • capable of bearing the weight of the ripe grain
    • Seeds preserved of those plants and sown to ensure new plants with the same qualities.
  • Relatively gentle animals were selected for breeding.
  • Gradually, domesticated animals and plants become different from their wild ones.
  • For example- teeth and horn of the wild animals differ from those of domestic animals.

  • Domestication began about 12,000 years ago in various parts of the world.
  • All the plants and animal product which we use today is a gradual result of domestication.
  • The earliest domesticated plants were wheat and barley whereas domesticated animals were sheep and goat.