Functions of the town : Araikamedu

Mathura had been an important centre for more than 2500 years. Since it was located at the 2 major routes of travel and trade. The city was fortified and had several shrines. Farmers and herders from the nearby areas provided food for the people. Mathura is also well known for sculptures.

2000 years before, it became an important capital for the kushanas. It was also an important religious centre. There were Buddhist Monasteries, Jaina shrines and it was important for the worship of Krishna. Few inscription have also been found here which mentioned about the blacksmith, potters, weavers, garland makers, perfumers, etc.


Archaeological evidence of crafts have also been found here. Some of them had been very fine pottery known as Northern Black polished ware. ( NBPW). It is generally found in the northern part of the subcontinent. NBPW is hard, wheel made , metallic ware with black surface. The potter expose the ware to very high Temperature in his kiln, which results in the blackening of the surface.

Many craftpersons and merchants formed their association known as shrenis. The shrenis of craftpersons collected raw materials, produced finished products, and also provided training. The shrenis organised the trade also. They acted as banks also, where merchants could deposit their money.


Arikamedu was a coastal settlement where, ships unloaded goods from distant lands. A massive brick structure which may supposed to be the warehouse was find at the site. Red glazed pottery known as Arrentine Ware, Amphorae, to store liquids like wine or oil , Roman lamps, glassware, gems have also been found at the site. Small dyeing vats used to dye the cloths.


Rome is one of the oldest city in Europe. Augustus, one of the most important emperor is believed to have found Rome as the city of brick, and have then turned into the city of marble. He then built rulers, temples and palaces. They even built ampitheatres, where people can watch shows. There were public bath as well. Huge aqueducts , which could bring water to the city was built.