•  Adaptation in different habitats :
A. Terrestrial Habitats : 
(i)    Deserts : Desert is a water depleted area so basically plants and animals are adapted for little or  less of water. Deserts are areas which receive very little rainfall. Sahara and Kalahari are two examples of deserts. Deserts are very hot and dry. Camels, cactus, date palm tree, rattle snake, are example of organisms found in deserts.

Adaptation In Desert Animals and Plants :
    •     Desert animals include camel, rats and snakes.
    •    To stay away from the intense heat during the day, rats and snakes stay in burrows deep in the sand. They  come out only during the night, when            it is cooler.
    •     Camel’s nostrils have long hairs to prevent the entry of sand and dust. They have no sweat glands in their skin. 
    •     Adaptation in desert plants lose very less little water through transpiration. 
    •     Desert plants either have no leaves or they have small or spine shaped leaves to reduce transpiration. 
    •     Photosynthesis is usually carried out by stems. 
    •     The stem is covered with a thick waxy layer which helps it to retain water.
    •     They have deep roots for absorbing water. 
    •    Stomata are few, sunken in pits or covered with fine hairs.

(ii)     Mountain regions : They are normally very cold and windy. In some places, snowfall may take place during winter.
    •     The leaves of some trees are needle - like so that snow and rain water can slide off easily. 
    •     Animals have thick skin or fur to protect them from cold. 
    •     Yaks have long hair to keep them warm. 
    •     Snow leopard has thick fur on its body including feet and toes. This protects its feet from the cold when it walks on the snow. 
    •     The mountain goat has strong hooves for running up the rocky slopes of the mountains. 

(iii)     Grasslands
    •     Lion lives in grassland. 
    •     Its light brown colour helps it to hide in dry grasslands when it hunts for prey. 
    •     The eyes in front of the face allow it to have a correct idea about the location of its prey. 
    •     A deer has strong teeth for chewing hard plant stems. 
    •     It has long ears to hear the movement of the predators.
    •     The eyes on the side of its head allow it look in all directions for danger. 
    •     The speed of the deer helps them to run away from the predators. 

B. Aquatic Habitats :
•  Aquatic Adaptations
    The animals which live in water are known as aquatic animals. Common aquatic animals -are fish, whale, crab, octopus, lobster, etc.
•    They have the following adaptations:
1.    They have streamlined body without a neck.
2.    They have powerful tail and fins for swim.ming.
3.    They have gills for respiration.

4.    Some fishes have air bladder to make floating easier.
5.    They have special body covering like cuticle, scales, shells and waxy coating which prevent rotting and decay.