Basis of division in Kingdom Plantae

(i) Differentiated body parts:
Body is differentiated into leaves, stems, roots, flowers, etc.
(ii) Presence of vascular tissue:
There are two types of vascular tissues present in the plants.
• Xylem: Helps in transport of water.
• Phloem: Helps in transport of food.
(iii) Reproduction through seeds or spores:
• Phanerogamae : Plants with seeds are called phanerogamae. They contains embryo with stored food and are multicellular.
• Cryotogamae: Plants with spores are called cryptogamae. They contains only naked embryo and are generally unicellular.
(iv) Seeds are inside the fruit or naked:
• Angiospermae: These are plants with seeds inside the fruit and bears flowers.
• Gymnospermae: These are plants with naked seeds and do not bear flowers.

Division 1: Thallophyta

(i) Basic and elementary plants with undifferentiated body parts.
(ii) Generally called algae.
(iii) No vascular tissue present.
(iv) Reproduce through spores.
(v) Mainly found in water.
(vi) Example: Ulva, Spirogyra, Ulothrix, Cladophora, Chara.

Division 2: Bryophyte

(i) Body structure differentiated but not fully developed.
(ii) No vascular tissues present.
(iii) Reproduce through spores.
(iv) Found on both land and water therefore known as ‘ Amphibians of Plantae Kingdom’.
(v) Example : Liverwort (Marchantia, Riccia), Mosses (Funaria), Hornwort (Dendrocerous).

Division 3: Pteridophyta

(i) Differentiated body structure – leaves, stems, roots, etc.
(ii) Vascular tissues present.
(iii) Reproduce through spores.
(iv) Examples : Marsilea, fern, horsetails.

Division 4: Gymnosperms

(i) Differentiated body parts.
(ii) Vascular tissues.
(iii) Naked seeds without fruits or flowers.
(iv) Perennial, evergreen and woody.
(v) Examples : Pines (deodar), Cycus, Ginkgo.

Division 5: Angiosperms

(i) Also known as flower-bearing plants.
(ii) Later on flower becomes fruit.
(iii) Seeds are inside the fruit.
(iv) Embryos in seeds have structure called cotyledons. They are also called seed leaves becausemany plants they emerge and become green when they germinate.
Angiosperms are further divided on the basis of number of cotyledons into two parts i.e. Monocotsand Dicots.

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