→ ‘Health’ is a state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally and socially.

Disease: Any disturbance in the structure or function of any organ or part of body.
→ The various causes of diseases are pathogens (virus, bacteria), lack of nutritious diet/balanced
diet and lack of public health services.
→ Acute diseases occur suddenly and lasts for a short duration while chronic diseases develop
slowly and lasts for long period of time.
→ The diseases/infections can be prevented by life style (exercise, proper sleep, enough relaxatio
modification, taking balanced diet, good personal health and hygiene and also maintaining a cle
and healthy surrounding.
→ Treatment involves killing of the microbes/pathogens.


→ Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being.

• The conditions necessary for good health are:
(i) Good physical and social environment.
(ii) Good economic conditions.
→ Good physical and social environment includes clean surroundings, good sanitation, proper
garbage disposal and clean drinking water.
→ Good economic conditions includes job opportunities for earning to have nutritious food and to
lead a healthy life.
→ Personal and Community Issues Both Matter for Health
→ All those activities which people do both individually and in groups for the development of their
society, constitute the community health.
→ Personal and community health are supplementary to each other.
→ We protect ourselves by keeping our body clean.
→ For this, we also require a good and healthy environment in our surroundings.
→ We can have this only by the means of community health and development.
→ So, both personal and community health are inter-related.
Differences between Being Healthy and Disease-free
Being Healthy Being Disease-free
It is a state of being well enough to function well
physically, mentally and socially.
It is a state of absence from diseases.
It refers to the individual, physical and social environment.
It refers only to the individual.
The individual has good health. The individual may have good health or poor health.
Disease and Its Causes

What does disease look like?
→ When a person is affected by a disease either the functioning or the appearance of one or mor
systems of the body will change for the worse.
→ These changes give rise to symptoms and signs of disease.
→ On the basis of the symptoms the physicians look for the signs of a particular disease and
conduct tests to confirm the disease.

Types of Diseases

(i) Acute Diseases: Acute diseases which last for only very short period of time and affect body
suddenly and quickly. Example: Cold, cough, typhoid etc.
(ii) Chronic Diseases: The diseases which last for a long time, even as much as a life time, are cal
chronic diseases. Example: Diabetes, tuberculosis, elephantiasis etc.
Causes of Diseases
• Diseases are caused by:
→ Pathogens like virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans or worms.
→ Poor health and under nourishment.
→ Hereditary and genetic disorder.
→ Lack of proper treatment of immunization.
→ Environmental pollution (air, water etc.)