Preparation of Soil

 Why do we loosen or turn the soil?

  • One of the most important tasks in agriculture is to turn the soil and loosen it.
  • The top layer of soil supports plant growth and is rich in nutrients.
  • The loose soil allows the roots to penetrate and breathe easily, even when they go deep into the soil.

Loosening the Soil is important because it:

  • Allows the toots to go deeper into the soil and yet, breathe easily (allowing air to reach the roots),
  • Helps in the growth of microbes and earthworms that add humus to the soil and turn and loosen the soil further, and
  • Nutrient-rich soil comes to the top and can be used by plants.
  • The process of loosening and turning the soil is called tilling or ploughing. This is done by using a plough that is made of wood or iron.

The process used to loosen and turn the soil is called Tilling or Ploughing. 

  • If the soil is very dry, it may need watering before ploughing, break crumbs using a plank and the field is leveled using a leveler for sowing and for irrigation purposes.

 After tilling, Levelling is done in which the big clumps of soil called crumbs are broken (and leveled). Leveling the field helps in the process of sowing and irrigation

Agricultural Implements

In order to get better yields, it is necessary to break soils to the size of grains.

The main tools used for this purpose is:


A plough is a device that is used by farmers for different purposes such as adding fertilizers, tilling and loosening the soil.


A hoe is a tool that is used to dig up the soil before planting a sapling.


A cultivator is attached to the tractor and helps in loosening soil. Cultivators are used instead of plough since they are faster.

Why is leveling the field important?

Land leveling is typically done in mildly sloping lands where farmers use surface irrigation methods such as furrows, borders, basins, or floods. It ensures uniform distribution of irrigation water in the root zone of the crop. It also helps in seeding and managing the crop better, which means that the yield and quality of the crop are better.

Agricultural Implements used for Levelling

Traditionally, farmers used ox-drawn scrapers to level the land but today, a laser land leveler is being used to make sure that the surface of the field is even and flat. The laser-guided levelers save time, increase productivity, and save water (as it minimizes water-logging or run-off problems.

Ox-drawn Scraper
Laser Land Leveller