Key points of crop production and management.

  • Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals for milk, meat, egg.
  • Animal husbandry has been practiced for thousands of years since the first domestication of animals.

Humans are dependent on animals in innumerable ways. Then animals are domesticated by humans for many purposes.


When animals are reared at a large scale to obtain food from them, it is called Animal Husbandry.

Animal husbandry includes taking care of animals, breeding them, and domesticating them for different purposes such as meat, wool, milk, eggs, honey etc. Types of animal husbandry popular in India include:

  • Beekeeping or Apiculture
  • Cattle farming
  • Dairy farming
  • Fish Farming or Aquaculture
  • Poultry farming
  • Sheep farming

Breeding means mating animals with superior characters to create a new breed (or offspring that is more useful to us than its parents). Breeding can be of two types:

  • Inbreeding
  • Outbreeding

What are the advantages and disadvantages of inbreeding?

Inbreeding allows us to eliminate the harmful recessive genes in a breed and selectively choose and nurture superior genes. In the case of cattle, a superior female produces more milk per lactation while a superior male produces superior progeny than other males.

However, continuous inbreeding can reduce the fertility and productivity of animals that are bred. This is called inbreeding depression. It can be overcome by outbreeding.

What are the three types of outbreeding programs?

  • Out-crossing: When animals of the same breed are mated together but have no common ancestors (on either side of the pedigree) for four to six generations, it is called Outcrossing. The resultant offspring is called Outcross.
  • Cross Breeding: When superior males of one breed are mated with superior males of another breed, it is called Cross Breeding. This helps scientists to combine the desirable qualities of the two breeds. In Punjab, Bikaneri ewes were mated with Marino rams to create a new breed of sheep called Hisardale.
  • Interspecific Hybridization: When a male and a female of two different species of animals are mated together, it is called Hybridization. For Example, when a donkey and a horse are mated, a new breed called Mule is born. (Olympiads)

What are the advantages and disadvantages of hybridization?

Hybridization passes along the favorable traits of the two chosen species. It can also prolong the survival of a species that is considered threatened or endangered at present.

However, successful breeding through hybridization and finding suitable mates for the purpose is difficult. Moreover, whether done naturally or through human initiation, the hybridization often fails to pass on the life-sustaining genes to offspring which means that most of the offspring do not survive for long after birth.

Green Revolution in India

Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri, the second Prime Minister of India, started the Green Revolution in India with the slogan 'Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan'. His vision was that the soldiers bear the responsibility of making the country powerful from a security point of view while farmers bear the responsibility to make the country self-sufficient in terms of food and other agricultural produce.

Eight Main achievements of the Green Revolution are:

  • Increase in Crop Yield per Hectare: The use of modern agricultural implements increased the yield or production of crops per hectare.
  • Increase in Overall Crop Production: The new implements and agricultural methods not only increased the production of food grains but also of commercial crops such as jute, cotton, oilseeds etc. Due to the Green revolution, the country has become less dependent on imports for food and its exports have increased which means that our country is more self-sufficient now.
  • Commercialization of Agriculture: The status of agriculture increased from being just a means of livelihood to a profit-making enterprise. This led to rapid development in this field.
  • Increased Use of Fertilizers and Insecticides: The scientific knowledge about new agricultural practices helped farmers adopt the use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides which increased the quantity and quality of their crops.
  • Increase in Irrigation Facilities: Emphasis was laid on making irrigation accessible to everyone and hence, India has a total irrigated crop area of 82.6 million hectares which is the largest in the world.
  • Less dependence on Monsoons: Earlier, farmers used to depend on monsoons to be able to produce a good crop. Natural calamities, pests, diseases, hails, and storms are used to damage crops easily. Now, more and more farmers are using new scientific methods to produce a healthy crop and keep it safe.
  • Multiple Crop Program: Since 1867-68, the multiple crop program has been introduced which ensures that farmers can produce more than one crop every year increasing their income considerably.
  • Rural Electrification: Under Green Revolution, more than 70% of rural India has already been electrified. The Rural Electrification Corporation was established to make sure that electricity is provided to farmers for agricultural purposes and the quality of rural life improves in general.


Food from Animals: Like plants, the animals also provide us with different kinds of food like fish, meat and eggs.

Fumigation: Fumigation is the most effective method for checking the growth of insects by providing smoke or chemicals in the gaseous state without affecting the grain.

Agricultural practices: There are various activities that have to be performed, before sowing and up to harvesting. These are called agricultural practices.

Animal husbandry: Animals reared at home or on a farm, have to be provided with proper food, shelter and care, when this is done on a large scale it is called animal husbandry.

Crop: When plants of the same kind are grown at a place in a regular manner on a large scale, it is called a crop.

Fertilizer: Fertilisers are chemicals that are rich in particular nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Granaries: The harvested grains, usually are stored in huge stores, after they are properly dried in sunlight. Such stores are called granaries.

Harvesting: The cutting of the crop after it is mature is called harvesting.

Irrigation: The supply of water to crops at appropriate intervals is called irrigation.

Kharif Crops: The crops which are grown in the rainy season, that is from June to September are called Kharif crops.

Manure: Manures are decomposed organic matter obtained from plant or animal waste.

Plough: The device used for tilling or ploughing is called plough.

Rabi Crops: The crops are grown in the winter season, that is from October to March are called rabi crops.

Seeds: A plant’s fertilized ovules, from which a new plant may grow, are called seeds.

Silo: Harvested grains are usually dried before being stored because moisture encourages the growth of microorganisms. They are then stored in metal or earthen containers, gunny bags. Such stores are also called silos.

Sowing: It is a process to put seeds in the soil.

Storage: It is to keep crop grains safe from moisture, insects and rats for a long time.

Threshing: The process of separation of grains from the chaff in the harvested plant is called threshing.

Weeds: Some undesirable or unwanted plants may grow naturally along with the crop such plants are called weeds.

Weedicides: Those certain chemicals which are used to control weeds are called weedicides. For example, 2, 4-D (2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), metolachlor.

Winnowing: A process to bring out the separation of grain and chaff is called winnowing