The sultanate in the 15th and 16th centuries

After the Tughluqs,the Sayyid ,the Lodi and the Suri dynasties ruled Delhi and Agra until 1526.By then Jaunpur, Bengal, Malwa,Gujarat, Rajasthan and the entire SouthIndia and new ruling groups such as the Afghans has independent ruler who has established flourishing states and prosperous capitals.

This was also the period which saw the emergence of new ruling groups like the Afghans and the Rajputs.Sher Shah Suri (1540-1545) started his career as the manager of a small territory for his uncle in Bihar and eventually challenged and defeated the Mughal Emperor Humayun(1530-1540, 1555-1556). Sher Shah Suri was the ruler and the founder of the Sur dynasty .He captured Delhi and ruled for 15 years. The best part is that he used alauddin’s plans and made them more efficient. He organized a long-lived bureaucracy responsible to the ruler and created a carefully calculated revenue system.

For the first time during the Islamic conquest the relationship between the people and the ruler was systematized, with little oppression and corruption. Sher Shah efficiently administered the army and tax collections, and built roads, rest houses, and wells for his people. He was generally tolerant of non-muslims, except in his massacre of Hindus after the surrender of raisen. His tomb at Sasaram is one of the most magnificent in India. Sher shah’s adminstration became the model followed by the great emperor Akbar when he consolidated the Mughal Empire. During Akbar’s rule, the Mughal empire tripled in size and wealth. He created a powerful military system too.

Tomb of Sher-shah-suri