Minerals are naturally occurring substances. They are not made up by human beings. They have a chemical composition. Minerals are solid and have a definite structure and physical properties. Even the edible salt is a mineral. Diamond is the hardest mineral. There are two types of minerals:

Organic Minerals: - Minerals that are formed from the remains of dead and decomposed animals and plants trapped inside the earth long, long ago are called organic Minerals. Eg. Coal, Petroleum and Natural gas. These minerals are important sources of energy and are also called Fossil Fuels. They are non-renewable resources of energy.

Inorganic Minerals:- (a) Metallic Inorganic Minerals include minerals like gold, silver, iron, aluminium, copper, lead etc.

(b) Non - Metallic Inorganic Minerals include minerals like sulphur, silicon, phosphorus.

Metallic minerals

Metallic minerals exhibit lustre in their appearance and consists of metals in their chemical composition. These minerals serve as a potential source of metal and can be extracted through mining. Example of metallic minerals are manganese, iron ore and bauxite.They can be further divided into ferrous and non ferrous metallic minerals. Ferrous minerals are one that contains Iron and non ferrous are one that does not contain iron. The mineral, which are very high economic value, are known as precious minerals. Example gold and silver.

Non metallic mineral

Non metallic minerals are minerals which either show are non metallic lustre or sign in their appearance. Extractable metals are not present in their chemical composition. Limestone, Gypsum and mica are examples of non metallic minerals.

Energy minerals - These minerals, which provide energy or power are known as energy minerals; example-coal, petroleum, natural gas etc.

Importance of Minerals: - Iron and gold are minerals which are used in industry. Coal is used as a fuel. Some minerals are used in making various chemicals and medicines

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