Adminstrations in Kingdoms,Taxes and Land Grants

Mansabdars and Jagirdars

Groups coming from different backgrounds such as Iranians, Indian Muslims, Afghans, Rajputs, Marathas, joint mobile service were enrolled asmansabdars. The term mansabdar refers to an individual who holds a mansab, meaning a position or rank.Rank is a grading system used by Mughals to rate.


*salary and                                 

*military responsibilities.

Rank and salary determined by a numerical value.

Zat: Higher the zat, the more prestigious the nobles position in court and larger his salary. Mansabdar’s military responsibilities require him to maintain specific number of sawar or cavalrymen. Cavalryman were reviewed, registered and their horses branded before the mansabdar who received the money to pay them as a salary.Mansabdar’s salaries were revenue assignments called jagirs.Most manasabdars did not administer there Jagirs.Mansabdars only had rights to the revenue of their assignment collected for them by their servants. During Akbar's reign jagirs were accessed so that their revenues were roughly same as the salary of the mansabdar.However, things changed by Aurangzeb's rule during this time. Actual revenue collected was often less than the granted sum.The number of mansabdars also increased, thus leading to a long wait before they received jagir. These are other factors lead to shortage in the number of Jagirs.

Jabts and  Zamindar

The main source of income for Mughal rulers was the tax on the produce of peasantry. The intermediaries who collected taxes were called zamindars.Jabt was the revenue system, which was started by when Akbar's revenue minister ,Todar Mal, carried out a careful survey of crop yields and fix tax on each crop in cash. This system was prevalent in areas where Mughal administrators could survey the land and keep very careful accounts. This system was not possible in provinces like Gujarat and Bengal. As the zamindars exercised more power, exploitation by Mughal administrators lead them to rebellion and at times zamindars and peasants of the same caste allied in rebelling against Mughal authority.

Akbarnama and Ain-i akbari

Akbar ordered one of his close friends and 40 years Abul Fazal, to write a history of his reign, Abulfazl wrote a 3 volume history of Akbar's reign, titled Akbarnama.The first volume dealt with Akbars ancestors and the second volume recorded the events of Akbar's reign. The 3rd volume is the Ain i  Akbari. It deals with Akbar's administration, household, army, revenues and the geography of his empire. It also provides rich details about the tradition and culture of the people living in India. The most interesting aspect about Ain i Akbari is its rich statistical details about things as diverse as crops, yields, prices, wages, and and revenues.

Akbar's policies

Abul Fazal explained that the empire was divided into provinces called subas, governed by a subedar who carried out both political and military functions.Each province also had a financial officeror diwan.For the maintenance of peace and order in his province, the Subedar was supported by other officers. Akbar's nobles commanded large armies and access to large amount of revenue.While Akbar was at Fatehpur Sikri started a discussion on religion with the ulemas, Akbar divided his Kingdom into provinces called Subas, governed by a subedar.The discussion took place in the Ibadat Khana.Akbar realized those religious scholars emphasized rituals and dogmas were often by bigots.Their teachings created divisions and disharmony amongst his subjects. It led Akbar to the idea ofSulh-i kul or universal peace.Jahangir and Shah Jahan also followed this principle.

Mughal empire in the 17th century and after

The administrativeand military efficiency of Mughal Empire lead to great economic and commercial prosperity. Mughal emperors and their mansabdars spent a great deal of their income on salaries and goods.The Wealthier peasantry and artisanal groups, the merchants and bankers profited in this economic world. In the last 17th century enormous wealth and resources commanded by the Mughal elite, made them extremely powerful group of people.As the authority of Mughal emperors slowly declined, his servants emerged as powerful centre of power in the regions.

By the 18th century, the provinces of the empire such as Hyderabad, Awadh has consolidated there independent political identities.