•    In different parts of India, different types of soils are found. 
•    Soil profile and soil structure both are affected by some climatic factors i.e. temperature, light, humidity, wind velocity, rainfall etc. 
•    Climatic factors, various components of soil determine various types of vegetation and crops in particular region. Clayey and Loamy soils are suitable for cereals like wheat as soil can retain water, rich in humus and is very fertile. For paddy, clayey soil                 rich in organic matter is good as it can retain good amount of water for long duration. Loamy soils, which drain water easily are required for lentils or masoor. For cotton, sandy-loam or loam, which drain water easily required as it can hold plenty of air. 

•    Removal of top soil by water, wind or ice is called soil erosion. 
•    Plant can check soil erosion as their roots firmly bind the soil. That’s why soil erosion is more in those areas having little or no surface vegetation, like desert or bare land. 
•    Cutting of trees and deforestation should be prevented in order to check soil erosion.

•    The amount of water held by a soil is called soil moisture. Moisture content of soil can be calculated by formula :-

•    The soil which is formed by deposition of material i.e. silt, clay, sand and gravels carried by rivers called alluvial soil. For eg. soil of North Indian plains formed by rivers of North India which flows from Himalayas. Such soil is very fertile and supports half          the population of India. 

Prevention of soil erosion
    Soil Conservation
    The methods are as follows:
(a)    Afforestation should be undertaken not only in the areas where green cover is already removed but additional areas should be brought under plantation.
(b)    To reduce the effect of strong winds in the fields, trees should be planted along the boundaries of the fields.
(c)    Crop rotation
(d)    Proper drainage and irrigation arrangements should be made.
(e)    Terrace cropping