Various Types of Livelihoods in Urban Areas
          In urban areas (big cities and towns) different types of people reside and they practise different types of livelihoods. Factory workers, shopkeepers, businessmen, professionals (like teachers, doctors, lawyers, clerks, etc.) are the main people who                    reside  in the cities and towns. There are, however, other people who follow different kinds of professions. They include vegetable vendors, domestic servants, garment workers, and bank employees, etc.
  1.    Factory workers form a substantial part of the urban population. They are employed in different factories where they work day and night and produce various things of daily use such as cloth, hosiery articles, medicines, chemicals, etc.
  2.    Shopkeepers and businessmen are busy in buying and selling different types of things -from bread, butter, vegetables, fruits, food grains, sweets, groceries to books and stationery.
  3.    Professionals like teacher s, doctors, lawyers, bank employees, clerks, postmen, policemen also form a major part of the urban population. They serve the society in their own way.
         Teachers and professors educate the students and enlighten them. Doctors work in hospitals and dispensaries and cure the people of their illness. The bank employees look into various money transaction jobs. The postman and other post office                      employees handle different means of communication and emotionally connect the people living in different parts of the country and abroad. The policeman helps in maintaining law and order in the cities and towns.
  4.    Besides the above people, there are some other people who reside within urban areas such as vegetable vendors, domestic servants, garment workers, bank employees, etc. Vegetable vendors move from street to street and supply fruits and                         vegetables  to citizens at their door-step. As the urban population leads a comfortable life they engage domestic servants who help them in their household duties like cooking, washing, and cleaning their rooms.
        There are scores of other people also who form a part of the urban population. It is not possible to menlion all of them but all of them help each other in the best possible way.

Difference between Self-Employment, Regular Employment and Wage Employment
      In cities and towns a major part of the people are self-employed who themselves run their own businesses and shops. They are independent to run their show as they like. Their incomes depend on hard work and interaction. Shopkeepers and                          businessmen form a major section of the self-employed.

      Regular Employment.
      There are some employees who are employed on a permanent basis. They are given a regular monthly salary and allowances. All public and private servants are part and parcel of regular employment. 

      Wage Employment.
      People who are not employed on a regular basis and are engaged in day to day employment form a part of the wage employment. They are labourers, carpenters, painters, stone-cutters, sanitary workers, etc.

Animal Husbandry
    A few families in the village are engaged in dairy farming, poultry farming and cattle rearing. Gopal is a dairy farmer. He keeps cows and goats. Gopal's wife Shanti, lakes care of the cattle, she feeds them, bathes them, and milks them. Gopal carries cans     of milk from door to door, to sell the milk.

    A small river flows on the outskirts of the village. On the banks of the river is the fishermen's dwelling. Fishermen catch fish and sell them in the fish market. Some fish are also taken to the nearby town and sold at a good price.

Key Terms :
1.    OCCUPATION: means to earn a livelihood
2.    PRIMARY OCCUPATIONS: occupations involving extraction of raw materials from earth 
3.    SECONDARY OCCUPATIONS: occupations in which products are made out of the raw materials obtained
4.    TERTIARY OCCUPATIONS: occupations in which people sell products and offer services
5.    LARGE FARMERS: farmers that own large lands
6.    MEDIUM FARMERS: farmers that own a few acres of land to sustain themselves
7.    LANDLESS FARMERS: farmers who do not own any land and work on other's land as labourers