- Books Name
- CBSE Class 6 Social Science Book
- Param Publication
- CBSE Class 6
- Social Science
Various Types of Livelihood Prevalent in a Village.
Different types of people live in a village and they have different types of livelihoods. Agriculture is the chief occupation of the villagers. They are mostly farmers. There are, however, other people who follow different occupations. There are shopkeepers, blacksmiths, carpenters, weavers, potters, barbers, etc. All of them form the village community.
Different Types of Farmers.
Majority of the people who reside in the village are farmers. But all farmers are not of the same level and position. Many economists have attempted their classification. There are farmers with large farms, farmers with middle-sized farms, small-sized farm owners and landless farmers. Farmers who own land between 2 to 5 hectares are called middle scale farmers, those who own land more than 5 hectares are called large scale farmers, while such farmers who own land less than 2 hectares are called small farmers. Some small farmers have no land of their own; as such they are sometime called landless farmers. Landless farmers are often trapped in debt. They take things on credit and loan and later on thus have to pay more money as interest.
Large farmers usually do not work as cultivators. They give land to other farmers on contract and share the produce with them. They, at times, engage landless farmers and pay them either in kind or in cash. They live in pucca houses and enjoy a life of luxury.
Middle farmers mostly work on their lands and grow crops for themselves and their families. This type of farming is called subsistance farming where the main production is consumed by the farmer's household. Such farmers usually use primitive tools but sometimes they hire tractors and harvesters. They grow food crops like wheats, barley, rice, etc.
Small farmers who own land less than 2 hectares can't make both ends meet. Those with no land lead a worse life. They have to work for the large scale farmers though sometimes some of them help the middle farmers as well. Their plight is miserable. A few of them leave their villages and temporarily shift to the nearby towns and cities to earn for themselves and their families whom they have left in their native villages.
Next to the farmers the shopkeepers form an important part of the village folk. They sell different things of daily use, like food items, grocery, stationery, hosiery, etc., and cater to the needs of the villages. People come to their shops to buy different things. Some customers pay them cash while others buy things on credit. Naturally those who take things on credit have to pay more.
Usually there is one family of a blacksmith in each village. He makes tools and implements of iron for the farming community. Members of his family help him in his work. The assistant keeps the fire burning by working on the bellows. He strikes the iron when it is hot and moulds the iron into desired shapes.
The carpenter i also an important member of the village community. He makes different things of wood like door, windows, chairs, tables and stools, etc. He makes the wooden ploughs and the wooden carts.