Noun

Noun Notes.

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There are some more kinds of noun ,they are as follows:

Common Noun :  Is a noun given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind. ( common here means shared by all).

Proper Noun : Is the noun of some particular person or place.( proper means ones's own. Hence a Proper Name is a person's own name).

Abstract Noun: Is usually the name of a quality, action, or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs; as.

Quality- goodness, kindness, darkness, honesty, wisdom, bravery , etc.

Action- laughter, theft, movement, judgement, hatred, etc.

State- Childhood , boyhood , youth, slavery, sickness, poverty, etc.

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Noun

1. If y(t) is a solution of  and y(0) = –1. Then y(1) is equal to           (2003, 1M)

a                  b                              c                               d                         

Punctuations

FULL STOP OR PERIOD  1. It represents the longest pause. It is used at the end of each assertive and imperative sentence. I write a letter. (assertive) Please, post this letter. (imperative) A full stop indicates that the idea expressed in the sentence is complete and does not go further. 2. To mark abbreviations and initials, as, (B.A., LL.B., M.P., M.A., M.B.B.S., Dr. R.P. Sharma, Mr. L.L. Chauhan) (a) It requires a comma after an abbreviation.

 

Prepositions

Prepositions

 

 

Prepositions are short words (on, in, to) that usually stand in front of nouns (sometimes also in front of gerund verbs).

 

Even advanced learners of English find prepositions difficult, as a 1:1 translation is usually not possible. One preposition in your native language might have several translations depending on the situation.

 

There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition. The only way to learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary, reading a lot in English (literature) and learning useful phrases off by heart (study tips).

 

The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English:

 

Prepositions – Time

English Usage Example

on

days of the week

on Monday

in

months / seasons

time of day

year

after a certain period of time (when?)

in August / in winter

in the morning

in 2006

in an hour

at

for night

for weekend

a certain point of time (when?)

at night

at the weekend

at half past nine

since

from a certain point of time (past till now)

since 1980

for

over a certain period of time (past till now)

for 2 years

ago

a certain time in the past

2 years ago

before

earlier than a certain point of time

before 2004

to

telling the time

ten to six (5:50)

past

telling the time

ten past six (6:10)

to / till / until

marking the beginning and end of a period of time

from Monday to/till Friday

till / until

in the sense of how long something is going to last

He is on holiday until Friday.

by

in the sense of at the latest

up to a certain time

I will be back by 6 o’clock.

By 11 o'clock, I had read five pages.

 

 

Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction)

English Usage Example

in

room, building, street, town, country

book, paper etc.

car, taxi

picture, world

in the kitchen, in London

in the book

in the car, in a taxi

in the picture, in the world

at

meaning next to, by an object

for table

for events

place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work)

at the door, at the station

at the table

at a concert, at the party

at the cinema, at school, at work

on

attached

for a place with a river

being on a surface

for a certain side (left, right)

for a floor in a house

for public transport

for television, radio

the picture on the wall

London lies on the Thames.

on the table

on the left

on the first floor

on the bus, on a plane

on TV, on the radio

by, next to, beside

left or right of somebody or something

Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.

under

on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else

the bag is under the table

below

lower than something else but above ground

the fish are below the surface

over

covered by something else

meaning more than

getting to the other side (also across)

overcoming an obstacle

put a jacket over your shirt

over 16 years of age

walk over the bridge

climb over the wall

above

higher than something else, but not directly over it

a path above the lake

across

getting to the other side (also over)

getting to the other side

walk across the bridge

swim across the lake

through

something with limits on top, bottom and the sides

drive through the tunnel

to

movement to person or building

movement to a place or country

for bed

go to the cinema

go to London / Ireland

go to bed

into

enter a room / a building

go into the kitchen / the house

towards

movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)

go 5 steps towards the house

onto

movement to the top of something

jump onto the table

from

in the sense of where from

a flower from the garden

Other important Prepositions

English Usage Example

from

who gave it

a present from Jane

of

who/what does it belong to

what does it show

a page of the book

the picture of a palace

by

who made it

a book by Mark Twain

on

walking or riding on horseback

entering a public transport vehicle

on foot, on horseback

get on the bus

in

entering a car / Taxi

get in the car

off

leaving a public transport vehicle

get off the train

out of

leaving a car / Taxi

get out of the taxi

by

rise or fall of something

travelling (other than walking or horseriding)

prices have risen by 10 percent

by car, by bus

at

for age

she learned Russian at 45

about

for topics, meaning what about

we were talking about you

Adverbs

What is an adverb?

An adverb is a word that modifies (describes) a verb (he sings loudly), an adjective (very tall), another adverb (ended too quickly), or even a whole sentence (Fortunately, I had brought an umbrella). Adverbs often end in -ly, but some (such as fast) look exactly the same as their adjective counterparts.

 

Tom Longboat did not run badly.

 

Tom is very tall.

The race finished too quickly.

Fortunately, Lucy recorded Tom’s win.

 

It’s easy to identify adverbs in these sentences.

Adjectives

Adjectives

Adjectives are words that describe nouns (or pronouns). "Old," "green," and "cheerful" are examples of adjectives. (It might be useful to think of adjectives as "describing words.")

This infographic shows where an adjective sits in relation to the noun it describes:
 

What are adjectives?

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Examples of Adjectives

Here are some examples of adjectives. (In each example, the adjective is highlighted.)

Adjective Before the Noun

An adjective usually comes directly before the noun it describes (or "modifies," as grammarians say).

  • old man
  • green coat
  • cheerful one
  • ("One" is a pronoun. Don't forget that adjectives modify pronouns too.)

When adjectives are used like this, they're called attributive adjectives.

Adjective After the Noun

An adjective can come after the noun.

  • Jack was old.
  • It looks green.
  • He seems cheerful.

In the three examples above, the adjectives follow linking verbs ("was," "looks," and "seems") to describe the noun or pronoun. (When adjectives are used like this, they're called predicative adjectives.)

Adjective Immediately After the Noun

Sometimes, an adjective comes immediately after a noun.

  • the Princess Royal
  • time immemorial
  • body beautiful
  • the best seats available
  • the worst manners imaginable

When adjectives are used like this, they're called postpositive adjectives. Postpositive adjectives are more common with pronouns.

  • someone interesting
  • those present
  • something evil

Pronoun

What is a pronoun?

pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase. Pronouns refer to either a noun that has already been mentioned or to a noun that does not need to be named specifically.

The most common pronouns are the personal pronouns, which refer to the person or people speaking or writing (first person), the person or people being spoken to (second person), or other people or things (third person). Like nouns, personal pronouns can function as either the subject of a verb or the object of a verb or preposition: "She likes him, but he loves her." Most of the personal pronouns have different subject and object forms:

pronoun table

There are a number of other types of pronouns. The interrogative pronouns—particularly whatwhichwhowhom, and whose—introduce questions for which a noun is the answer, as in "Which do you prefer?"

Possessive pronouns refer to things or people that belong to someone. The main possessive pronouns are mineyourshishersitsours, and theirs.

The four demonstrative pronounsthisthatthese, and those—distinguish the person or thing being referred to from other people or things; they are identical to the demonstrative adjectives.

Relative pronouns introduce a subordinate clause, a part of a sentence that includes a subject and verb but does not form a sentence by itself. The main relative pronouns are thatwhichwhowhomwhat, and whose.

Reflexive pronouns refer back to the subject of a sentence or clause and are formed by adding -self or -selves to a personal pronoun or possessive adjective, as in myselfherselfourselves, and itself.

Indefinite pronouns, such as everybodyeithernone, and something, do not refer to a specific person or thing, and typically refer to an unidentified or unfamiliar person or thing.

The words it and there can also be used like pronouns when the rules of grammar require a subject but no noun is actually being referred to. Both are usually used at the beginning of a sentence or clause, as in "It was almost noon" and "There is some cake left." These are sometimes referred to as expletives.