- Books Name
- ACME SMART COACHING Chemistry Book
- ACME SMART PUBLICATION
- CBSE Class 12
Very large deviations from ideality lead to a special class of mixtures known as azeotropes, azeotropic mixtures, or constant-boiling mixtures.
Azeotropes : Liquid mixtures which distill over without changes in composition are called constant boiling mixtures or Azeotropes or Azeotropic mixtures.
A boiling liquid mixture at the azeotropic composition produces a vapour of exactly the same composition, and the liquid does not change its composition as it evaporates. Two types of azeotropes are known.
Minimum Boiling Azeotropes : Non-ideal solutions showing large positive deviation from Raoult's law form minimum boiling azeotropes which boil at temperature lower than boiling point of its components 'A' and 'B', e.g., water and benzene, chloroform and methanol.
Maximum Boiling Azeotropes : Non-ideal solutions showing large negative deviation from Raoult's law form maximum boiling azeotropes which boil at temperature higher than the boiling point of its components A and B respectively, e.g., a mixture of HCl and H2O containing 20.2% HCl by weight boils at 108.5ºC higher than either pure HCI (– 85°C) or water (100°C).