Turkish rule in India: After Mohammad Ghori's death in 1206, Qutub ud din Aibak proclaimed himself as the ruler of the Turkish territories in India. He laid the foundation of the Slave dynasty and became the first Sultan of Delhi. This dynasty is also referred to as the Mumluk (slave) dynasty.
2. The Slave Dynasty:
Qutbuddin Aibak (1206 – 10): He strengthened his position by being generous to his subjects and by entering into marriage alliances. He initiated the construction of the Qutb Minar but was unable to complete it. He died in an accident in 1210 CE while playing chaugan ( a kind of polo).
Iltutmish (1210 – 1236): Qutbuddin ascended the throne in 1211. He recovered most of the territories that had broken away from the Sultana after Qutbuddin's death. He suppressed his rivals and secured his throne. By his diplomatic skills he saved himself and the kingdom from the Mongol invasion led by Genghis Khan. He completed the Qutub Minar and built his own tomb in red sandstone in Delhi.
Raziya (1236 – 40): Shortly after that Iltutmish’s death, his able daughter Raziya ascended the throne. The scholar Minhaj – us – Siraj acknowledged Raziya’s abilities as a ruler. But he also wrote that her abilities were useless, as raising a woman to the throne was against the customs. The Turkish nobles plotted against her and she was murdered in 1240.
Ghiyas – ud – din Balban (1266 – 1287): After several weak rulers, Ghiyas ud din a powerful noble, became Sultan. He continued Iltutmish’s policy of suppressing revolts and strengthen the sultanate’s hold over its territories.
Balban died in 1287. His grandson, the last ruler of the slave dynasty was murdered in 1290.