The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation.

The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

notes added by teacher Sudhanshu Sharma in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

No need to add notes on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor.

The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

notes added by teacher Sudhanshu Sharma in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

No need to add notes on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor.

The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

notes added by teacher Sudhanshu Sharma in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

No need to add notes on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor.

The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

notes added by teacher Sudhanshu Sharma in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

No need to add notes on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor.

The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

notes added by teacher Sudhanshu Sharma in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

No need to add notes on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor.

The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

notes added by teacher Sudhanshu Sharma in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

No need to add notes on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor.

The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

notes added by teacher Sudhanshu Sharma in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

No need to add notes on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor.

The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

notes added by teacher Sudhanshu Sharma in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

No need to add notes on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor.

The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

French Revolution: Frédéric Sorrieu, a French artist  has given a clear view of French Revolution and its ideology of Liberty ,Equality and Fraternity. America ,Switzerland ,France ,and other European Nations were in the era of Reform and Revolution from 1789,to 1830 to 1848. Germany was also strugglimg by that time for its state wise identity. Whatever is shown in the pic in the Chapter ,is what is being discussed in this Chapter. Nationalism came out as a pushing force in Europe in the 19th century. In general in all the nations new Middle class emerged as against the Aristrocrat Regime.It was not willing to accept the autocracy. So small identities and small Nation States made their existence felt all over europe.

French Revolution paved the way for other nations too to begin the fight against Monarchy and Dictatorial Regime and replacing it with Democratic rule.The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. First Estate-Preists,Second Estate-Nobility and Third Estate -Common People, all the three had their existence but Liberty equality and fraternity eradicated the priviledges of First and Second Estate to bring in equal terms to Third Estate.Finally General Assembly consisted of fully the members of Third Estate.

Liberal Nationalism:French Revolution activated Jacobians Clubs inother Nations too.Nationalism ,thus ,embeded in all over europe.All the nations optedfor liberal Democratic rule instead of Autocracy of the rulers. Voting rights were equally available for all citizens witout any discrimination of caste or creed.Universal Suffrage became the cheif feature of the NAtionalism in Europe.

From the economic point of view Liberalism became a symbol for free trade. Trade witout any restrictions gave liberal markets to the European Nations,too.Napolean's Confederation of 39 principalities with equal trade rules ,fares and currencies brought economic uniformities. In 1834, a customs union or zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states. This was helpful in political and economic unification of Nations like France, Germany and Italy.

A new Conservatism after 1815:  Defeat of Napolean gave impetus to conservative forces to bring back the autocracy of Monarchy and other priveledges to higher strata. But few changes they accepted  such as end of feudalism and abolition of disparities in economic fields, this might enhance the power of Monarchs in the contemporary Europe.

After defeating Napolean Britain ,Prussia ,Russia and Austria conducted Vienna Congress to maintain their hegemony in the International World and the balance of Power.Hence once again Conservative Regimes were formed after 1815.They were against the freedom and liberal ideas and were more autocratic.

The Revolutionaries:Many Revolutionaries went underground due to fear of repressive measures taken by Autocratic Government, but MAzzini and Garribaldi enrolled in secret Societies like Carbonaries. Young Italy was another such organisation of Revolutionaries. Following such examples secret societies were formed by Revolutionaries in Switzerland, Germany , Italy and Other nations.

The Age of Revolutions 1830-1848:  When Conservative Government were trying to expand ,liberal Revolutionaries tried to reestablish themselves in Germany ,Italy and France. Bourborn Dynasty in France was replaced by Louis Phillipe's Constitutional Monarchy, in France. Another important event was the Greek War of Independence, which changed the supremacy of Ottoman Empire.Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.It was largely appreciated by poets and writers in all over Europe.

Visualising tyhe Nation:

Romantic Imagination and National Feelings; Not  only wars but cultural activities also played a vital role in enhancing the feelings of Nationalism and reviving the art and culture of separate states.Humanitarian measures, emotions and feelings were aroused through cultural belongings.The German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people – das volk.Folk art, songs and music were patronised and promoted to save the identity of each culture of even small states. Language, specially Vernacular Languages played connecting role in the nations like Britain ,United States, Russia,

Hunger, Hardships and Powerful Revolts: 1830 ws the time of economic hardship for European nations. Unemployment was the major issue .Population growth was another disturbing factor.Rural folks started migrating from villages to towns, being tortured by feudal lords.1848 witnessed food shortage and unemployment due to increasing population. Louis Phillipes was replaced and National Assembly proclaimed a republic in France giving votinf right( suffrage) to all male adults above 21 years of age.

Silesia workers were also revolting against the contractors as the labour were forced to hand over raw material at a very low rate and finished goods were also at very low price to contractors refraining the profit of the workers

.1848:The Revolution of the Liberals :  Gradually the revolts began by educated middleclass workers and peasants against the atrocities of ruling class. In France Monarch was replaced by a Republican Government, selected by the educated Middle Class, later followed by other european Nations, too.In Germany Italy the process of unification began.Extending rights to women was also considered by middle class as a prime factor to select any ruling party for support.Though Autocratic government tried to suppress this revolutionariey tendencies.

The Making of Germany and Italy:  German Architect wanted to maintain the unity  of Germany with democratic national sentiments and similarly other nations also did the same.Unification of Germany and Italy  was the result of revolutionary ideologies and this was the result of extreme Nationalism.Mazzini, Cavour  and Garibaldi profused the feelings of patriotism.

The Strange Case of Britain : In Britain Religion was the major line of division between catholic and Protestant states ,so the unification of all catholic and all Protestant states  merged as a Nationalistic approach in Britain.

Visualising The Nation: A new ideology of representing  nation in a female figures came into being after Revolutions,Statue of Liberty and female allegories for nations became the fashion of the day.Marianne, a popular Christian name, given to France is a fine example of this.Similarly, Germania became the allegory of the German nation.

Nationalism and Imperialism:  Disintegration of Balcan gave another new wave of Imperialism as broken states were the bone of contention for several nations and they wanted to take away the previous share of Ottoman Empire on the name of race, creed or religion and wanted to increase their boundaries.All the powerful nations were keeping an eagle eye on disintegrated parts of Ottoman Empire. As a result different states like Slovenia,Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina,Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs.But all this came under Ottoman Empire,This Created tension in this area.As all these states were trying to make themselves free, they came in conflict.Gradually Common interest of the big nations favoured imperialism and this ultimately led to First World War in 1914.Thus the different ideologies of ationalism ultimately fired the winds of World War in return.Later on Societies understood the real meaning of Nationalism and worked together for mutual peace and Nationalism.

Factors Leading to Growth of Nationalism in Indo-China

Notes added by teacher Pulkit

Factors Leading to Growth of Nationalism in Indo-China

Notes added by teacher Pulkit

Factors Leading to Growth of Nationalism in Indo-China

Notes added by teacher Pulkit

Factors Leading to Growth of Nationalism in Indo-China

Notes added by teacher Pulkit

Factors Leading to Growth of Nationalism in Indo-China

Notes added by teacher Pulkit

Factors Leading to Growth of Nationalism in Indo-China

Notes added by teacher Pulkit

Factors Leading to Growth of Nationalism in Indo-China

Notes added by teacher Pulkit

Factors Leading to Growth of Nationalism in Indo-China

Notes added by teacher Pulkit

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

 

the first world war, khilafat and non-cooperation
    Growth of Nationalism
    In India, the growth of  modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anticolonial movement.
    People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
    The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.
    But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently, their experience were varied.
    The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement, But the unity did not emerge without conflict.
    
    Contribution of 1st World War towards Nationalism
    The war created a new economic and political situation. It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax introduced.
    Through the war years prices increased – doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
    Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
    Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food.
    This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic. People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen.

    The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

    The Rowlatt Act
    Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act. 1919.
    This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
    It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
    On 13 April the famous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place. On that day a crowd of villagers had come to Amritsar to attend a fair gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh.
    Being from outside the city, they were unaware of the martial law that had beed imposed. 
General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. 
    His object, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
    As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.
    The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people; satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do sallam (salute) to all sahibs.
    People were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

Khilafat Movement
    Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue.
    The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor- the spiritual head of the Islamic world (Khalifa or Caliph).
    To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
    The brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Hindus and Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
    At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced leaders of the congress  about the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj.

    Why Non-cooperation ?
    In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would be achieved.
    Gandihiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages. 
    It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
    Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Illustration 1
    How Non-Cooperation movement was to unfold?
Solution
    Movement was to be unfold in stages beginning with surrender of titles awarded by Government.
Illustration 2
    Who planned the Non-cooperation movement.
Solution
    Muhammad Ali, Shankat Ali and Mahatma Ghandhi
Illustration 3
    How did different social groups conceive the idea of Non Cooperation.
Solution
    Both Hindus and Muslims were suffering from common problems related to British Government moreover Hindus co-opreted in Khilafat movement of Muslims so both these social groups conceive the idea of Non-cooperation.

    Try yourself
1.    How did modern nationalism grow in India?
2.    What was the oppressive plantation system at Champaran?
3.    Why Rowlatt Act was opposed?

Differing Strands within the Movement :
    Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. 
    The Movement in the Towns
    The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
    Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth were burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to 
Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
    But this movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons. 
    (i)    Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
    (ii)    For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. These were slow to come up. So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back the work in government courts.

    Rebellion in the Countryside : Peasants & Tribal Peasants
    In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra – a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer. The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payment.
    The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords. In many places nai–dhobi bandhs were organised by panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of even barbers and washermen.
    Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others. Within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the village around the region. So when the Non-Cooperation Movement began the following year, the effort of the Congress was to integrate the Awadh peasant struggle into the wider struggle.

    Tribal Peasants
    In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s. Here, the colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits. This enraged the hill people.
    When the government began forceing them to contribute begar for road building, the hill people revolted. Alluri Sitaram Raju claimed that he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, and he could survive even bullet shots. Captivated by Raju, the rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God.
    He persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence. The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.

    Swaraj in the Plantations: Plantation worker in Assam
    Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission.
    When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
    They however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
    The visions of these movements were not defined by the Congress programme. They interpreted the term swaraj in their own ways. Yet, when the tribals chanted Gandhiji’s name and raised slogans demanding ‘Swatantra Bharat’, they were also emotionally relating to an all India agitation.

Illustration 4
    Why is the role of middle class considered essential for the success of revolution?
Solution
    Role of middle class is essential for the success of revolution or movement because
    (a)    They consist of the largest number of population.
    (b)    They have inellectuals in their class.
    (c)    They are close to both upper and the lower classes
    (d)    Their members are present at all the levels of the government as government servants.

Illustration 5
    Why Khadi was introduced?
Solution
    Aim of introducing Khadi was to popularise India cloths as a symbolic of Swadeshi and to support the growth of Indian textile industry.

Illustration 6
    Which rebels attacked police stations and killed British officials through guerrilla warfare for Swaraj?
Solution
    Gudem rebels of Andhra Pradesh

    Try yourself
4.    Why Non-cooperation movement gradually slowed down?
5.    Who was Baba Ramchandra?
6.    What were the demands of peasant movements of Awadh?

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

 

the first world war, khilafat and non-cooperation
    Growth of Nationalism
    In India, the growth of  modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anticolonial movement.
    People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
    The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.
    But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently, their experience were varied.
    The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement, But the unity did not emerge without conflict.
    
    Contribution of 1st World War towards Nationalism
    The war created a new economic and political situation. It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax introduced.
    Through the war years prices increased – doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
    Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
    Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food.
    This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic. People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen.

    The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

    The Rowlatt Act
    Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act. 1919.
    This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
    It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
    On 13 April the famous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place. On that day a crowd of villagers had come to Amritsar to attend a fair gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh.
    Being from outside the city, they were unaware of the martial law that had beed imposed. 
General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. 
    His object, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
    As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.
    The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people; satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do sallam (salute) to all sahibs.
    People were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

Khilafat Movement
    Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue.
    The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor- the spiritual head of the Islamic world (Khalifa or Caliph).
    To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
    The brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Hindus and Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
    At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced leaders of the congress  about the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj.

    Why Non-cooperation ?
    In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would be achieved.
    Gandihiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages. 
    It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
    Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Illustration 1
    How Non-Cooperation movement was to unfold?
Solution
    Movement was to be unfold in stages beginning with surrender of titles awarded by Government.
Illustration 2
    Who planned the Non-cooperation movement.
Solution
    Muhammad Ali, Shankat Ali and Mahatma Ghandhi
Illustration 3
    How did different social groups conceive the idea of Non Cooperation.
Solution
    Both Hindus and Muslims were suffering from common problems related to British Government moreover Hindus co-opreted in Khilafat movement of Muslims so both these social groups conceive the idea of Non-cooperation.

    Try yourself
1.    How did modern nationalism grow in India?
2.    What was the oppressive plantation system at Champaran?
3.    Why Rowlatt Act was opposed?

Differing Strands within the Movement :
    Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. 
    The Movement in the Towns
    The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
    Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth were burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to 
Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
    But this movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons. 
    (i)    Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
    (ii)    For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. These were slow to come up. So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back the work in government courts.

    Rebellion in the Countryside : Peasants & Tribal Peasants
    In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra – a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer. The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payment.
    The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords. In many places nai–dhobi bandhs were organised by panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of even barbers and washermen.
    Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others. Within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the village around the region. So when the Non-Cooperation Movement began the following year, the effort of the Congress was to integrate the Awadh peasant struggle into the wider struggle.

    Tribal Peasants
    In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s. Here, the colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits. This enraged the hill people.
    When the government began forceing them to contribute begar for road building, the hill people revolted. Alluri Sitaram Raju claimed that he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, and he could survive even bullet shots. Captivated by Raju, the rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God.
    He persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence. The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.

    Swaraj in the Plantations: Plantation worker in Assam
    Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission.
    When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
    They however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
    The visions of these movements were not defined by the Congress programme. They interpreted the term swaraj in their own ways. Yet, when the tribals chanted Gandhiji’s name and raised slogans demanding ‘Swatantra Bharat’, they were also emotionally relating to an all India agitation.

Illustration 4
    Why is the role of middle class considered essential for the success of revolution?
Solution
    Role of middle class is essential for the success of revolution or movement because
    (a)    They consist of the largest number of population.
    (b)    They have inellectuals in their class.
    (c)    They are close to both upper and the lower classes
    (d)    Their members are present at all the levels of the government as government servants.

Illustration 5
    Why Khadi was introduced?
Solution
    Aim of introducing Khadi was to popularise India cloths as a symbolic of Swadeshi and to support the growth of Indian textile industry.

Illustration 6
    Which rebels attacked police stations and killed British officials through guerrilla warfare for Swaraj?
Solution
    Gudem rebels of Andhra Pradesh

    Try yourself
4.    Why Non-cooperation movement gradually slowed down?
5.    Who was Baba Ramchandra?
6.    What were the demands of peasant movements of Awadh?

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

 

the first world war, khilafat and non-cooperation
    Growth of Nationalism
    In India, the growth of  modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anticolonial movement.
    People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
    The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.
    But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently, their experience were varied.
    The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement, But the unity did not emerge without conflict.
    
    Contribution of 1st World War towards Nationalism
    The war created a new economic and political situation. It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax introduced.
    Through the war years prices increased – doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
    Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
    Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food.
    This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic. People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen.

    The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

    The Rowlatt Act
    Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act. 1919.
    This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
    It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
    On 13 April the famous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place. On that day a crowd of villagers had come to Amritsar to attend a fair gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh.
    Being from outside the city, they were unaware of the martial law that had beed imposed. 
General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. 
    His object, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
    As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.
    The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people; satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do sallam (salute) to all sahibs.
    People were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

Khilafat Movement
    Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue.
    The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor- the spiritual head of the Islamic world (Khalifa or Caliph).
    To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
    The brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Hindus and Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
    At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced leaders of the congress  about the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj.

    Why Non-cooperation ?
    In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would be achieved.
    Gandihiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages. 
    It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
    Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Illustration 1
    How Non-Cooperation movement was to unfold?
Solution
    Movement was to be unfold in stages beginning with surrender of titles awarded by Government.
Illustration 2
    Who planned the Non-cooperation movement.
Solution
    Muhammad Ali, Shankat Ali and Mahatma Ghandhi
Illustration 3
    How did different social groups conceive the idea of Non Cooperation.
Solution
    Both Hindus and Muslims were suffering from common problems related to British Government moreover Hindus co-opreted in Khilafat movement of Muslims so both these social groups conceive the idea of Non-cooperation.

    Try yourself
1.    How did modern nationalism grow in India?
2.    What was the oppressive plantation system at Champaran?
3.    Why Rowlatt Act was opposed?

Differing Strands within the Movement :
    Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. 
    The Movement in the Towns
    The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
    Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth were burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to 
Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
    But this movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons. 
    (i)    Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
    (ii)    For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. These were slow to come up. So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back the work in government courts.

    Rebellion in the Countryside : Peasants & Tribal Peasants
    In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra – a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer. The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payment.
    The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords. In many places nai–dhobi bandhs were organised by panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of even barbers and washermen.
    Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others. Within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the village around the region. So when the Non-Cooperation Movement began the following year, the effort of the Congress was to integrate the Awadh peasant struggle into the wider struggle.

    Tribal Peasants
    In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s. Here, the colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits. This enraged the hill people.
    When the government began forceing them to contribute begar for road building, the hill people revolted. Alluri Sitaram Raju claimed that he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, and he could survive even bullet shots. Captivated by Raju, the rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God.
    He persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence. The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.

    Swaraj in the Plantations: Plantation worker in Assam
    Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission.
    When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
    They however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
    The visions of these movements were not defined by the Congress programme. They interpreted the term swaraj in their own ways. Yet, when the tribals chanted Gandhiji’s name and raised slogans demanding ‘Swatantra Bharat’, they were also emotionally relating to an all India agitation.

Illustration 4
    Why is the role of middle class considered essential for the success of revolution?
Solution
    Role of middle class is essential for the success of revolution or movement because
    (a)    They consist of the largest number of population.
    (b)    They have inellectuals in their class.
    (c)    They are close to both upper and the lower classes
    (d)    Their members are present at all the levels of the government as government servants.

Illustration 5
    Why Khadi was introduced?
Solution
    Aim of introducing Khadi was to popularise India cloths as a symbolic of Swadeshi and to support the growth of Indian textile industry.

Illustration 6
    Which rebels attacked police stations and killed British officials through guerrilla warfare for Swaraj?
Solution
    Gudem rebels of Andhra Pradesh

    Try yourself
4.    Why Non-cooperation movement gradually slowed down?
5.    Who was Baba Ramchandra?
6.    What were the demands of peasant movements of Awadh?

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

 

the first world war, khilafat and non-cooperation
    Growth of Nationalism
    In India, the growth of  modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anticolonial movement.
    People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
    The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.
    But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently, their experience were varied.
    The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement, But the unity did not emerge without conflict.
    
    Contribution of 1st World War towards Nationalism
    The war created a new economic and political situation. It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax introduced.
    Through the war years prices increased – doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
    Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
    Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food.
    This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic. People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen.

    The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

    The Rowlatt Act
    Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act. 1919.
    This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
    It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
    On 13 April the famous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place. On that day a crowd of villagers had come to Amritsar to attend a fair gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh.
    Being from outside the city, they were unaware of the martial law that had beed imposed. 
General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. 
    His object, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
    As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.
    The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people; satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do sallam (salute) to all sahibs.
    People were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

Khilafat Movement
    Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue.
    The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor- the spiritual head of the Islamic world (Khalifa or Caliph).
    To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
    The brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Hindus and Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
    At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced leaders of the congress  about the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj.

    Why Non-cooperation ?
    In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would be achieved.
    Gandihiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages. 
    It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
    Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Illustration 1
    How Non-Cooperation movement was to unfold?
Solution
    Movement was to be unfold in stages beginning with surrender of titles awarded by Government.
Illustration 2
    Who planned the Non-cooperation movement.
Solution
    Muhammad Ali, Shankat Ali and Mahatma Ghandhi
Illustration 3
    How did different social groups conceive the idea of Non Cooperation.
Solution
    Both Hindus and Muslims were suffering from common problems related to British Government moreover Hindus co-opreted in Khilafat movement of Muslims so both these social groups conceive the idea of Non-cooperation.

    Try yourself
1.    How did modern nationalism grow in India?
2.    What was the oppressive plantation system at Champaran?
3.    Why Rowlatt Act was opposed?

Differing Strands within the Movement :
    Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. 
    The Movement in the Towns
    The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
    Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth were burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to 
Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
    But this movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons. 
    (i)    Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
    (ii)    For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. These were slow to come up. So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back the work in government courts.

    Rebellion in the Countryside : Peasants & Tribal Peasants
    In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra – a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer. The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payment.
    The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords. In many places nai–dhobi bandhs were organised by panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of even barbers and washermen.
    Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others. Within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the village around the region. So when the Non-Cooperation Movement began the following year, the effort of the Congress was to integrate the Awadh peasant struggle into the wider struggle.

    Tribal Peasants
    In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s. Here, the colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits. This enraged the hill people.
    When the government began forceing them to contribute begar for road building, the hill people revolted. Alluri Sitaram Raju claimed that he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, and he could survive even bullet shots. Captivated by Raju, the rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God.
    He persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence. The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.

    Swaraj in the Plantations: Plantation worker in Assam
    Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission.
    When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
    They however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
    The visions of these movements were not defined by the Congress programme. They interpreted the term swaraj in their own ways. Yet, when the tribals chanted Gandhiji’s name and raised slogans demanding ‘Swatantra Bharat’, they were also emotionally relating to an all India agitation.

Illustration 4
    Why is the role of middle class considered essential for the success of revolution?
Solution
    Role of middle class is essential for the success of revolution or movement because
    (a)    They consist of the largest number of population.
    (b)    They have inellectuals in their class.
    (c)    They are close to both upper and the lower classes
    (d)    Their members are present at all the levels of the government as government servants.

Illustration 5
    Why Khadi was introduced?
Solution
    Aim of introducing Khadi was to popularise India cloths as a symbolic of Swadeshi and to support the growth of Indian textile industry.

Illustration 6
    Which rebels attacked police stations and killed British officials through guerrilla warfare for Swaraj?
Solution
    Gudem rebels of Andhra Pradesh

    Try yourself
4.    Why Non-cooperation movement gradually slowed down?
5.    Who was Baba Ramchandra?
6.    What were the demands of peasant movements of Awadh?

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

 

the first world war, khilafat and non-cooperation
    Growth of Nationalism
    In India, the growth of  modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anticolonial movement.
    People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
    The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.
    But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently, their experience were varied.
    The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement, But the unity did not emerge without conflict.
    
    Contribution of 1st World War towards Nationalism
    The war created a new economic and political situation. It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax introduced.
    Through the war years prices increased – doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
    Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
    Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food.
    This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic. People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen.

    The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

    The Rowlatt Act
    Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act. 1919.
    This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
    It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
    On 13 April the famous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place. On that day a crowd of villagers had come to Amritsar to attend a fair gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh.
    Being from outside the city, they were unaware of the martial law that had beed imposed. 
General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. 
    His object, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
    As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.
    The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people; satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do sallam (salute) to all sahibs.
    People were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

Khilafat Movement
    Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue.
    The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor- the spiritual head of the Islamic world (Khalifa or Caliph).
    To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
    The brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Hindus and Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
    At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced leaders of the congress  about the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj.

    Why Non-cooperation ?
    In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would be achieved.
    Gandihiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages. 
    It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
    Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Illustration 1
    How Non-Cooperation movement was to unfold?
Solution
    Movement was to be unfold in stages beginning with surrender of titles awarded by Government.
Illustration 2
    Who planned the Non-cooperation movement.
Solution
    Muhammad Ali, Shankat Ali and Mahatma Ghandhi
Illustration 3
    How did different social groups conceive the idea of Non Cooperation.
Solution
    Both Hindus and Muslims were suffering from common problems related to British Government moreover Hindus co-opreted in Khilafat movement of Muslims so both these social groups conceive the idea of Non-cooperation.

    Try yourself
1.    How did modern nationalism grow in India?
2.    What was the oppressive plantation system at Champaran?
3.    Why Rowlatt Act was opposed?

Differing Strands within the Movement :
    Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. 
    The Movement in the Towns
    The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
    Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth were burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to 
Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
    But this movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons. 
    (i)    Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
    (ii)    For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. These were slow to come up. So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back the work in government courts.

    Rebellion in the Countryside : Peasants & Tribal Peasants
    In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra – a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer. The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payment.
    The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords. In many places nai–dhobi bandhs were organised by panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of even barbers and washermen.
    Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others. Within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the village around the region. So when the Non-Cooperation Movement began the following year, the effort of the Congress was to integrate the Awadh peasant struggle into the wider struggle.

    Tribal Peasants
    In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s. Here, the colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits. This enraged the hill people.
    When the government began forceing them to contribute begar for road building, the hill people revolted. Alluri Sitaram Raju claimed that he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, and he could survive even bullet shots. Captivated by Raju, the rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God.
    He persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence. The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.

    Swaraj in the Plantations: Plantation worker in Assam
    Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission.
    When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
    They however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
    The visions of these movements were not defined by the Congress programme. They interpreted the term swaraj in their own ways. Yet, when the tribals chanted Gandhiji’s name and raised slogans demanding ‘Swatantra Bharat’, they were also emotionally relating to an all India agitation.

Illustration 4
    Why is the role of middle class considered essential for the success of revolution?
Solution
    Role of middle class is essential for the success of revolution or movement because
    (a)    They consist of the largest number of population.
    (b)    They have inellectuals in their class.
    (c)    They are close to both upper and the lower classes
    (d)    Their members are present at all the levels of the government as government servants.

Illustration 5
    Why Khadi was introduced?
Solution
    Aim of introducing Khadi was to popularise India cloths as a symbolic of Swadeshi and to support the growth of Indian textile industry.

Illustration 6
    Which rebels attacked police stations and killed British officials through guerrilla warfare for Swaraj?
Solution
    Gudem rebels of Andhra Pradesh

    Try yourself
4.    Why Non-cooperation movement gradually slowed down?
5.    Who was Baba Ramchandra?
6.    What were the demands of peasant movements of Awadh?

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

 

the first world war, khilafat and non-cooperation
    Growth of Nationalism
    In India, the growth of  modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anticolonial movement.
    People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
    The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.
    But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently, their experience were varied.
    The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement, But the unity did not emerge without conflict.
    
    Contribution of 1st World War towards Nationalism
    The war created a new economic and political situation. It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax introduced.
    Through the war years prices increased – doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
    Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
    Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food.
    This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic. People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen.

    The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

    The Rowlatt Act
    Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act. 1919.
    This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
    It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
    On 13 April the famous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place. On that day a crowd of villagers had come to Amritsar to attend a fair gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh.
    Being from outside the city, they were unaware of the martial law that had beed imposed. 
General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. 
    His object, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
    As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.
    The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people; satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do sallam (salute) to all sahibs.
    People were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

Khilafat Movement
    Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue.
    The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor- the spiritual head of the Islamic world (Khalifa or Caliph).
    To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
    The brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Hindus and Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
    At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced leaders of the congress  about the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj.

    Why Non-cooperation ?
    In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would be achieved.
    Gandihiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages. 
    It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
    Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Illustration 1
    How Non-Cooperation movement was to unfold?
Solution
    Movement was to be unfold in stages beginning with surrender of titles awarded by Government.
Illustration 2
    Who planned the Non-cooperation movement.
Solution
    Muhammad Ali, Shankat Ali and Mahatma Ghandhi
Illustration 3
    How did different social groups conceive the idea of Non Cooperation.
Solution
    Both Hindus and Muslims were suffering from common problems related to British Government moreover Hindus co-opreted in Khilafat movement of Muslims so both these social groups conceive the idea of Non-cooperation.

    Try yourself
1.    How did modern nationalism grow in India?
2.    What was the oppressive plantation system at Champaran?
3.    Why Rowlatt Act was opposed?

Differing Strands within the Movement :
    Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. 
    The Movement in the Towns
    The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
    Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth were burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to 
Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
    But this movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons. 
    (i)    Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
    (ii)    For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. These were slow to come up. So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back the work in government courts.

    Rebellion in the Countryside : Peasants & Tribal Peasants
    In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra – a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer. The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payment.
    The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords. In many places nai–dhobi bandhs were organised by panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of even barbers and washermen.
    Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others. Within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the village around the region. So when the Non-Cooperation Movement began the following year, the effort of the Congress was to integrate the Awadh peasant struggle into the wider struggle.

    Tribal Peasants
    In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s. Here, the colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits. This enraged the hill people.
    When the government began forceing them to contribute begar for road building, the hill people revolted. Alluri Sitaram Raju claimed that he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, and he could survive even bullet shots. Captivated by Raju, the rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God.
    He persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence. The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.

    Swaraj in the Plantations: Plantation worker in Assam
    Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission.
    When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
    They however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
    The visions of these movements were not defined by the Congress programme. They interpreted the term swaraj in their own ways. Yet, when the tribals chanted Gandhiji’s name and raised slogans demanding ‘Swatantra Bharat’, they were also emotionally relating to an all India agitation.

Illustration 4
    Why is the role of middle class considered essential for the success of revolution?
Solution
    Role of middle class is essential for the success of revolution or movement because
    (a)    They consist of the largest number of population.
    (b)    They have inellectuals in their class.
    (c)    They are close to both upper and the lower classes
    (d)    Their members are present at all the levels of the government as government servants.

Illustration 5
    Why Khadi was introduced?
Solution
    Aim of introducing Khadi was to popularise India cloths as a symbolic of Swadeshi and to support the growth of Indian textile industry.

Illustration 6
    Which rebels attacked police stations and killed British officials through guerrilla warfare for Swaraj?
Solution
    Gudem rebels of Andhra Pradesh

    Try yourself
4.    Why Non-cooperation movement gradually slowed down?
5.    Who was Baba Ramchandra?
6.    What were the demands of peasant movements of Awadh?

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

Impact of First world war, Khilafat, NonCooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement.

 

the first world war, khilafat and non-cooperation
    Growth of Nationalism
    In India, the growth of  modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anticolonial movement.
    People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
    The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.
    But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently, their experience were varied.
    The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement, But the unity did not emerge without conflict.
    
    Contribution of 1st World War towards Nationalism
    The war created a new economic and political situation. It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax introduced.
    Through the war years prices increased – doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
    Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
    Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food.
    This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic. People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen.

    The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

    The Rowlatt Act
    Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act. 1919.
    This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
    It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
    On 13 April the famous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place. On that day a crowd of villagers had come to Amritsar to attend a fair gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh.
    Being from outside the city, they were unaware of the martial law that had beed imposed. 
General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. 
    His object, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
    As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.
    The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people; satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do sallam (salute) to all sahibs.
    People were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

Khilafat Movement
    Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue.
    The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor- the spiritual head of the Islamic world (Khalifa or Caliph).
    To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
    The brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Hindus and Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
    At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced leaders of the congress  about the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj.

    Why Non-cooperation ?
    In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would be achieved.
    Gandihiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages. 
    It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
    Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Illustration 1
    How Non-Cooperation movement was to unfold?
Solution
    Movement was to be unfold in stages beginning with surrender of titles awarded by Government.
Illustration 2
    Who planned the Non-cooperation movement.
Solution
    Muhammad Ali, Shankat Ali and Mahatma Ghandhi
Illustration 3
    How did different social groups conceive the idea of Non Cooperation.
Solution
    Both Hindus and Muslims were suffering from common problems related to British Government moreover Hindus co-opreted in Khilafat movement of Muslims so both these social groups conceive the idea of Non-cooperation.

    Try yourself
1.    How did modern nationalism grow in India?
2.    What was the oppressive plantation system at Champaran?
3.    Why Rowlatt Act was opposed?

Differing Strands within the Movement :
    Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. 
    The Movement in the Towns
    The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
    Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth were burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to 
Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
    But this movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons. 
    (i)    Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
    (ii)    For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. These were slow to come up. So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back the work in government courts.

    Rebellion in the Countryside : Peasants & Tribal Peasants
    In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra – a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer. The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payment.
    The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords. In many places nai–dhobi bandhs were organised by panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of even barbers and washermen.
    Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others. Within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the village around the region. So when the Non-Cooperation Movement began the following year, the effort of the Congress was to integrate the Awadh peasant struggle into the wider struggle.

    Tribal Peasants
    In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s. Here, the colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits. This enraged the hill people.
    When the government began forceing them to contribute begar for road building, the hill people revolted. Alluri Sitaram Raju claimed that he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, and he could survive even bullet shots. Captivated by Raju, the rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God.
    He persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence. The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.

    Swaraj in the Plantations: Plantation worker in Assam
    Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission.
    When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
    They however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
    The visions of these movements were not defined by the Congress programme. They interpreted the term swaraj in their own ways. Yet, when the tribals chanted Gandhiji’s name and raised slogans demanding ‘Swatantra Bharat’, they were also emotionally relating to an all India agitation.

Illustration 4
    Why is the role of middle class considered essential for the success of revolution?
Solution
    Role of middle class is essential for the success of revolution or movement because
    (a)    They consist of the largest number of population.
    (b)    They have inellectuals in their class.
    (c)    They are close to both upper and the lower classes
    (d)    Their members are present at all the levels of the government as government servants.

Illustration 5
    Why Khadi was introduced?
Solution
    Aim of introducing Khadi was to popularise India cloths as a symbolic of Swadeshi and to support the growth of Indian textile industry.

Illustration 6
    Which rebels attacked police stations and killed British officials through guerrilla warfare for Swaraj?
Solution
    Gudem rebels of Andhra Pradesh

    Try yourself
4.    Why Non-cooperation movement gradually slowed down?
5.    Who was Baba Ramchandra?
6.    What were the demands of peasant movements of Awadh?

The Pre-modern world

INTRODUCTION 
Globalisation is a phenomenon of developing international relations has emerged since the last 50 years or so. Although the process has started much earlier. This topic deals with the various events of the history which have led to the development of Globalisation. This topic deals with various routes, products and events which have led to the formation of the Global world in the ancient history in ninteenth century. The interwar economy and the post-war era has shown that how it has progressed before the industrial revolution, during the industrial revolution, the industrialisation in the colonies, the events at the time of decolonisation and the begining of independence. 

Important Terms
Flow-Learning

Words that Matter
Silk Route : The route taken by traders to carry silk cargos from China to the West.
Dissenter : One who refuses to accept established beliefs and practices.
Indentured labour : A bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his-passage to a new country or home.
Tariff : Tax imposed on a country’s imports from the rest of the world. Tariffs are levied at the point of entry, i.e. at the border or at the airport.
Fixed exchange rates : When exchange rates are fixed and the governments intervene to prevent movements in them.
Floating exchange rate : These rates fluctuate depending on demand and supply of currencies in foreign exchange markets, in principle without interference by governments.
Coolies: Indian indentured labourers were referred to as coolies in the Caribbean islands.

PRE-MODERN WORLD
The pre-modern World
The making of the global world has a long history - of trade,  of migration, of people in search of work, the movement of capital, and much more.
 From ancient times, travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfilment, or to escape persecution. They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions, and even germs and diseases. As early as 3000 BC an active coastal trade linked the Indus valley civilisations with present-day West Asia. For more than a millenniam, comes (the Hindi cowdi or seashells, used as a form of currency) from the Maldives found their way to China and East Africa.

Silk routes link the World
The name silk routes points to the importance of West-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route. Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and by sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia, and linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa. They are known to have existed since before the Christian Era and thrieved almost till the fifteenth century.

Food Travel: Spaghetti and Potato
It is believed that noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti. Or, perhaps Arab traders took pasta in fifth-century to Sicily, an island now in Italy.
Similar foods were also known in India and Japan.    Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes, and so on were not known to our ancestors until about five centuries ago.
These foods were only introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the vast continent. 
Sometimes the new crops could make the difference between life and death. The European poor began to eat better and live longer with the introduction of the humble potato. Ireland’s poorest peasants became so dependent on potatoes that when disease destroyed the potato crops in the mid-1840s, hundreds of thousands died of starvation.

Conquest, Disease and Trade
Before its ‘discovery’, America had been cut off from regular contact with the rest of the world for millions of years. But from the sixteenth century, its vast lands and abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.
Precious metals, particularly silver, from mines located in present-day Peru and Mexico also enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia.    
Tranfer of Disease helped in colonisalion of America.
The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person.
    1.    Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. 
    2.    Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer. Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any Europeans reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.

Europe in 19th Century
    1.    Until the nineteenth century, poverty and hunger were common in Europe. 
    2.    Cities were crowded and deadly diseases were widespread. 
    3.    Religious conflicts were common, and religious dissenters were persecuted. 
    4.    Thousands therefore fled Europe for America. Here, by the eighteenth century, plantations worked by slaves captured in Africa were growing cotton and sugar for European markets.
However, from the fifteenth century, China is said to have restricted overseas contacts and retreated into isolation. China’s reduced role and the rising importance of the Americas gradually moved the centre of world trade westwards. Europe now emerged as the centre of world trade.

Illustration 1
    Which factors have contributed towards the making of the global world?
Solution
    (i) Trade                (ii) Migration
    (iii) People in search of jobs        (iv) movement of capital etc.

Illustration 2
    What things travellers carried with them when they moved in search of knowledge, opportunities, spritual fulfillment or to escape perscecution?
Solution
    They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions and even germs and diseases.

Illustration 3
    Which routes were linked by silk route?
Solution
    Silk routes connected Asia with Europe and north Africa.

Illustration 4
    Which commodities were traded through silk routes?
Solution
    Chinese pottery, textiles and spices from India and in return gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.

The Pre-modern world

INTRODUCTION 
Globalisation is a phenomenon of developing international relations has emerged since the last 50 years or so. Although the process has started much earlier. This topic deals with the various events of the history which have led to the development of Globalisation. This topic deals with various routes, products and events which have led to the formation of the Global world in the ancient history in ninteenth century. The interwar economy and the post-war era has shown that how it has progressed before the industrial revolution, during the industrial revolution, the industrialisation in the colonies, the events at the time of decolonisation and the begining of independence. 

Important Terms
Flow-Learning

Words that Matter
Silk Route : The route taken by traders to carry silk cargos from China to the West.
Dissenter : One who refuses to accept established beliefs and practices.
Indentured labour : A bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his-passage to a new country or home.
Tariff : Tax imposed on a country’s imports from the rest of the world. Tariffs are levied at the point of entry, i.e. at the border or at the airport.
Fixed exchange rates : When exchange rates are fixed and the governments intervene to prevent movements in them.
Floating exchange rate : These rates fluctuate depending on demand and supply of currencies in foreign exchange markets, in principle without interference by governments.
Coolies: Indian indentured labourers were referred to as coolies in the Caribbean islands.

PRE-MODERN WORLD
The pre-modern World
The making of the global world has a long history - of trade,  of migration, of people in search of work, the movement of capital, and much more.
 From ancient times, travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfilment, or to escape persecution. They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions, and even germs and diseases. As early as 3000 BC an active coastal trade linked the Indus valley civilisations with present-day West Asia. For more than a millenniam, comes (the Hindi cowdi or seashells, used as a form of currency) from the Maldives found their way to China and East Africa.

Silk routes link the World
The name silk routes points to the importance of West-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route. Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and by sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia, and linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa. They are known to have existed since before the Christian Era and thrieved almost till the fifteenth century.

Food Travel: Spaghetti and Potato
It is believed that noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti. Or, perhaps Arab traders took pasta in fifth-century to Sicily, an island now in Italy.
Similar foods were also known in India and Japan.    Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes, and so on were not known to our ancestors until about five centuries ago.
These foods were only introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the vast continent. 
Sometimes the new crops could make the difference between life and death. The European poor began to eat better and live longer with the introduction of the humble potato. Ireland’s poorest peasants became so dependent on potatoes that when disease destroyed the potato crops in the mid-1840s, hundreds of thousands died of starvation.

Conquest, Disease and Trade
Before its ‘discovery’, America had been cut off from regular contact with the rest of the world for millions of years. But from the sixteenth century, its vast lands and abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.
Precious metals, particularly silver, from mines located in present-day Peru and Mexico also enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia.    
Tranfer of Disease helped in colonisalion of America.
The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person.
    1.    Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. 
    2.    Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer. Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any Europeans reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.

Europe in 19th Century
    1.    Until the nineteenth century, poverty and hunger were common in Europe. 
    2.    Cities were crowded and deadly diseases were widespread. 
    3.    Religious conflicts were common, and religious dissenters were persecuted. 
    4.    Thousands therefore fled Europe for America. Here, by the eighteenth century, plantations worked by slaves captured in Africa were growing cotton and sugar for European markets.
However, from the fifteenth century, China is said to have restricted overseas contacts and retreated into isolation. China’s reduced role and the rising importance of the Americas gradually moved the centre of world trade westwards. Europe now emerged as the centre of world trade.

Illustration 1
    Which factors have contributed towards the making of the global world?
Solution
    (i) Trade                (ii) Migration
    (iii) People in search of jobs        (iv) movement of capital etc.

Illustration 2
    What things travellers carried with them when they moved in search of knowledge, opportunities, spritual fulfillment or to escape perscecution?
Solution
    They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions and even germs and diseases.

Illustration 3
    Which routes were linked by silk route?
Solution
    Silk routes connected Asia with Europe and north Africa.

Illustration 4
    Which commodities were traded through silk routes?
Solution
    Chinese pottery, textiles and spices from India and in return gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.

The Pre-modern world

INTRODUCTION 
Globalisation is a phenomenon of developing international relations has emerged since the last 50 years or so. Although the process has started much earlier. This topic deals with the various events of the history which have led to the development of Globalisation. This topic deals with various routes, products and events which have led to the formation of the Global world in the ancient history in ninteenth century. The interwar economy and the post-war era has shown that how it has progressed before the industrial revolution, during the industrial revolution, the industrialisation in the colonies, the events at the time of decolonisation and the begining of independence. 

Important Terms
Flow-Learning

Words that Matter
Silk Route : The route taken by traders to carry silk cargos from China to the West.
Dissenter : One who refuses to accept established beliefs and practices.
Indentured labour : A bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his-passage to a new country or home.
Tariff : Tax imposed on a country’s imports from the rest of the world. Tariffs are levied at the point of entry, i.e. at the border or at the airport.
Fixed exchange rates : When exchange rates are fixed and the governments intervene to prevent movements in them.
Floating exchange rate : These rates fluctuate depending on demand and supply of currencies in foreign exchange markets, in principle without interference by governments.
Coolies: Indian indentured labourers were referred to as coolies in the Caribbean islands.

PRE-MODERN WORLD
The pre-modern World
The making of the global world has a long history - of trade,  of migration, of people in search of work, the movement of capital, and much more.
 From ancient times, travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfilment, or to escape persecution. They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions, and even germs and diseases. As early as 3000 BC an active coastal trade linked the Indus valley civilisations with present-day West Asia. For more than a millenniam, comes (the Hindi cowdi or seashells, used as a form of currency) from the Maldives found their way to China and East Africa.

Silk routes link the World
The name silk routes points to the importance of West-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route. Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and by sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia, and linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa. They are known to have existed since before the Christian Era and thrieved almost till the fifteenth century.

Food Travel: Spaghetti and Potato
It is believed that noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti. Or, perhaps Arab traders took pasta in fifth-century to Sicily, an island now in Italy.
Similar foods were also known in India and Japan.    Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes, and so on were not known to our ancestors until about five centuries ago.
These foods were only introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the vast continent. 
Sometimes the new crops could make the difference between life and death. The European poor began to eat better and live longer with the introduction of the humble potato. Ireland’s poorest peasants became so dependent on potatoes that when disease destroyed the potato crops in the mid-1840s, hundreds of thousands died of starvation.

Conquest, Disease and Trade
Before its ‘discovery’, America had been cut off from regular contact with the rest of the world for millions of years. But from the sixteenth century, its vast lands and abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.
Precious metals, particularly silver, from mines located in present-day Peru and Mexico also enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia.    
Tranfer of Disease helped in colonisalion of America.
The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person.
    1.    Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. 
    2.    Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer. Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any Europeans reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.

Europe in 19th Century
    1.    Until the nineteenth century, poverty and hunger were common in Europe. 
    2.    Cities were crowded and deadly diseases were widespread. 
    3.    Religious conflicts were common, and religious dissenters were persecuted. 
    4.    Thousands therefore fled Europe for America. Here, by the eighteenth century, plantations worked by slaves captured in Africa were growing cotton and sugar for European markets.
However, from the fifteenth century, China is said to have restricted overseas contacts and retreated into isolation. China’s reduced role and the rising importance of the Americas gradually moved the centre of world trade westwards. Europe now emerged as the centre of world trade.

Illustration 1
    Which factors have contributed towards the making of the global world?
Solution
    (i) Trade                (ii) Migration
    (iii) People in search of jobs        (iv) movement of capital etc.

Illustration 2
    What things travellers carried with them when they moved in search of knowledge, opportunities, spritual fulfillment or to escape perscecution?
Solution
    They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions and even germs and diseases.

Illustration 3
    Which routes were linked by silk route?
Solution
    Silk routes connected Asia with Europe and north Africa.

Illustration 4
    Which commodities were traded through silk routes?
Solution
    Chinese pottery, textiles and spices from India and in return gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.

The Pre-modern world

INTRODUCTION 
Globalisation is a phenomenon of developing international relations has emerged since the last 50 years or so. Although the process has started much earlier. This topic deals with the various events of the history which have led to the development of Globalisation. This topic deals with various routes, products and events which have led to the formation of the Global world in the ancient history in ninteenth century. The interwar economy and the post-war era has shown that how it has progressed before the industrial revolution, during the industrial revolution, the industrialisation in the colonies, the events at the time of decolonisation and the begining of independence. 

Important Terms
Flow-Learning

Words that Matter
Silk Route : The route taken by traders to carry silk cargos from China to the West.
Dissenter : One who refuses to accept established beliefs and practices.
Indentured labour : A bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his-passage to a new country or home.
Tariff : Tax imposed on a country’s imports from the rest of the world. Tariffs are levied at the point of entry, i.e. at the border or at the airport.
Fixed exchange rates : When exchange rates are fixed and the governments intervene to prevent movements in them.
Floating exchange rate : These rates fluctuate depending on demand and supply of currencies in foreign exchange markets, in principle without interference by governments.
Coolies: Indian indentured labourers were referred to as coolies in the Caribbean islands.

PRE-MODERN WORLD
The pre-modern World
The making of the global world has a long history - of trade,  of migration, of people in search of work, the movement of capital, and much more.
 From ancient times, travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfilment, or to escape persecution. They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions, and even germs and diseases. As early as 3000 BC an active coastal trade linked the Indus valley civilisations with present-day West Asia. For more than a millenniam, comes (the Hindi cowdi or seashells, used as a form of currency) from the Maldives found their way to China and East Africa.

Silk routes link the World
The name silk routes points to the importance of West-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route. Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and by sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia, and linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa. They are known to have existed since before the Christian Era and thrieved almost till the fifteenth century.

Food Travel: Spaghetti and Potato
It is believed that noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti. Or, perhaps Arab traders took pasta in fifth-century to Sicily, an island now in Italy.
Similar foods were also known in India and Japan.    Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes, and so on were not known to our ancestors until about five centuries ago.
These foods were only introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the vast continent. 
Sometimes the new crops could make the difference between life and death. The European poor began to eat better and live longer with the introduction of the humble potato. Ireland’s poorest peasants became so dependent on potatoes that when disease destroyed the potato crops in the mid-1840s, hundreds of thousands died of starvation.

Conquest, Disease and Trade
Before its ‘discovery’, America had been cut off from regular contact with the rest of the world for millions of years. But from the sixteenth century, its vast lands and abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.
Precious metals, particularly silver, from mines located in present-day Peru and Mexico also enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia.    
Tranfer of Disease helped in colonisalion of America.
The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person.
    1.    Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. 
    2.    Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer. Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any Europeans reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.

Europe in 19th Century
    1.    Until the nineteenth century, poverty and hunger were common in Europe. 
    2.    Cities were crowded and deadly diseases were widespread. 
    3.    Religious conflicts were common, and religious dissenters were persecuted. 
    4.    Thousands therefore fled Europe for America. Here, by the eighteenth century, plantations worked by slaves captured in Africa were growing cotton and sugar for European markets.
However, from the fifteenth century, China is said to have restricted overseas contacts and retreated into isolation. China’s reduced role and the rising importance of the Americas gradually moved the centre of world trade westwards. Europe now emerged as the centre of world trade.

Illustration 1
    Which factors have contributed towards the making of the global world?
Solution
    (i) Trade                (ii) Migration
    (iii) People in search of jobs        (iv) movement of capital etc.

Illustration 2
    What things travellers carried with them when they moved in search of knowledge, opportunities, spritual fulfillment or to escape perscecution?
Solution
    They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions and even germs and diseases.

Illustration 3
    Which routes were linked by silk route?
Solution
    Silk routes connected Asia with Europe and north Africa.

Illustration 4
    Which commodities were traded through silk routes?
Solution
    Chinese pottery, textiles and spices from India and in return gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.

The Pre-modern world

INTRODUCTION 
Globalisation is a phenomenon of developing international relations has emerged since the last 50 years or so. Although the process has started much earlier. This topic deals with the various events of the history which have led to the development of Globalisation. This topic deals with various routes, products and events which have led to the formation of the Global world in the ancient history in ninteenth century. The interwar economy and the post-war era has shown that how it has progressed before the industrial revolution, during the industrial revolution, the industrialisation in the colonies, the events at the time of decolonisation and the begining of independence. 

Important Terms
Flow-Learning

Words that Matter
Silk Route : The route taken by traders to carry silk cargos from China to the West.
Dissenter : One who refuses to accept established beliefs and practices.
Indentured labour : A bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his-passage to a new country or home.
Tariff : Tax imposed on a country’s imports from the rest of the world. Tariffs are levied at the point of entry, i.e. at the border or at the airport.
Fixed exchange rates : When exchange rates are fixed and the governments intervene to prevent movements in them.
Floating exchange rate : These rates fluctuate depending on demand and supply of currencies in foreign exchange markets, in principle without interference by governments.
Coolies: Indian indentured labourers were referred to as coolies in the Caribbean islands.

PRE-MODERN WORLD
The pre-modern World
The making of the global world has a long history - of trade,  of migration, of people in search of work, the movement of capital, and much more.
 From ancient times, travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfilment, or to escape persecution. They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions, and even germs and diseases. As early as 3000 BC an active coastal trade linked the Indus valley civilisations with present-day West Asia. For more than a millenniam, comes (the Hindi cowdi or seashells, used as a form of currency) from the Maldives found their way to China and East Africa.

Silk routes link the World
The name silk routes points to the importance of West-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route. Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and by sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia, and linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa. They are known to have existed since before the Christian Era and thrieved almost till the fifteenth century.

Food Travel: Spaghetti and Potato
It is believed that noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti. Or, perhaps Arab traders took pasta in fifth-century to Sicily, an island now in Italy.
Similar foods were also known in India and Japan.    Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes, and so on were not known to our ancestors until about five centuries ago.
These foods were only introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the vast continent. 
Sometimes the new crops could make the difference between life and death. The European poor began to eat better and live longer with the introduction of the humble potato. Ireland’s poorest peasants became so dependent on potatoes that when disease destroyed the potato crops in the mid-1840s, hundreds of thousands died of starvation.

Conquest, Disease and Trade
Before its ‘discovery’, America had been cut off from regular contact with the rest of the world for millions of years. But from the sixteenth century, its vast lands and abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.
Precious metals, particularly silver, from mines located in present-day Peru and Mexico also enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia.    
Tranfer of Disease helped in colonisalion of America.
The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person.
    1.    Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. 
    2.    Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer. Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any Europeans reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.

Europe in 19th Century
    1.    Until the nineteenth century, poverty and hunger were common in Europe. 
    2.    Cities were crowded and deadly diseases were widespread. 
    3.    Religious conflicts were common, and religious dissenters were persecuted. 
    4.    Thousands therefore fled Europe for America. Here, by the eighteenth century, plantations worked by slaves captured in Africa were growing cotton and sugar for European markets.
However, from the fifteenth century, China is said to have restricted overseas contacts and retreated into isolation. China’s reduced role and the rising importance of the Americas gradually moved the centre of world trade westwards. Europe now emerged as the centre of world trade.

Illustration 1
    Which factors have contributed towards the making of the global world?
Solution
    (i) Trade                (ii) Migration
    (iii) People in search of jobs        (iv) movement of capital etc.

Illustration 2
    What things travellers carried with them when they moved in search of knowledge, opportunities, spritual fulfillment or to escape perscecution?
Solution
    They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions and even germs and diseases.

Illustration 3
    Which routes were linked by silk route?
Solution
    Silk routes connected Asia with Europe and north Africa.

Illustration 4
    Which commodities were traded through silk routes?
Solution
    Chinese pottery, textiles and spices from India and in return gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.

The Pre-modern world

INTRODUCTION 
Globalisation is a phenomenon of developing international relations has emerged since the last 50 years or so. Although the process has started much earlier. This topic deals with the various events of the history which have led to the development of Globalisation. This topic deals with various routes, products and events which have led to the formation of the Global world in the ancient history in ninteenth century. The interwar economy and the post-war era has shown that how it has progressed before the industrial revolution, during the industrial revolution, the industrialisation in the colonies, the events at the time of decolonisation and the begining of independence. 

Important Terms
Flow-Learning

Words that Matter
Silk Route : The route taken by traders to carry silk cargos from China to the West.
Dissenter : One who refuses to accept established beliefs and practices.
Indentured labour : A bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his-passage to a new country or home.
Tariff : Tax imposed on a country’s imports from the rest of the world. Tariffs are levied at the point of entry, i.e. at the border or at the airport.
Fixed exchange rates : When exchange rates are fixed and the governments intervene to prevent movements in them.
Floating exchange rate : These rates fluctuate depending on demand and supply of currencies in foreign exchange markets, in principle without interference by governments.
Coolies: Indian indentured labourers were referred to as coolies in the Caribbean islands.

PRE-MODERN WORLD
The pre-modern World
The making of the global world has a long history - of trade,  of migration, of people in search of work, the movement of capital, and much more.
 From ancient times, travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfilment, or to escape persecution. They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions, and even germs and diseases. As early as 3000 BC an active coastal trade linked the Indus valley civilisations with present-day West Asia. For more than a millenniam, comes (the Hindi cowdi or seashells, used as a form of currency) from the Maldives found their way to China and East Africa.

Silk routes link the World
The name silk routes points to the importance of West-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route. Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and by sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia, and linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa. They are known to have existed since before the Christian Era and thrieved almost till the fifteenth century.

Food Travel: Spaghetti and Potato
It is believed that noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti. Or, perhaps Arab traders took pasta in fifth-century to Sicily, an island now in Italy.
Similar foods were also known in India and Japan.    Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes, and so on were not known to our ancestors until about five centuries ago.
These foods were only introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the vast continent. 
Sometimes the new crops could make the difference between life and death. The European poor began to eat better and live longer with the introduction of the humble potato. Ireland’s poorest peasants became so dependent on potatoes that when disease destroyed the potato crops in the mid-1840s, hundreds of thousands died of starvation.

Conquest, Disease and Trade
Before its ‘discovery’, America had been cut off from regular contact with the rest of the world for millions of years. But from the sixteenth century, its vast lands and abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.
Precious metals, particularly silver, from mines located in present-day Peru and Mexico also enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia.    
Tranfer of Disease helped in colonisalion of America.
The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person.
    1.    Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. 
    2.    Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer. Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any Europeans reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.

Europe in 19th Century
    1.    Until the nineteenth century, poverty and hunger were common in Europe. 
    2.    Cities were crowded and deadly diseases were widespread. 
    3.    Religious conflicts were common, and religious dissenters were persecuted. 
    4.    Thousands therefore fled Europe for America. Here, by the eighteenth century, plantations worked by slaves captured in Africa were growing cotton and sugar for European markets.
However, from the fifteenth century, China is said to have restricted overseas contacts and retreated into isolation. China’s reduced role and the rising importance of the Americas gradually moved the centre of world trade westwards. Europe now emerged as the centre of world trade.

Illustration 1
    Which factors have contributed towards the making of the global world?
Solution
    (i) Trade                (ii) Migration
    (iii) People in search of jobs        (iv) movement of capital etc.

Illustration 2
    What things travellers carried with them when they moved in search of knowledge, opportunities, spritual fulfillment or to escape perscecution?
Solution
    They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions and even germs and diseases.

Illustration 3
    Which routes were linked by silk route?
Solution
    Silk routes connected Asia with Europe and north Africa.

Illustration 4
    Which commodities were traded through silk routes?
Solution
    Chinese pottery, textiles and spices from India and in return gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.

The Pre-modern world

INTRODUCTION 
Globalisation is a phenomenon of developing international relations has emerged since the last 50 years or so. Although the process has started much earlier. This topic deals with the various events of the history which have led to the development of Globalisation. This topic deals with various routes, products and events which have led to the formation of the Global world in the ancient history in ninteenth century. The interwar economy and the post-war era has shown that how it has progressed before the industrial revolution, during the industrial revolution, the industrialisation in the colonies, the events at the time of decolonisation and the begining of independence. 

Important Terms
Flow-Learning

Words that Matter
Silk Route : The route taken by traders to carry silk cargos from China to the West.
Dissenter : One who refuses to accept established beliefs and practices.
Indentured labour : A bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his-passage to a new country or home.
Tariff : Tax imposed on a country’s imports from the rest of the world. Tariffs are levied at the point of entry, i.e. at the border or at the airport.
Fixed exchange rates : When exchange rates are fixed and the governments intervene to prevent movements in them.
Floating exchange rate : These rates fluctuate depending on demand and supply of currencies in foreign exchange markets, in principle without interference by governments.
Coolies: Indian indentured labourers were referred to as coolies in the Caribbean islands.

PRE-MODERN WORLD
The pre-modern World
The making of the global world has a long history - of trade,  of migration, of people in search of work, the movement of capital, and much more.
 From ancient times, travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfilment, or to escape persecution. They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions, and even germs and diseases. As early as 3000 BC an active coastal trade linked the Indus valley civilisations with present-day West Asia. For more than a millenniam, comes (the Hindi cowdi or seashells, used as a form of currency) from the Maldives found their way to China and East Africa.

Silk routes link the World
The name silk routes points to the importance of West-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route. Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and by sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia, and linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa. They are known to have existed since before the Christian Era and thrieved almost till the fifteenth century.

Food Travel: Spaghetti and Potato
It is believed that noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti. Or, perhaps Arab traders took pasta in fifth-century to Sicily, an island now in Italy.
Similar foods were also known in India and Japan.    Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes, and so on were not known to our ancestors until about five centuries ago.
These foods were only introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the vast continent. 
Sometimes the new crops could make the difference between life and death. The European poor began to eat better and live longer with the introduction of the humble potato. Ireland’s poorest peasants became so dependent on potatoes that when disease destroyed the potato crops in the mid-1840s, hundreds of thousands died of starvation.

Conquest, Disease and Trade
Before its ‘discovery’, America had been cut off from regular contact with the rest of the world for millions of years. But from the sixteenth century, its vast lands and abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.
Precious metals, particularly silver, from mines located in present-day Peru and Mexico also enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia.    
Tranfer of Disease helped in colonisalion of America.
The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person.
    1.    Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. 
    2.    Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer. Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any Europeans reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.

Europe in 19th Century
    1.    Until the nineteenth century, poverty and hunger were common in Europe. 
    2.    Cities were crowded and deadly diseases were widespread. 
    3.    Religious conflicts were common, and religious dissenters were persecuted. 
    4.    Thousands therefore fled Europe for America. Here, by the eighteenth century, plantations worked by slaves captured in Africa were growing cotton and sugar for European markets.
However, from the fifteenth century, China is said to have restricted overseas contacts and retreated into isolation. China’s reduced role and the rising importance of the Americas gradually moved the centre of world trade westwards. Europe now emerged as the centre of world trade.

Illustration 1
    Which factors have contributed towards the making of the global world?
Solution
    (i) Trade                (ii) Migration
    (iii) People in search of jobs        (iv) movement of capital etc.

Illustration 2
    What things travellers carried with them when they moved in search of knowledge, opportunities, spritual fulfillment or to escape perscecution?
Solution
    They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions and even germs and diseases.

Illustration 3
    Which routes were linked by silk route?
Solution
    Silk routes connected Asia with Europe and north Africa.

Illustration 4
    Which commodities were traded through silk routes?
Solution
    Chinese pottery, textiles and spices from India and in return gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

 

The City in Colonial India
The pace of urbanisation in India was slow under colonial rule. In the early twentieth century, 11% of Indians were living in cities. Mostly in the three Presidency cities, of Bombay, Bengal and Madras, they had major ports, warehouses, home and offices, army camps, education institutions, museums and libraries. Bombay was the premier city of India.
The first cotton textile mill in Bombay was established in 1854. By 1921, there were 85 cotton mills with about 146000 workers. Large number of  people flowed in from the nearby district of Ratnagiri to work in the Bombay mills.
Women formed 23% of the mill workforce. By the late 1930s, women's jobs were increasingly taken over by machines or by men.
Bombay dominated the maritime trade of India. It was also at the junction head of two major railways. The railways encouraged an even higher scale of migration into the city.

Housing and Neighborhoods
Bombay was a crowed city. Every Londoner in the 1840s enjoyed an average space of 155 square yards; Bombay had a mere 9.5 Square yards. By 1872, when London had an average of 8 persons per house, the density in Bombay was as high as 20. From its earliest days, Bombay did not grow according to any plan, and houses, especially in the fort area, were interspersed with gardens. The Bombay Fort area was divided between a native town, where most of the Indians lived, and a European or 'white' section. A European suburb and an industrial Zone began to develop to the north of the Fort settlement area, with a similar suburb and cantonment in the south.
With the rapid and unplanned expansion of the city, the crisis of housing and water supply became acute. The arrival of the textile mills only increased the pressure on Bombay's housing.
The richer Parsi, Muslim and upper caste traders and industrialists of Bombay lived in sprawling, spacious bungalows. But 70 % of the working people lived in the thickly populated chawls of Bombay.
Chawls were multi-stroreyed structures built in the 'native' parts of the town. These houses were largely owned by private landlords, such as merchants, bankers, and building contractors, looking for quick ways of earning money. Each chawl was divided into small one-room tenements, which has no private toilets.
Many families could reside at a time in a tenement. High rents forced workers to share homes, either with relatives or caste fellows who were streaming into the city. People has to keep the windows of their rooms closed even in humid weather due to the close proximity of filthy gutters, privies, buffalo stables etc. Water was scarce, and people often quarreled every morning for a turn at the tap, observers found that houses were kept quite clean.
The homes being small, street and neighborhoods were used for cooking, washing and sleeping. Liquor shop and akharas came up in any empty spot. Streets were also used for different type of leisure activities.

Eg. Magicians, monkey players or acrobats used to regularly perform. The Nandi bull used to come.  Kadaklakshmi used to beat themselves on their naked bodies in order to fill their stomachs . Chawls were also the place for the exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.
The jobber in the mills was the local neighborhood leader. He settled disputes, organized food supplies, or arranged informal credit.
People of the ' depressed classes' found it difficult to find housing. Lower castes were kept out of many chawls and often had to live in shelters made of corrugated sheets, leaves or bamboo poles.
The city of Bombay Improvement Trust was established in 1898; it focused on clearing poorer homes out of the city center. By 1918, trust schemes had deprived 64000 people of their homes, but only 14000 were rehoused. In 1918 a Rent Act was passed to keep rents reasonable, but it had the opposite effect of producing a severe housing crisis, since landlords withdrew houses from the market.
In Bombay there was scarcity of land. One of the ways the city of Bombay has developed is through massive reclamation projects. 

Land Reclamation in Bombay
The seven islands of Bombay were joined into one landmass in 1784. The Bombay governor William Hornby approved the building of the great sea wall, which prevented the flooding of the low-lying areas of Bombay.
The needs of additional commercial space in the mid nineteenth century led to the formulation of several plans, both by government and private companies.
Private companies became more interested in taking financial risks. In 1864, the Back Bay Reclamation company won the right to reclaim the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar hill to the end of Calaba. Reclamation meant the leveling of the hills around Bombay. As the population continued to increase rapidly in the early twentieth century, every bit of the available area was built over and new areas were reclaimed from the sea.
The Bombay Port Trust built a dry dock between 1914 ands 1918 and used the excavated earth to create the 22-acre. Ballard estate. Subsequently, the famous Marine Drive of Bombay was developed.

Bombay as the City of Dreams: The World of Cinema and Culture 
Despite its massive overcrowding and difficult living conditions, Bombay appears to many as a 'mayapuri' - a city of dreams.
Many Bombay films deal with the arrival of new migrants  in the city and their encounters with the real pressure of daily life. Some popular songs from the Bombay film industry speak of the contradictory aspects of the city. Eg CID (1956) and Guest house (1959)

When did the Bombay Film industry make its First Appearance?
Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatwadekar shot a scene of a wrestling match in Bombay's hanging gardens and it became India's First movies in 1896. Dadasaheb Phalke made Raja Harishchandra (1913). By 1925, Bombay had become India's films capital Money invested in about 50 Indian films in 1947 was Rs 756 million. By 1987, the film industry employed 520000 people.
Most of the people in the film industry were themselves migrants from Lahore, Calcutta, and Madras.     
Those who came from Lahore, then in Punjab, were especially important for the development of the Hindi Film industry. Many famous writers, like Ismat Chughtai and Saadat Hasan Manto, were associated with Hindi Cinema.

 

Industrialisation and the rise of the modern city in England 

Industrialisation changed the form of urbanisation. The early industrial cities of Britain such as Leeds and Manchester attracted large number of migrants to the textile mills migrants were from rural areas.
London in 1950, one out of every nine people of England and Wales lived in London. Population was 675000 and its population multiplied fourfold in 70 years. London, ' says the historian Gareth Stedman Jones, 'was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled artisans, of a growing number of semi skilled and sweated outworkers, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers and beggars.
Mojor indudtries that came up in London were :
    1.    Dockyard
    2.    Clothing and footwear.
    3.    Wood and furniture.
    4.    Metals and engineering
    5.    Printing and Stationery
    6.    Precision products such as surgical instruments, watches and objects of precious metal.
    7.    During the First World War London began manufacturing motorcars and electrical goods and the number of  large factories increased.

Marginal groups
    As London grew, crime flourished. 20000 criminals were living in London in the 1870s. The police were worried about law and order, philanthropists were anxious about public morality, and industrialists wanted a hard working and orderly labour force. So the population of criminals was counted, their activities were watched, and their ways of life were investigated.
    In the mid nineteenth century, Henry Mayhew wrote several volumes compiled long list of those who made a living from crime. Many were poor people who lived by stealing lead from roofs, food from shops, lumps of coal, and clothes drying on hedges. Others were more skilled at their trade, expert at their jobs. They were the cheats and tricksters, pickpockets and petty thieves.To discipline the population; authorities imposed high penalties and offered work to those who were considered the 'deserving poor'.

 

Women in London
    Factories employed large numbers of women in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. With technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs, and were forced to work within households.
    A large number of women used their homes to increase family income be taking in lodgers or through such activities as tailoring, washing or matchbox making. In the later twentieth century. Women got employment in wartime industries and offices, they withdrew from domestic service.

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

 

The City in Colonial India
The pace of urbanisation in India was slow under colonial rule. In the early twentieth century, 11% of Indians were living in cities. Mostly in the three Presidency cities, of Bombay, Bengal and Madras, they had major ports, warehouses, home and offices, army camps, education institutions, museums and libraries. Bombay was the premier city of India.
The first cotton textile mill in Bombay was established in 1854. By 1921, there were 85 cotton mills with about 146000 workers. Large number of  people flowed in from the nearby district of Ratnagiri to work in the Bombay mills.
Women formed 23% of the mill workforce. By the late 1930s, women's jobs were increasingly taken over by machines or by men.
Bombay dominated the maritime trade of India. It was also at the junction head of two major railways. The railways encouraged an even higher scale of migration into the city.

Housing and Neighborhoods
Bombay was a crowed city. Every Londoner in the 1840s enjoyed an average space of 155 square yards; Bombay had a mere 9.5 Square yards. By 1872, when London had an average of 8 persons per house, the density in Bombay was as high as 20. From its earliest days, Bombay did not grow according to any plan, and houses, especially in the fort area, were interspersed with gardens. The Bombay Fort area was divided between a native town, where most of the Indians lived, and a European or 'white' section. A European suburb and an industrial Zone began to develop to the north of the Fort settlement area, with a similar suburb and cantonment in the south.
With the rapid and unplanned expansion of the city, the crisis of housing and water supply became acute. The arrival of the textile mills only increased the pressure on Bombay's housing.
The richer Parsi, Muslim and upper caste traders and industrialists of Bombay lived in sprawling, spacious bungalows. But 70 % of the working people lived in the thickly populated chawls of Bombay.
Chawls were multi-stroreyed structures built in the 'native' parts of the town. These houses were largely owned by private landlords, such as merchants, bankers, and building contractors, looking for quick ways of earning money. Each chawl was divided into small one-room tenements, which has no private toilets.
Many families could reside at a time in a tenement. High rents forced workers to share homes, either with relatives or caste fellows who were streaming into the city. People has to keep the windows of their rooms closed even in humid weather due to the close proximity of filthy gutters, privies, buffalo stables etc. Water was scarce, and people often quarreled every morning for a turn at the tap, observers found that houses were kept quite clean.
The homes being small, street and neighborhoods were used for cooking, washing and sleeping. Liquor shop and akharas came up in any empty spot. Streets were also used for different type of leisure activities.

Eg. Magicians, monkey players or acrobats used to regularly perform. The Nandi bull used to come.  Kadaklakshmi used to beat themselves on their naked bodies in order to fill their stomachs . Chawls were also the place for the exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.
The jobber in the mills was the local neighborhood leader. He settled disputes, organized food supplies, or arranged informal credit.
People of the ' depressed classes' found it difficult to find housing. Lower castes were kept out of many chawls and often had to live in shelters made of corrugated sheets, leaves or bamboo poles.
The city of Bombay Improvement Trust was established in 1898; it focused on clearing poorer homes out of the city center. By 1918, trust schemes had deprived 64000 people of their homes, but only 14000 were rehoused. In 1918 a Rent Act was passed to keep rents reasonable, but it had the opposite effect of producing a severe housing crisis, since landlords withdrew houses from the market.
In Bombay there was scarcity of land. One of the ways the city of Bombay has developed is through massive reclamation projects. 

Land Reclamation in Bombay
The seven islands of Bombay were joined into one landmass in 1784. The Bombay governor William Hornby approved the building of the great sea wall, which prevented the flooding of the low-lying areas of Bombay.
The needs of additional commercial space in the mid nineteenth century led to the formulation of several plans, both by government and private companies.
Private companies became more interested in taking financial risks. In 1864, the Back Bay Reclamation company won the right to reclaim the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar hill to the end of Calaba. Reclamation meant the leveling of the hills around Bombay. As the population continued to increase rapidly in the early twentieth century, every bit of the available area was built over and new areas were reclaimed from the sea.
The Bombay Port Trust built a dry dock between 1914 ands 1918 and used the excavated earth to create the 22-acre. Ballard estate. Subsequently, the famous Marine Drive of Bombay was developed.

Bombay as the City of Dreams: The World of Cinema and Culture 
Despite its massive overcrowding and difficult living conditions, Bombay appears to many as a 'mayapuri' - a city of dreams.
Many Bombay films deal with the arrival of new migrants  in the city and their encounters with the real pressure of daily life. Some popular songs from the Bombay film industry speak of the contradictory aspects of the city. Eg CID (1956) and Guest house (1959)

When did the Bombay Film industry make its First Appearance?
Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatwadekar shot a scene of a wrestling match in Bombay's hanging gardens and it became India's First movies in 1896. Dadasaheb Phalke made Raja Harishchandra (1913). By 1925, Bombay had become India's films capital Money invested in about 50 Indian films in 1947 was Rs 756 million. By 1987, the film industry employed 520000 people.
Most of the people in the film industry were themselves migrants from Lahore, Calcutta, and Madras.     
Those who came from Lahore, then in Punjab, were especially important for the development of the Hindi Film industry. Many famous writers, like Ismat Chughtai and Saadat Hasan Manto, were associated with Hindi Cinema.

 

Industrialisation and the rise of the modern city in England 

Industrialisation changed the form of urbanisation. The early industrial cities of Britain such as Leeds and Manchester attracted large number of migrants to the textile mills migrants were from rural areas.
London in 1950, one out of every nine people of England and Wales lived in London. Population was 675000 and its population multiplied fourfold in 70 years. London, ' says the historian Gareth Stedman Jones, 'was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled artisans, of a growing number of semi skilled and sweated outworkers, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers and beggars.
Mojor indudtries that came up in London were :
    1.    Dockyard
    2.    Clothing and footwear.
    3.    Wood and furniture.
    4.    Metals and engineering
    5.    Printing and Stationery
    6.    Precision products such as surgical instruments, watches and objects of precious metal.
    7.    During the First World War London began manufacturing motorcars and electrical goods and the number of  large factories increased.

Marginal groups
    As London grew, crime flourished. 20000 criminals were living in London in the 1870s. The police were worried about law and order, philanthropists were anxious about public morality, and industrialists wanted a hard working and orderly labour force. So the population of criminals was counted, their activities were watched, and their ways of life were investigated.
    In the mid nineteenth century, Henry Mayhew wrote several volumes compiled long list of those who made a living from crime. Many were poor people who lived by stealing lead from roofs, food from shops, lumps of coal, and clothes drying on hedges. Others were more skilled at their trade, expert at their jobs. They were the cheats and tricksters, pickpockets and petty thieves.To discipline the population; authorities imposed high penalties and offered work to those who were considered the 'deserving poor'.

 

Women in London
    Factories employed large numbers of women in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. With technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs, and were forced to work within households.
    A large number of women used their homes to increase family income be taking in lodgers or through such activities as tailoring, washing or matchbox making. In the later twentieth century. Women got employment in wartime industries and offices, they withdrew from domestic service.

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

 

The City in Colonial India
The pace of urbanisation in India was slow under colonial rule. In the early twentieth century, 11% of Indians were living in cities. Mostly in the three Presidency cities, of Bombay, Bengal and Madras, they had major ports, warehouses, home and offices, army camps, education institutions, museums and libraries. Bombay was the premier city of India.
The first cotton textile mill in Bombay was established in 1854. By 1921, there were 85 cotton mills with about 146000 workers. Large number of  people flowed in from the nearby district of Ratnagiri to work in the Bombay mills.
Women formed 23% of the mill workforce. By the late 1930s, women's jobs were increasingly taken over by machines or by men.
Bombay dominated the maritime trade of India. It was also at the junction head of two major railways. The railways encouraged an even higher scale of migration into the city.

Housing and Neighborhoods
Bombay was a crowed city. Every Londoner in the 1840s enjoyed an average space of 155 square yards; Bombay had a mere 9.5 Square yards. By 1872, when London had an average of 8 persons per house, the density in Bombay was as high as 20. From its earliest days, Bombay did not grow according to any plan, and houses, especially in the fort area, were interspersed with gardens. The Bombay Fort area was divided between a native town, where most of the Indians lived, and a European or 'white' section. A European suburb and an industrial Zone began to develop to the north of the Fort settlement area, with a similar suburb and cantonment in the south.
With the rapid and unplanned expansion of the city, the crisis of housing and water supply became acute. The arrival of the textile mills only increased the pressure on Bombay's housing.
The richer Parsi, Muslim and upper caste traders and industrialists of Bombay lived in sprawling, spacious bungalows. But 70 % of the working people lived in the thickly populated chawls of Bombay.
Chawls were multi-stroreyed structures built in the 'native' parts of the town. These houses were largely owned by private landlords, such as merchants, bankers, and building contractors, looking for quick ways of earning money. Each chawl was divided into small one-room tenements, which has no private toilets.
Many families could reside at a time in a tenement. High rents forced workers to share homes, either with relatives or caste fellows who were streaming into the city. People has to keep the windows of their rooms closed even in humid weather due to the close proximity of filthy gutters, privies, buffalo stables etc. Water was scarce, and people often quarreled every morning for a turn at the tap, observers found that houses were kept quite clean.
The homes being small, street and neighborhoods were used for cooking, washing and sleeping. Liquor shop and akharas came up in any empty spot. Streets were also used for different type of leisure activities.

Eg. Magicians, monkey players or acrobats used to regularly perform. The Nandi bull used to come.  Kadaklakshmi used to beat themselves on their naked bodies in order to fill their stomachs . Chawls were also the place for the exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.
The jobber in the mills was the local neighborhood leader. He settled disputes, organized food supplies, or arranged informal credit.
People of the ' depressed classes' found it difficult to find housing. Lower castes were kept out of many chawls and often had to live in shelters made of corrugated sheets, leaves or bamboo poles.
The city of Bombay Improvement Trust was established in 1898; it focused on clearing poorer homes out of the city center. By 1918, trust schemes had deprived 64000 people of their homes, but only 14000 were rehoused. In 1918 a Rent Act was passed to keep rents reasonable, but it had the opposite effect of producing a severe housing crisis, since landlords withdrew houses from the market.
In Bombay there was scarcity of land. One of the ways the city of Bombay has developed is through massive reclamation projects. 

Land Reclamation in Bombay
The seven islands of Bombay were joined into one landmass in 1784. The Bombay governor William Hornby approved the building of the great sea wall, which prevented the flooding of the low-lying areas of Bombay.
The needs of additional commercial space in the mid nineteenth century led to the formulation of several plans, both by government and private companies.
Private companies became more interested in taking financial risks. In 1864, the Back Bay Reclamation company won the right to reclaim the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar hill to the end of Calaba. Reclamation meant the leveling of the hills around Bombay. As the population continued to increase rapidly in the early twentieth century, every bit of the available area was built over and new areas were reclaimed from the sea.
The Bombay Port Trust built a dry dock between 1914 ands 1918 and used the excavated earth to create the 22-acre. Ballard estate. Subsequently, the famous Marine Drive of Bombay was developed.

Bombay as the City of Dreams: The World of Cinema and Culture 
Despite its massive overcrowding and difficult living conditions, Bombay appears to many as a 'mayapuri' - a city of dreams.
Many Bombay films deal with the arrival of new migrants  in the city and their encounters with the real pressure of daily life. Some popular songs from the Bombay film industry speak of the contradictory aspects of the city. Eg CID (1956) and Guest house (1959)

When did the Bombay Film industry make its First Appearance?
Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatwadekar shot a scene of a wrestling match in Bombay's hanging gardens and it became India's First movies in 1896. Dadasaheb Phalke made Raja Harishchandra (1913). By 1925, Bombay had become India's films capital Money invested in about 50 Indian films in 1947 was Rs 756 million. By 1987, the film industry employed 520000 people.
Most of the people in the film industry were themselves migrants from Lahore, Calcutta, and Madras.     
Those who came from Lahore, then in Punjab, were especially important for the development of the Hindi Film industry. Many famous writers, like Ismat Chughtai and Saadat Hasan Manto, were associated with Hindi Cinema.

 

Industrialisation and the rise of the modern city in England 

Industrialisation changed the form of urbanisation. The early industrial cities of Britain such as Leeds and Manchester attracted large number of migrants to the textile mills migrants were from rural areas.
London in 1950, one out of every nine people of England and Wales lived in London. Population was 675000 and its population multiplied fourfold in 70 years. London, ' says the historian Gareth Stedman Jones, 'was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled artisans, of a growing number of semi skilled and sweated outworkers, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers and beggars.
Mojor indudtries that came up in London were :
    1.    Dockyard
    2.    Clothing and footwear.
    3.    Wood and furniture.
    4.    Metals and engineering
    5.    Printing and Stationery
    6.    Precision products such as surgical instruments, watches and objects of precious metal.
    7.    During the First World War London began manufacturing motorcars and electrical goods and the number of  large factories increased.

Marginal groups
    As London grew, crime flourished. 20000 criminals were living in London in the 1870s. The police were worried about law and order, philanthropists were anxious about public morality, and industrialists wanted a hard working and orderly labour force. So the population of criminals was counted, their activities were watched, and their ways of life were investigated.
    In the mid nineteenth century, Henry Mayhew wrote several volumes compiled long list of those who made a living from crime. Many were poor people who lived by stealing lead from roofs, food from shops, lumps of coal, and clothes drying on hedges. Others were more skilled at their trade, expert at their jobs. They were the cheats and tricksters, pickpockets and petty thieves.To discipline the population; authorities imposed high penalties and offered work to those who were considered the 'deserving poor'.

 

Women in London
    Factories employed large numbers of women in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. With technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs, and were forced to work within households.
    A large number of women used their homes to increase family income be taking in lodgers or through such activities as tailoring, washing or matchbox making. In the later twentieth century. Women got employment in wartime industries and offices, they withdrew from domestic service.

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

 

The City in Colonial India
The pace of urbanisation in India was slow under colonial rule. In the early twentieth century, 11% of Indians were living in cities. Mostly in the three Presidency cities, of Bombay, Bengal and Madras, they had major ports, warehouses, home and offices, army camps, education institutions, museums and libraries. Bombay was the premier city of India.
The first cotton textile mill in Bombay was established in 1854. By 1921, there were 85 cotton mills with about 146000 workers. Large number of  people flowed in from the nearby district of Ratnagiri to work in the Bombay mills.
Women formed 23% of the mill workforce. By the late 1930s, women's jobs were increasingly taken over by machines or by men.
Bombay dominated the maritime trade of India. It was also at the junction head of two major railways. The railways encouraged an even higher scale of migration into the city.

Housing and Neighborhoods
Bombay was a crowed city. Every Londoner in the 1840s enjoyed an average space of 155 square yards; Bombay had a mere 9.5 Square yards. By 1872, when London had an average of 8 persons per house, the density in Bombay was as high as 20. From its earliest days, Bombay did not grow according to any plan, and houses, especially in the fort area, were interspersed with gardens. The Bombay Fort area was divided between a native town, where most of the Indians lived, and a European or 'white' section. A European suburb and an industrial Zone began to develop to the north of the Fort settlement area, with a similar suburb and cantonment in the south.
With the rapid and unplanned expansion of the city, the crisis of housing and water supply became acute. The arrival of the textile mills only increased the pressure on Bombay's housing.
The richer Parsi, Muslim and upper caste traders and industrialists of Bombay lived in sprawling, spacious bungalows. But 70 % of the working people lived in the thickly populated chawls of Bombay.
Chawls were multi-stroreyed structures built in the 'native' parts of the town. These houses were largely owned by private landlords, such as merchants, bankers, and building contractors, looking for quick ways of earning money. Each chawl was divided into small one-room tenements, which has no private toilets.
Many families could reside at a time in a tenement. High rents forced workers to share homes, either with relatives or caste fellows who were streaming into the city. People has to keep the windows of their rooms closed even in humid weather due to the close proximity of filthy gutters, privies, buffalo stables etc. Water was scarce, and people often quarreled every morning for a turn at the tap, observers found that houses were kept quite clean.
The homes being small, street and neighborhoods were used for cooking, washing and sleeping. Liquor shop and akharas came up in any empty spot. Streets were also used for different type of leisure activities.

Eg. Magicians, monkey players or acrobats used to regularly perform. The Nandi bull used to come.  Kadaklakshmi used to beat themselves on their naked bodies in order to fill their stomachs . Chawls were also the place for the exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.
The jobber in the mills was the local neighborhood leader. He settled disputes, organized food supplies, or arranged informal credit.
People of the ' depressed classes' found it difficult to find housing. Lower castes were kept out of many chawls and often had to live in shelters made of corrugated sheets, leaves or bamboo poles.
The city of Bombay Improvement Trust was established in 1898; it focused on clearing poorer homes out of the city center. By 1918, trust schemes had deprived 64000 people of their homes, but only 14000 were rehoused. In 1918 a Rent Act was passed to keep rents reasonable, but it had the opposite effect of producing a severe housing crisis, since landlords withdrew houses from the market.
In Bombay there was scarcity of land. One of the ways the city of Bombay has developed is through massive reclamation projects. 

Land Reclamation in Bombay
The seven islands of Bombay were joined into one landmass in 1784. The Bombay governor William Hornby approved the building of the great sea wall, which prevented the flooding of the low-lying areas of Bombay.
The needs of additional commercial space in the mid nineteenth century led to the formulation of several plans, both by government and private companies.
Private companies became more interested in taking financial risks. In 1864, the Back Bay Reclamation company won the right to reclaim the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar hill to the end of Calaba. Reclamation meant the leveling of the hills around Bombay. As the population continued to increase rapidly in the early twentieth century, every bit of the available area was built over and new areas were reclaimed from the sea.
The Bombay Port Trust built a dry dock between 1914 ands 1918 and used the excavated earth to create the 22-acre. Ballard estate. Subsequently, the famous Marine Drive of Bombay was developed.

Bombay as the City of Dreams: The World of Cinema and Culture 
Despite its massive overcrowding and difficult living conditions, Bombay appears to many as a 'mayapuri' - a city of dreams.
Many Bombay films deal with the arrival of new migrants  in the city and their encounters with the real pressure of daily life. Some popular songs from the Bombay film industry speak of the contradictory aspects of the city. Eg CID (1956) and Guest house (1959)

When did the Bombay Film industry make its First Appearance?
Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatwadekar shot a scene of a wrestling match in Bombay's hanging gardens and it became India's First movies in 1896. Dadasaheb Phalke made Raja Harishchandra (1913). By 1925, Bombay had become India's films capital Money invested in about 50 Indian films in 1947 was Rs 756 million. By 1987, the film industry employed 520000 people.
Most of the people in the film industry were themselves migrants from Lahore, Calcutta, and Madras.     
Those who came from Lahore, then in Punjab, were especially important for the development of the Hindi Film industry. Many famous writers, like Ismat Chughtai and Saadat Hasan Manto, were associated with Hindi Cinema.

 

Industrialisation and the rise of the modern city in England 

Industrialisation changed the form of urbanisation. The early industrial cities of Britain such as Leeds and Manchester attracted large number of migrants to the textile mills migrants were from rural areas.
London in 1950, one out of every nine people of England and Wales lived in London. Population was 675000 and its population multiplied fourfold in 70 years. London, ' says the historian Gareth Stedman Jones, 'was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled artisans, of a growing number of semi skilled and sweated outworkers, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers and beggars.
Mojor indudtries that came up in London were :
    1.    Dockyard
    2.    Clothing and footwear.
    3.    Wood and furniture.
    4.    Metals and engineering
    5.    Printing and Stationery
    6.    Precision products such as surgical instruments, watches and objects of precious metal.
    7.    During the First World War London began manufacturing motorcars and electrical goods and the number of  large factories increased.

Marginal groups
    As London grew, crime flourished. 20000 criminals were living in London in the 1870s. The police were worried about law and order, philanthropists were anxious about public morality, and industrialists wanted a hard working and orderly labour force. So the population of criminals was counted, their activities were watched, and their ways of life were investigated.
    In the mid nineteenth century, Henry Mayhew wrote several volumes compiled long list of those who made a living from crime. Many were poor people who lived by stealing lead from roofs, food from shops, lumps of coal, and clothes drying on hedges. Others were more skilled at their trade, expert at their jobs. They were the cheats and tricksters, pickpockets and petty thieves.To discipline the population; authorities imposed high penalties and offered work to those who were considered the 'deserving poor'.

 

Women in London
    Factories employed large numbers of women in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. With technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs, and were forced to work within households.
    A large number of women used their homes to increase family income be taking in lodgers or through such activities as tailoring, washing or matchbox making. In the later twentieth century. Women got employment in wartime industries and offices, they withdrew from domestic service.

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

 

The City in Colonial India
The pace of urbanisation in India was slow under colonial rule. In the early twentieth century, 11% of Indians were living in cities. Mostly in the three Presidency cities, of Bombay, Bengal and Madras, they had major ports, warehouses, home and offices, army camps, education institutions, museums and libraries. Bombay was the premier city of India.
The first cotton textile mill in Bombay was established in 1854. By 1921, there were 85 cotton mills with about 146000 workers. Large number of  people flowed in from the nearby district of Ratnagiri to work in the Bombay mills.
Women formed 23% of the mill workforce. By the late 1930s, women's jobs were increasingly taken over by machines or by men.
Bombay dominated the maritime trade of India. It was also at the junction head of two major railways. The railways encouraged an even higher scale of migration into the city.

Housing and Neighborhoods
Bombay was a crowed city. Every Londoner in the 1840s enjoyed an average space of 155 square yards; Bombay had a mere 9.5 Square yards. By 1872, when London had an average of 8 persons per house, the density in Bombay was as high as 20. From its earliest days, Bombay did not grow according to any plan, and houses, especially in the fort area, were interspersed with gardens. The Bombay Fort area was divided between a native town, where most of the Indians lived, and a European or 'white' section. A European suburb and an industrial Zone began to develop to the north of the Fort settlement area, with a similar suburb and cantonment in the south.
With the rapid and unplanned expansion of the city, the crisis of housing and water supply became acute. The arrival of the textile mills only increased the pressure on Bombay's housing.
The richer Parsi, Muslim and upper caste traders and industrialists of Bombay lived in sprawling, spacious bungalows. But 70 % of the working people lived in the thickly populated chawls of Bombay.
Chawls were multi-stroreyed structures built in the 'native' parts of the town. These houses were largely owned by private landlords, such as merchants, bankers, and building contractors, looking for quick ways of earning money. Each chawl was divided into small one-room tenements, which has no private toilets.
Many families could reside at a time in a tenement. High rents forced workers to share homes, either with relatives or caste fellows who were streaming into the city. People has to keep the windows of their rooms closed even in humid weather due to the close proximity of filthy gutters, privies, buffalo stables etc. Water was scarce, and people often quarreled every morning for a turn at the tap, observers found that houses were kept quite clean.
The homes being small, street and neighborhoods were used for cooking, washing and sleeping. Liquor shop and akharas came up in any empty spot. Streets were also used for different type of leisure activities.

Eg. Magicians, monkey players or acrobats used to regularly perform. The Nandi bull used to come.  Kadaklakshmi used to beat themselves on their naked bodies in order to fill their stomachs . Chawls were also the place for the exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.
The jobber in the mills was the local neighborhood leader. He settled disputes, organized food supplies, or arranged informal credit.
People of the ' depressed classes' found it difficult to find housing. Lower castes were kept out of many chawls and often had to live in shelters made of corrugated sheets, leaves or bamboo poles.
The city of Bombay Improvement Trust was established in 1898; it focused on clearing poorer homes out of the city center. By 1918, trust schemes had deprived 64000 people of their homes, but only 14000 were rehoused. In 1918 a Rent Act was passed to keep rents reasonable, but it had the opposite effect of producing a severe housing crisis, since landlords withdrew houses from the market.
In Bombay there was scarcity of land. One of the ways the city of Bombay has developed is through massive reclamation projects. 

Land Reclamation in Bombay
The seven islands of Bombay were joined into one landmass in 1784. The Bombay governor William Hornby approved the building of the great sea wall, which prevented the flooding of the low-lying areas of Bombay.
The needs of additional commercial space in the mid nineteenth century led to the formulation of several plans, both by government and private companies.
Private companies became more interested in taking financial risks. In 1864, the Back Bay Reclamation company won the right to reclaim the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar hill to the end of Calaba. Reclamation meant the leveling of the hills around Bombay. As the population continued to increase rapidly in the early twentieth century, every bit of the available area was built over and new areas were reclaimed from the sea.
The Bombay Port Trust built a dry dock between 1914 ands 1918 and used the excavated earth to create the 22-acre. Ballard estate. Subsequently, the famous Marine Drive of Bombay was developed.

Bombay as the City of Dreams: The World of Cinema and Culture 
Despite its massive overcrowding and difficult living conditions, Bombay appears to many as a 'mayapuri' - a city of dreams.
Many Bombay films deal with the arrival of new migrants  in the city and their encounters with the real pressure of daily life. Some popular songs from the Bombay film industry speak of the contradictory aspects of the city. Eg CID (1956) and Guest house (1959)

When did the Bombay Film industry make its First Appearance?
Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatwadekar shot a scene of a wrestling match in Bombay's hanging gardens and it became India's First movies in 1896. Dadasaheb Phalke made Raja Harishchandra (1913). By 1925, Bombay had become India's films capital Money invested in about 50 Indian films in 1947 was Rs 756 million. By 1987, the film industry employed 520000 people.
Most of the people in the film industry were themselves migrants from Lahore, Calcutta, and Madras.     
Those who came from Lahore, then in Punjab, were especially important for the development of the Hindi Film industry. Many famous writers, like Ismat Chughtai and Saadat Hasan Manto, were associated with Hindi Cinema.

 

Industrialisation and the rise of the modern city in England 

Industrialisation changed the form of urbanisation. The early industrial cities of Britain such as Leeds and Manchester attracted large number of migrants to the textile mills migrants were from rural areas.
London in 1950, one out of every nine people of England and Wales lived in London. Population was 675000 and its population multiplied fourfold in 70 years. London, ' says the historian Gareth Stedman Jones, 'was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled artisans, of a growing number of semi skilled and sweated outworkers, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers and beggars.
Mojor indudtries that came up in London were :
    1.    Dockyard
    2.    Clothing and footwear.
    3.    Wood and furniture.
    4.    Metals and engineering
    5.    Printing and Stationery
    6.    Precision products such as surgical instruments, watches and objects of precious metal.
    7.    During the First World War London began manufacturing motorcars and electrical goods and the number of  large factories increased.

Marginal groups
    As London grew, crime flourished. 20000 criminals were living in London in the 1870s. The police were worried about law and order, philanthropists were anxious about public morality, and industrialists wanted a hard working and orderly labour force. So the population of criminals was counted, their activities were watched, and their ways of life were investigated.
    In the mid nineteenth century, Henry Mayhew wrote several volumes compiled long list of those who made a living from crime. Many were poor people who lived by stealing lead from roofs, food from shops, lumps of coal, and clothes drying on hedges. Others were more skilled at their trade, expert at their jobs. They were the cheats and tricksters, pickpockets and petty thieves.To discipline the population; authorities imposed high penalties and offered work to those who were considered the 'deserving poor'.

 

Women in London
    Factories employed large numbers of women in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. With technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs, and were forced to work within households.
    A large number of women used their homes to increase family income be taking in lodgers or through such activities as tailoring, washing or matchbox making. In the later twentieth century. Women got employment in wartime industries and offices, they withdrew from domestic service.

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

 

The City in Colonial India
The pace of urbanisation in India was slow under colonial rule. In the early twentieth century, 11% of Indians were living in cities. Mostly in the three Presidency cities, of Bombay, Bengal and Madras, they had major ports, warehouses, home and offices, army camps, education institutions, museums and libraries. Bombay was the premier city of India.
The first cotton textile mill in Bombay was established in 1854. By 1921, there were 85 cotton mills with about 146000 workers. Large number of  people flowed in from the nearby district of Ratnagiri to work in the Bombay mills.
Women formed 23% of the mill workforce. By the late 1930s, women's jobs were increasingly taken over by machines or by men.
Bombay dominated the maritime trade of India. It was also at the junction head of two major railways. The railways encouraged an even higher scale of migration into the city.

Housing and Neighborhoods
Bombay was a crowed city. Every Londoner in the 1840s enjoyed an average space of 155 square yards; Bombay had a mere 9.5 Square yards. By 1872, when London had an average of 8 persons per house, the density in Bombay was as high as 20. From its earliest days, Bombay did not grow according to any plan, and houses, especially in the fort area, were interspersed with gardens. The Bombay Fort area was divided between a native town, where most of the Indians lived, and a European or 'white' section. A European suburb and an industrial Zone began to develop to the north of the Fort settlement area, with a similar suburb and cantonment in the south.
With the rapid and unplanned expansion of the city, the crisis of housing and water supply became acute. The arrival of the textile mills only increased the pressure on Bombay's housing.
The richer Parsi, Muslim and upper caste traders and industrialists of Bombay lived in sprawling, spacious bungalows. But 70 % of the working people lived in the thickly populated chawls of Bombay.
Chawls were multi-stroreyed structures built in the 'native' parts of the town. These houses were largely owned by private landlords, such as merchants, bankers, and building contractors, looking for quick ways of earning money. Each chawl was divided into small one-room tenements, which has no private toilets.
Many families could reside at a time in a tenement. High rents forced workers to share homes, either with relatives or caste fellows who were streaming into the city. People has to keep the windows of their rooms closed even in humid weather due to the close proximity of filthy gutters, privies, buffalo stables etc. Water was scarce, and people often quarreled every morning for a turn at the tap, observers found that houses were kept quite clean.
The homes being small, street and neighborhoods were used for cooking, washing and sleeping. Liquor shop and akharas came up in any empty spot. Streets were also used for different type of leisure activities.

Eg. Magicians, monkey players or acrobats used to regularly perform. The Nandi bull used to come.  Kadaklakshmi used to beat themselves on their naked bodies in order to fill their stomachs . Chawls were also the place for the exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.
The jobber in the mills was the local neighborhood leader. He settled disputes, organized food supplies, or arranged informal credit.
People of the ' depressed classes' found it difficult to find housing. Lower castes were kept out of many chawls and often had to live in shelters made of corrugated sheets, leaves or bamboo poles.
The city of Bombay Improvement Trust was established in 1898; it focused on clearing poorer homes out of the city center. By 1918, trust schemes had deprived 64000 people of their homes, but only 14000 were rehoused. In 1918 a Rent Act was passed to keep rents reasonable, but it had the opposite effect of producing a severe housing crisis, since landlords withdrew houses from the market.
In Bombay there was scarcity of land. One of the ways the city of Bombay has developed is through massive reclamation projects. 

Land Reclamation in Bombay
The seven islands of Bombay were joined into one landmass in 1784. The Bombay governor William Hornby approved the building of the great sea wall, which prevented the flooding of the low-lying areas of Bombay.
The needs of additional commercial space in the mid nineteenth century led to the formulation of several plans, both by government and private companies.
Private companies became more interested in taking financial risks. In 1864, the Back Bay Reclamation company won the right to reclaim the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar hill to the end of Calaba. Reclamation meant the leveling of the hills around Bombay. As the population continued to increase rapidly in the early twentieth century, every bit of the available area was built over and new areas were reclaimed from the sea.
The Bombay Port Trust built a dry dock between 1914 ands 1918 and used the excavated earth to create the 22-acre. Ballard estate. Subsequently, the famous Marine Drive of Bombay was developed.

Bombay as the City of Dreams: The World of Cinema and Culture 
Despite its massive overcrowding and difficult living conditions, Bombay appears to many as a 'mayapuri' - a city of dreams.
Many Bombay films deal with the arrival of new migrants  in the city and their encounters with the real pressure of daily life. Some popular songs from the Bombay film industry speak of the contradictory aspects of the city. Eg CID (1956) and Guest house (1959)

When did the Bombay Film industry make its First Appearance?
Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatwadekar shot a scene of a wrestling match in Bombay's hanging gardens and it became India's First movies in 1896. Dadasaheb Phalke made Raja Harishchandra (1913). By 1925, Bombay had become India's films capital Money invested in about 50 Indian films in 1947 was Rs 756 million. By 1987, the film industry employed 520000 people.
Most of the people in the film industry were themselves migrants from Lahore, Calcutta, and Madras.     
Those who came from Lahore, then in Punjab, were especially important for the development of the Hindi Film industry. Many famous writers, like Ismat Chughtai and Saadat Hasan Manto, were associated with Hindi Cinema.

 

Industrialisation and the rise of the modern city in England 

Industrialisation changed the form of urbanisation. The early industrial cities of Britain such as Leeds and Manchester attracted large number of migrants to the textile mills migrants were from rural areas.
London in 1950, one out of every nine people of England and Wales lived in London. Population was 675000 and its population multiplied fourfold in 70 years. London, ' says the historian Gareth Stedman Jones, 'was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled artisans, of a growing number of semi skilled and sweated outworkers, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers and beggars.
Mojor indudtries that came up in London were :
    1.    Dockyard
    2.    Clothing and footwear.
    3.    Wood and furniture.
    4.    Metals and engineering
    5.    Printing and Stationery
    6.    Precision products such as surgical instruments, watches and objects of precious metal.
    7.    During the First World War London began manufacturing motorcars and electrical goods and the number of  large factories increased.

Marginal groups
    As London grew, crime flourished. 20000 criminals were living in London in the 1870s. The police were worried about law and order, philanthropists were anxious about public morality, and industrialists wanted a hard working and orderly labour force. So the population of criminals was counted, their activities were watched, and their ways of life were investigated.
    In the mid nineteenth century, Henry Mayhew wrote several volumes compiled long list of those who made a living from crime. Many were poor people who lived by stealing lead from roofs, food from shops, lumps of coal, and clothes drying on hedges. Others were more skilled at their trade, expert at their jobs. They were the cheats and tricksters, pickpockets and petty thieves.To discipline the population; authorities imposed high penalties and offered work to those who were considered the 'deserving poor'.

 

Women in London
    Factories employed large numbers of women in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. With technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs, and were forced to work within households.
    A large number of women used their homes to increase family income be taking in lodgers or through such activities as tailoring, washing or matchbox making. In the later twentieth century. Women got employment in wartime industries and offices, they withdrew from domestic service.

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

Development of modern cities due to Industrialization in London & Bombay

 

The City in Colonial India
The pace of urbanisation in India was slow under colonial rule. In the early twentieth century, 11% of Indians were living in cities. Mostly in the three Presidency cities, of Bombay, Bengal and Madras, they had major ports, warehouses, home and offices, army camps, education institutions, museums and libraries. Bombay was the premier city of India.
The first cotton textile mill in Bombay was established in 1854. By 1921, there were 85 cotton mills with about 146000 workers. Large number of  people flowed in from the nearby district of Ratnagiri to work in the Bombay mills.
Women formed 23% of the mill workforce. By the late 1930s, women's jobs were increasingly taken over by machines or by men.
Bombay dominated the maritime trade of India. It was also at the junction head of two major railways. The railways encouraged an even higher scale of migration into the city.

Housing and Neighborhoods
Bombay was a crowed city. Every Londoner in the 1840s enjoyed an average space of 155 square yards; Bombay had a mere 9.5 Square yards. By 1872, when London had an average of 8 persons per house, the density in Bombay was as high as 20. From its earliest days, Bombay did not grow according to any plan, and houses, especially in the fort area, were interspersed with gardens. The Bombay Fort area was divided between a native town, where most of the Indians lived, and a European or 'white' section. A European suburb and an industrial Zone began to develop to the north of the Fort settlement area, with a similar suburb and cantonment in the south.
With the rapid and unplanned expansion of the city, the crisis of housing and water supply became acute. The arrival of the textile mills only increased the pressure on Bombay's housing.
The richer Parsi, Muslim and upper caste traders and industrialists of Bombay lived in sprawling, spacious bungalows. But 70 % of the working people lived in the thickly populated chawls of Bombay.
Chawls were multi-stroreyed structures built in the 'native' parts of the town. These houses were largely owned by private landlords, such as merchants, bankers, and building contractors, looking for quick ways of earning money. Each chawl was divided into small one-room tenements, which has no private toilets.
Many families could reside at a time in a tenement. High rents forced workers to share homes, either with relatives or caste fellows who were streaming into the city. People has to keep the windows of their rooms closed even in humid weather due to the close proximity of filthy gutters, privies, buffalo stables etc. Water was scarce, and people often quarreled every morning for a turn at the tap, observers found that houses were kept quite clean.
The homes being small, street and neighborhoods were used for cooking, washing and sleeping. Liquor shop and akharas came up in any empty spot. Streets were also used for different type of leisure activities.

Eg. Magicians, monkey players or acrobats used to regularly perform. The Nandi bull used to come.  Kadaklakshmi used to beat themselves on their naked bodies in order to fill their stomachs . Chawls were also the place for the exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.
The jobber in the mills was the local neighborhood leader. He settled disputes, organized food supplies, or arranged informal credit.
People of the ' depressed classes' found it difficult to find housing. Lower castes were kept out of many chawls and often had to live in shelters made of corrugated sheets, leaves or bamboo poles.
The city of Bombay Improvement Trust was established in 1898; it focused on clearing poorer homes out of the city center. By 1918, trust schemes had deprived 64000 people of their homes, but only 14000 were rehoused. In 1918 a Rent Act was passed to keep rents reasonable, but it had the opposite effect of producing a severe housing crisis, since landlords withdrew houses from the market.
In Bombay there was scarcity of land. One of the ways the city of Bombay has developed is through massive reclamation projects. 

Land Reclamation in Bombay
The seven islands of Bombay were joined into one landmass in 1784. The Bombay governor William Hornby approved the building of the great sea wall, which prevented the flooding of the low-lying areas of Bombay.
The needs of additional commercial space in the mid nineteenth century led to the formulation of several plans, both by government and private companies.
Private companies became more interested in taking financial risks. In 1864, the Back Bay Reclamation company won the right to reclaim the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar hill to the end of Calaba. Reclamation meant the leveling of the hills around Bombay. As the population continued to increase rapidly in the early twentieth century, every bit of the available area was built over and new areas were reclaimed from the sea.
The Bombay Port Trust built a dry dock between 1914 ands 1918 and used the excavated earth to create the 22-acre. Ballard estate. Subsequently, the famous Marine Drive of Bombay was developed.

Bombay as the City of Dreams: The World of Cinema and Culture 
Despite its massive overcrowding and difficult living conditions, Bombay appears to many as a 'mayapuri' - a city of dreams.
Many Bombay films deal with the arrival of new migrants  in the city and their encounters with the real pressure of daily life. Some popular songs from the Bombay film industry speak of the contradictory aspects of the city. Eg CID (1956) and Guest house (1959)

When did the Bombay Film industry make its First Appearance?
Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatwadekar shot a scene of a wrestling match in Bombay's hanging gardens and it became India's First movies in 1896. Dadasaheb Phalke made Raja Harishchandra (1913). By 1925, Bombay had become India's films capital Money invested in about 50 Indian films in 1947 was Rs 756 million. By 1987, the film industry employed 520000 people.
Most of the people in the film industry were themselves migrants from Lahore, Calcutta, and Madras.     
Those who came from Lahore, then in Punjab, were especially important for the development of the Hindi Film industry. Many famous writers, like Ismat Chughtai and Saadat Hasan Manto, were associated with Hindi Cinema.

 

Industrialisation and the rise of the modern city in England 

Industrialisation changed the form of urbanisation. The early industrial cities of Britain such as Leeds and Manchester attracted large number of migrants to the textile mills migrants were from rural areas.
London in 1950, one out of every nine people of England and Wales lived in London. Population was 675000 and its population multiplied fourfold in 70 years. London, ' says the historian Gareth Stedman Jones, 'was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled artisans, of a growing number of semi skilled and sweated outworkers, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers and beggars.
Mojor indudtries that came up in London were :
    1.    Dockyard
    2.    Clothing and footwear.
    3.    Wood and furniture.
    4.    Metals and engineering
    5.    Printing and Stationery
    6.    Precision products such as surgical instruments, watches and objects of precious metal.
    7.    During the First World War London began manufacturing motorcars and electrical goods and the number of  large factories increased.

Marginal groups
    As London grew, crime flourished. 20000 criminals were living in London in the 1870s. The police were worried about law and order, philanthropists were anxious about public morality, and industrialists wanted a hard working and orderly labour force. So the population of criminals was counted, their activities were watched, and their ways of life were investigated.
    In the mid nineteenth century, Henry Mayhew wrote several volumes compiled long list of those who made a living from crime. Many were poor people who lived by stealing lead from roofs, food from shops, lumps of coal, and clothes drying on hedges. Others were more skilled at their trade, expert at their jobs. They were the cheats and tricksters, pickpockets and petty thieves.To discipline the population; authorities imposed high penalties and offered work to those who were considered the 'deserving poor'.

 

Women in London
    Factories employed large numbers of women in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. With technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs, and were forced to work within households.
    A large number of women used their homes to increase family income be taking in lodgers or through such activities as tailoring, washing or matchbox making. In the later twentieth century. Women got employment in wartime industries and offices, they withdrew from domestic service.

The history of print in Europe.

Print, Culture and the Modern World
    The first printed books
    (i)    The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. This was a system of hand printing. From ad 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper – also invented there, against the inked surface of woodblock. As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side. Superbly skilled craft men could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy; the beauty of calligraphy.,
    (ii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations. Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. 
        1.    Print was no longer used just by scholar-officials.
        2.    Merchants used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information.
        3.    Reading increasingly became a leisure activity.
        4.    The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces, and romantic plays.
        5.    Rich women began to- read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.
        6.    Wives of scholars-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives

    Print in Japan
    (i)    Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around ad 768-770. The oldest Japanese book, printed in ad 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.
    (ii)    Pictures were printed on textiles, Joining cards and paper money-In medieval Japan, poets and prose writers were regularly published, and books were cheap and abundant.
    (iii)    Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices. In the late eighteenth century, in the flourishing urban circles at Edo (later to be known as Tokyo), illustrated collections of paintings deiced an elegant urban culture, involving artists, courtesans, and teahouse gatherings.
    (iv)    Libraries and bookstores were packed with hand-printed materials of various types, books on women, musical instruments, calculations, tea ceremony flower arrangements, proper etiquette, cooking and famous places.

Print Comes to Europe
    Coming of Woodblock Print to China
    (i)    In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the silk route.
    (ii)    Paper made possible the production of manuscripts, carefully written by scribes.
    (iii)    China already had the technology of woodblock printing.
    (iv)    Then 1295 Marco polo brought this- knowledge back with him to Italy.
    (v)    Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks, and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe.
    (vi)    Luxury editions were still handwritten on very expensive vellum, meant for aristocratic circles and rich monastic libraries. 
        1.    As the demand for books increased, book sellers all over Europe began exporting books to many different countries.
        2.    Books fairs were held at different places.
        3.    Production of hand written manuscripts was also organized in new ways stop meet the expanded demand.
        4.    scribes or skilled hand writers were no longer solely employed by wealthy or influential patrons but increasingly by booksellers as well.

    Limitations of Manuscripts
    1.    Copying was an expensive, laborious and time- consuming business.
    2.    Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read easily. Their circulation therefore remained limited.
        The breakthrough occurred at Strasbourg, Germany, where Johann Gutenberg developed the first-Known printing press in the 1430s.

    Gutenberg and the Printing Press
    Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agriculture estate. From his childhood he had seen wine and olive presses. Subsequently, he learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith, and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets. Drawing of this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation. The olive press provided the model for the printing press and moulds were used for casting the metal types. For the letters of the alphabet. By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system,. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the time this was fast production.

    Features of New Books
    1.    infant, printed books at first closely resembled the written manuscripts in appearance and layout.
    2.    The metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles.
    3.    Borders were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns, and illustrations were painted.
    4.    In the books printed for the rich, space for decoration was kept blank on the printed page. Each purchaser could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the illustrations.

Illustration 1
    (i)    What kind of printing developed in China, Japan and Korea ?
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    How bureaucratic system was recruited in China ? How it affected Print ?
    (iv)    What do you mean by blooms of urban culture in China ?
Solution
    (i)    Hand Printing
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personal through civil service     examination. With increase in the number of candidates the volume of Print increased.
    (iv)    It mean that print was no more used by just scholar officials. It was used by various other sections of society like Merchants, writers, rich women etc.

    Try yourself
1    How print affected the life of women in China?
2    Who introduced printing technology in Japan? 
3    Which is the oldest Japanese book When it was printed?
4    What was the earlier name of Tokyo?
5    Who brought printing technology from China to Europe?
6    Which was the first book printed in Gutenberg press?

The history of print in Europe.

Print, Culture and the Modern World
    The first printed books
    (i)    The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. This was a system of hand printing. From ad 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper – also invented there, against the inked surface of woodblock. As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side. Superbly skilled craft men could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy; the beauty of calligraphy.,
    (ii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations. Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. 
        1.    Print was no longer used just by scholar-officials.
        2.    Merchants used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information.
        3.    Reading increasingly became a leisure activity.
        4.    The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces, and romantic plays.
        5.    Rich women began to- read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.
        6.    Wives of scholars-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives

    Print in Japan
    (i)    Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around ad 768-770. The oldest Japanese book, printed in ad 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.
    (ii)    Pictures were printed on textiles, Joining cards and paper money-In medieval Japan, poets and prose writers were regularly published, and books were cheap and abundant.
    (iii)    Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices. In the late eighteenth century, in the flourishing urban circles at Edo (later to be known as Tokyo), illustrated collections of paintings deiced an elegant urban culture, involving artists, courtesans, and teahouse gatherings.
    (iv)    Libraries and bookstores were packed with hand-printed materials of various types, books on women, musical instruments, calculations, tea ceremony flower arrangements, proper etiquette, cooking and famous places.

Print Comes to Europe
    Coming of Woodblock Print to China
    (i)    In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the silk route.
    (ii)    Paper made possible the production of manuscripts, carefully written by scribes.
    (iii)    China already had the technology of woodblock printing.
    (iv)    Then 1295 Marco polo brought this- knowledge back with him to Italy.
    (v)    Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks, and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe.
    (vi)    Luxury editions were still handwritten on very expensive vellum, meant for aristocratic circles and rich monastic libraries. 
        1.    As the demand for books increased, book sellers all over Europe began exporting books to many different countries.
        2.    Books fairs were held at different places.
        3.    Production of hand written manuscripts was also organized in new ways stop meet the expanded demand.
        4.    scribes or skilled hand writers were no longer solely employed by wealthy or influential patrons but increasingly by booksellers as well.

    Limitations of Manuscripts
    1.    Copying was an expensive, laborious and time- consuming business.
    2.    Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read easily. Their circulation therefore remained limited.
        The breakthrough occurred at Strasbourg, Germany, where Johann Gutenberg developed the first-Known printing press in the 1430s.

    Gutenberg and the Printing Press
    Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agriculture estate. From his childhood he had seen wine and olive presses. Subsequently, he learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith, and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets. Drawing of this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation. The olive press provided the model for the printing press and moulds were used for casting the metal types. For the letters of the alphabet. By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system,. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the time this was fast production.

    Features of New Books
    1.    infant, printed books at first closely resembled the written manuscripts in appearance and layout.
    2.    The metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles.
    3.    Borders were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns, and illustrations were painted.
    4.    In the books printed for the rich, space for decoration was kept blank on the printed page. Each purchaser could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the illustrations.

Illustration 1
    (i)    What kind of printing developed in China, Japan and Korea ?
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    How bureaucratic system was recruited in China ? How it affected Print ?
    (iv)    What do you mean by blooms of urban culture in China ?
Solution
    (i)    Hand Printing
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personal through civil service     examination. With increase in the number of candidates the volume of Print increased.
    (iv)    It mean that print was no more used by just scholar officials. It was used by various other sections of society like Merchants, writers, rich women etc.

    Try yourself
1    How print affected the life of women in China?
2    Who introduced printing technology in Japan? 
3    Which is the oldest Japanese book When it was printed?
4    What was the earlier name of Tokyo?
5    Who brought printing technology from China to Europe?
6    Which was the first book printed in Gutenberg press?

The history of print in Europe.

Print, Culture and the Modern World
    The first printed books
    (i)    The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. This was a system of hand printing. From ad 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper – also invented there, against the inked surface of woodblock. As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side. Superbly skilled craft men could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy; the beauty of calligraphy.,
    (ii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations. Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. 
        1.    Print was no longer used just by scholar-officials.
        2.    Merchants used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information.
        3.    Reading increasingly became a leisure activity.
        4.    The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces, and romantic plays.
        5.    Rich women began to- read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.
        6.    Wives of scholars-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives

    Print in Japan
    (i)    Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around ad 768-770. The oldest Japanese book, printed in ad 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.
    (ii)    Pictures were printed on textiles, Joining cards and paper money-In medieval Japan, poets and prose writers were regularly published, and books were cheap and abundant.
    (iii)    Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices. In the late eighteenth century, in the flourishing urban circles at Edo (later to be known as Tokyo), illustrated collections of paintings deiced an elegant urban culture, involving artists, courtesans, and teahouse gatherings.
    (iv)    Libraries and bookstores were packed with hand-printed materials of various types, books on women, musical instruments, calculations, tea ceremony flower arrangements, proper etiquette, cooking and famous places.

Print Comes to Europe
    Coming of Woodblock Print to China
    (i)    In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the silk route.
    (ii)    Paper made possible the production of manuscripts, carefully written by scribes.
    (iii)    China already had the technology of woodblock printing.
    (iv)    Then 1295 Marco polo brought this- knowledge back with him to Italy.
    (v)    Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks, and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe.
    (vi)    Luxury editions were still handwritten on very expensive vellum, meant for aristocratic circles and rich monastic libraries. 
        1.    As the demand for books increased, book sellers all over Europe began exporting books to many different countries.
        2.    Books fairs were held at different places.
        3.    Production of hand written manuscripts was also organized in new ways stop meet the expanded demand.
        4.    scribes or skilled hand writers were no longer solely employed by wealthy or influential patrons but increasingly by booksellers as well.

    Limitations of Manuscripts
    1.    Copying was an expensive, laborious and time- consuming business.
    2.    Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read easily. Their circulation therefore remained limited.
        The breakthrough occurred at Strasbourg, Germany, where Johann Gutenberg developed the first-Known printing press in the 1430s.

    Gutenberg and the Printing Press
    Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agriculture estate. From his childhood he had seen wine and olive presses. Subsequently, he learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith, and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets. Drawing of this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation. The olive press provided the model for the printing press and moulds were used for casting the metal types. For the letters of the alphabet. By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system,. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the time this was fast production.

    Features of New Books
    1.    infant, printed books at first closely resembled the written manuscripts in appearance and layout.
    2.    The metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles.
    3.    Borders were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns, and illustrations were painted.
    4.    In the books printed for the rich, space for decoration was kept blank on the printed page. Each purchaser could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the illustrations.

Illustration 1
    (i)    What kind of printing developed in China, Japan and Korea ?
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    How bureaucratic system was recruited in China ? How it affected Print ?
    (iv)    What do you mean by blooms of urban culture in China ?
Solution
    (i)    Hand Printing
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personal through civil service     examination. With increase in the number of candidates the volume of Print increased.
    (iv)    It mean that print was no more used by just scholar officials. It was used by various other sections of society like Merchants, writers, rich women etc.

    Try yourself
1    How print affected the life of women in China?
2    Who introduced printing technology in Japan? 
3    Which is the oldest Japanese book When it was printed?
4    What was the earlier name of Tokyo?
5    Who brought printing technology from China to Europe?
6    Which was the first book printed in Gutenberg press?

The history of print in Europe.

Print, Culture and the Modern World
    The first printed books
    (i)    The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. This was a system of hand printing. From ad 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper – also invented there, against the inked surface of woodblock. As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side. Superbly skilled craft men could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy; the beauty of calligraphy.,
    (ii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations. Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. 
        1.    Print was no longer used just by scholar-officials.
        2.    Merchants used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information.
        3.    Reading increasingly became a leisure activity.
        4.    The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces, and romantic plays.
        5.    Rich women began to- read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.
        6.    Wives of scholars-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives

    Print in Japan
    (i)    Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around ad 768-770. The oldest Japanese book, printed in ad 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.
    (ii)    Pictures were printed on textiles, Joining cards and paper money-In medieval Japan, poets and prose writers were regularly published, and books were cheap and abundant.
    (iii)    Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices. In the late eighteenth century, in the flourishing urban circles at Edo (later to be known as Tokyo), illustrated collections of paintings deiced an elegant urban culture, involving artists, courtesans, and teahouse gatherings.
    (iv)    Libraries and bookstores were packed with hand-printed materials of various types, books on women, musical instruments, calculations, tea ceremony flower arrangements, proper etiquette, cooking and famous places.

Print Comes to Europe
    Coming of Woodblock Print to China
    (i)    In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the silk route.
    (ii)    Paper made possible the production of manuscripts, carefully written by scribes.
    (iii)    China already had the technology of woodblock printing.
    (iv)    Then 1295 Marco polo brought this- knowledge back with him to Italy.
    (v)    Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks, and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe.
    (vi)    Luxury editions were still handwritten on very expensive vellum, meant for aristocratic circles and rich monastic libraries. 
        1.    As the demand for books increased, book sellers all over Europe began exporting books to many different countries.
        2.    Books fairs were held at different places.
        3.    Production of hand written manuscripts was also organized in new ways stop meet the expanded demand.
        4.    scribes or skilled hand writers were no longer solely employed by wealthy or influential patrons but increasingly by booksellers as well.

    Limitations of Manuscripts
    1.    Copying was an expensive, laborious and time- consuming business.
    2.    Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read easily. Their circulation therefore remained limited.
        The breakthrough occurred at Strasbourg, Germany, where Johann Gutenberg developed the first-Known printing press in the 1430s.

    Gutenberg and the Printing Press
    Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agriculture estate. From his childhood he had seen wine and olive presses. Subsequently, he learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith, and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets. Drawing of this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation. The olive press provided the model for the printing press and moulds were used for casting the metal types. For the letters of the alphabet. By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system,. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the time this was fast production.

    Features of New Books
    1.    infant, printed books at first closely resembled the written manuscripts in appearance and layout.
    2.    The metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles.
    3.    Borders were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns, and illustrations were painted.
    4.    In the books printed for the rich, space for decoration was kept blank on the printed page. Each purchaser could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the illustrations.

Illustration 1
    (i)    What kind of printing developed in China, Japan and Korea ?
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    How bureaucratic system was recruited in China ? How it affected Print ?
    (iv)    What do you mean by blooms of urban culture in China ?
Solution
    (i)    Hand Printing
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personal through civil service     examination. With increase in the number of candidates the volume of Print increased.
    (iv)    It mean that print was no more used by just scholar officials. It was used by various other sections of society like Merchants, writers, rich women etc.

    Try yourself
1    How print affected the life of women in China?
2    Who introduced printing technology in Japan? 
3    Which is the oldest Japanese book When it was printed?
4    What was the earlier name of Tokyo?
5    Who brought printing technology from China to Europe?
6    Which was the first book printed in Gutenberg press?

The history of print in Europe.

Print, Culture and the Modern World
    The first printed books
    (i)    The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. This was a system of hand printing. From ad 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper – also invented there, against the inked surface of woodblock. As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side. Superbly skilled craft men could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy; the beauty of calligraphy.,
    (ii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations. Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. 
        1.    Print was no longer used just by scholar-officials.
        2.    Merchants used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information.
        3.    Reading increasingly became a leisure activity.
        4.    The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces, and romantic plays.
        5.    Rich women began to- read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.
        6.    Wives of scholars-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives

    Print in Japan
    (i)    Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around ad 768-770. The oldest Japanese book, printed in ad 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.
    (ii)    Pictures were printed on textiles, Joining cards and paper money-In medieval Japan, poets and prose writers were regularly published, and books were cheap and abundant.
    (iii)    Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices. In the late eighteenth century, in the flourishing urban circles at Edo (later to be known as Tokyo), illustrated collections of paintings deiced an elegant urban culture, involving artists, courtesans, and teahouse gatherings.
    (iv)    Libraries and bookstores were packed with hand-printed materials of various types, books on women, musical instruments, calculations, tea ceremony flower arrangements, proper etiquette, cooking and famous places.

Print Comes to Europe
    Coming of Woodblock Print to China
    (i)    In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the silk route.
    (ii)    Paper made possible the production of manuscripts, carefully written by scribes.
    (iii)    China already had the technology of woodblock printing.
    (iv)    Then 1295 Marco polo brought this- knowledge back with him to Italy.
    (v)    Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks, and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe.
    (vi)    Luxury editions were still handwritten on very expensive vellum, meant for aristocratic circles and rich monastic libraries. 
        1.    As the demand for books increased, book sellers all over Europe began exporting books to many different countries.
        2.    Books fairs were held at different places.
        3.    Production of hand written manuscripts was also organized in new ways stop meet the expanded demand.
        4.    scribes or skilled hand writers were no longer solely employed by wealthy or influential patrons but increasingly by booksellers as well.

    Limitations of Manuscripts
    1.    Copying was an expensive, laborious and time- consuming business.
    2.    Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read easily. Their circulation therefore remained limited.
        The breakthrough occurred at Strasbourg, Germany, where Johann Gutenberg developed the first-Known printing press in the 1430s.

    Gutenberg and the Printing Press
    Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agriculture estate. From his childhood he had seen wine and olive presses. Subsequently, he learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith, and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets. Drawing of this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation. The olive press provided the model for the printing press and moulds were used for casting the metal types. For the letters of the alphabet. By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system,. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the time this was fast production.

    Features of New Books
    1.    infant, printed books at first closely resembled the written manuscripts in appearance and layout.
    2.    The metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles.
    3.    Borders were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns, and illustrations were painted.
    4.    In the books printed for the rich, space for decoration was kept blank on the printed page. Each purchaser could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the illustrations.

Illustration 1
    (i)    What kind of printing developed in China, Japan and Korea ?
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    How bureaucratic system was recruited in China ? How it affected Print ?
    (iv)    What do you mean by blooms of urban culture in China ?
Solution
    (i)    Hand Printing
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personal through civil service     examination. With increase in the number of candidates the volume of Print increased.
    (iv)    It mean that print was no more used by just scholar officials. It was used by various other sections of society like Merchants, writers, rich women etc.

    Try yourself
1    How print affected the life of women in China?
2    Who introduced printing technology in Japan? 
3    Which is the oldest Japanese book When it was printed?
4    What was the earlier name of Tokyo?
5    Who brought printing technology from China to Europe?
6    Which was the first book printed in Gutenberg press?

The history of print in Europe.

Print, Culture and the Modern World
    The first printed books
    (i)    The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. This was a system of hand printing. From ad 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper – also invented there, against the inked surface of woodblock. As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side. Superbly skilled craft men could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy; the beauty of calligraphy.,
    (ii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations. Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. 
        1.    Print was no longer used just by scholar-officials.
        2.    Merchants used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information.
        3.    Reading increasingly became a leisure activity.
        4.    The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces, and romantic plays.
        5.    Rich women began to- read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.
        6.    Wives of scholars-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives

    Print in Japan
    (i)    Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around ad 768-770. The oldest Japanese book, printed in ad 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.
    (ii)    Pictures were printed on textiles, Joining cards and paper money-In medieval Japan, poets and prose writers were regularly published, and books were cheap and abundant.
    (iii)    Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices. In the late eighteenth century, in the flourishing urban circles at Edo (later to be known as Tokyo), illustrated collections of paintings deiced an elegant urban culture, involving artists, courtesans, and teahouse gatherings.
    (iv)    Libraries and bookstores were packed with hand-printed materials of various types, books on women, musical instruments, calculations, tea ceremony flower arrangements, proper etiquette, cooking and famous places.

Print Comes to Europe
    Coming of Woodblock Print to China
    (i)    In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the silk route.
    (ii)    Paper made possible the production of manuscripts, carefully written by scribes.
    (iii)    China already had the technology of woodblock printing.
    (iv)    Then 1295 Marco polo brought this- knowledge back with him to Italy.
    (v)    Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks, and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe.
    (vi)    Luxury editions were still handwritten on very expensive vellum, meant for aristocratic circles and rich monastic libraries. 
        1.    As the demand for books increased, book sellers all over Europe began exporting books to many different countries.
        2.    Books fairs were held at different places.
        3.    Production of hand written manuscripts was also organized in new ways stop meet the expanded demand.
        4.    scribes or skilled hand writers were no longer solely employed by wealthy or influential patrons but increasingly by booksellers as well.

    Limitations of Manuscripts
    1.    Copying was an expensive, laborious and time- consuming business.
    2.    Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read easily. Their circulation therefore remained limited.
        The breakthrough occurred at Strasbourg, Germany, where Johann Gutenberg developed the first-Known printing press in the 1430s.

    Gutenberg and the Printing Press
    Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agriculture estate. From his childhood he had seen wine and olive presses. Subsequently, he learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith, and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets. Drawing of this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation. The olive press provided the model for the printing press and moulds were used for casting the metal types. For the letters of the alphabet. By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system,. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the time this was fast production.

    Features of New Books
    1.    infant, printed books at first closely resembled the written manuscripts in appearance and layout.
    2.    The metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles.
    3.    Borders were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns, and illustrations were painted.
    4.    In the books printed for the rich, space for decoration was kept blank on the printed page. Each purchaser could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the illustrations.

Illustration 1
    (i)    What kind of printing developed in China, Japan and Korea ?
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    How bureaucratic system was recruited in China ? How it affected Print ?
    (iv)    What do you mean by blooms of urban culture in China ?
Solution
    (i)    Hand Printing
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personal through civil service     examination. With increase in the number of candidates the volume of Print increased.
    (iv)    It mean that print was no more used by just scholar officials. It was used by various other sections of society like Merchants, writers, rich women etc.

    Try yourself
1    How print affected the life of women in China?
2    Who introduced printing technology in Japan? 
3    Which is the oldest Japanese book When it was printed?
4    What was the earlier name of Tokyo?
5    Who brought printing technology from China to Europe?
6    Which was the first book printed in Gutenberg press?

The history of print in Europe.

Print, Culture and the Modern World
    The first printed books
    (i)    The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. This was a system of hand printing. From ad 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper – also invented there, against the inked surface of woodblock. As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side. Superbly skilled craft men could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy; the beauty of calligraphy.,
    (ii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations. Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. 
        1.    Print was no longer used just by scholar-officials.
        2.    Merchants used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information.
        3.    Reading increasingly became a leisure activity.
        4.    The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces, and romantic plays.
        5.    Rich women began to- read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.
        6.    Wives of scholars-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives

    Print in Japan
    (i)    Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around ad 768-770. The oldest Japanese book, printed in ad 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.
    (ii)    Pictures were printed on textiles, Joining cards and paper money-In medieval Japan, poets and prose writers were regularly published, and books were cheap and abundant.
    (iii)    Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices. In the late eighteenth century, in the flourishing urban circles at Edo (later to be known as Tokyo), illustrated collections of paintings deiced an elegant urban culture, involving artists, courtesans, and teahouse gatherings.
    (iv)    Libraries and bookstores were packed with hand-printed materials of various types, books on women, musical instruments, calculations, tea ceremony flower arrangements, proper etiquette, cooking and famous places.

Print Comes to Europe
    Coming of Woodblock Print to China
    (i)    In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the silk route.
    (ii)    Paper made possible the production of manuscripts, carefully written by scribes.
    (iii)    China already had the technology of woodblock printing.
    (iv)    Then 1295 Marco polo brought this- knowledge back with him to Italy.
    (v)    Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks, and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe.
    (vi)    Luxury editions were still handwritten on very expensive vellum, meant for aristocratic circles and rich monastic libraries. 
        1.    As the demand for books increased, book sellers all over Europe began exporting books to many different countries.
        2.    Books fairs were held at different places.
        3.    Production of hand written manuscripts was also organized in new ways stop meet the expanded demand.
        4.    scribes or skilled hand writers were no longer solely employed by wealthy or influential patrons but increasingly by booksellers as well.

    Limitations of Manuscripts
    1.    Copying was an expensive, laborious and time- consuming business.
    2.    Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read easily. Their circulation therefore remained limited.
        The breakthrough occurred at Strasbourg, Germany, where Johann Gutenberg developed the first-Known printing press in the 1430s.

    Gutenberg and the Printing Press
    Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agriculture estate. From his childhood he had seen wine and olive presses. Subsequently, he learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith, and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets. Drawing of this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation. The olive press provided the model for the printing press and moulds were used for casting the metal types. For the letters of the alphabet. By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system,. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the time this was fast production.

    Features of New Books
    1.    infant, printed books at first closely resembled the written manuscripts in appearance and layout.
    2.    The metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles.
    3.    Borders were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns, and illustrations were painted.
    4.    In the books printed for the rich, space for decoration was kept blank on the printed page. Each purchaser could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the illustrations.

Illustration 1
    (i)    What kind of printing developed in China, Japan and Korea ?
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    How bureaucratic system was recruited in China ? How it affected Print ?
    (iv)    What do you mean by blooms of urban culture in China ?
Solution
    (i)    Hand Printing
    (ii)    Which book of China was folded and stitched at the side ?
    (iii)    China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personal through civil service     examination. With increase in the number of candidates the volume of Print increased.
    (iv)    It mean that print was no more used by just scholar officials. It was used by various other sections of society like Merchants, writers, rich women etc.

    Try yourself
1    How print affected the life of women in China?
2    Who introduced printing technology in Japan? 
3    Which is the oldest Japanese book When it was printed?
4    What was the earlier name of Tokyo?
5    Who brought printing technology from China to Europe?
6    Which was the first book printed in Gutenberg press?

The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

No need to add on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor

The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

No need to add on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor

The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

No need to add on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor

The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

No need to add on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor

The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

No need to add on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor

The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

No need to add on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor

The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

No need to add on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor

The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu in Sagar Daksh Social Science Book > Unit 1 India and the Contemporary World - II > 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: > The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc.

No need to add on this topic by teacher Manas Kapoor

General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu

General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu

General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu

General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu

General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu

General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu

General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu

General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece.

Notes added by teacher Sudhanshu

(a) French colonialism in Indo-China.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

French colonialism in Indo-China.

 

Emerging from shadow of china 
     Indo-china comprises of the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
     Different groups of people living in this area are under the shadow of the powerful empire of China. 
This is because :
    (i)     Even today the rules of northern and central Vietnam continue to maintain the chinese system of government as well as chinese culture.
    (ii)     Vietnam was also linked to the ‘maritime silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas from China. Other networks of trade connected the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people such as khmer Cambodias lived.

    Colonial Domination and Resistance
    Vietnam was colonised by French.
    On one hand France controlled military and economic domination and on other hand tried to reshape the culture of Vietnamess.
    The people opposed the french and their policies which led to development of Nationalism in Vietnam.
    Stages in Freanch colonisation
    (i)     1858 – French troops landed in Vietnam.
    (ii)     Mid 1880 – French established firm grip over northern region.
    (iii)     1887 – After Franco-chinese war the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam leading to the formation of French Indo-china.

    Why the French thought Colonies Necessary
    Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods.France also thought it was the mission of the’ advanced’ European countries to bring the benefits of civilisation to backward peoples.
    (i)    The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
    (ii)    The vast system of irrigation works -canals and earthworks - built mainly with forced labour, increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market. 
    (iii)    Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
    (iv)    This was followed by infrastructure projects to help transport goods for trade, move military garrisons and control the entire region. Construction of a trans-lndo-China rail network that would link the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China had begun.

    Should Colonies be Developed?
    Some like Paul Bernard, an influential writer and policy-maker, strongly believed that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed. 
    (i)    He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits. Bernard suggested that there were several barriers to economic “growth in Vietnam: high population levels, low agricultural productivity and extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants. If the economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved, they would buy more goods. The market would consequently expand, leading to better profits for French business.
    (ii)    To reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity it was necessary to carry out land reforms.
    (iii)    The colonial economy in Vietnam was, however, primarily based on rice cultivation and rubber plantations owned by the French and a small Vietnamese elite. Rail and port facilities were set up to service this sector. 
    Indentured Vietnamese labour was widely used in the rubber plantations.

    The Dilemma of Colonial Education
    French colonisation was not based only on economic exploitation. It was also driven by the idea of a ‘civilising mission’. The French claimed that they were bringing modern civilisation to the Vietnamese. They took it for granted that Europe had developed the most advanced civilisation. So it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern ideas to the colony even if this meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditions, because these were seen as outdated and prevented modern development’.
    Education was seen as one way to civilise the ‘native’. But in order to educate them the French needed an educated local labour force but they feared that education might create problems. 
    (i)    Once educated, the Vietnamese may begin to question colonial domination.
    (ii)    Moreover, French citizens living in Vietnam (called colons) began fearing that they might lose their jobs-as teachers, shopkeepers, policemen - to the educated Vietnamese. So they opposed policies that would give the Vietnamese full access to French education. 

    Talking Modern
    The French were faced with yet another problem in the sphere of education: the elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese. 
    (i)    Some policymakers emphasised the need to use the French language as the medium of instruction. By learning the language, they felt, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilisation of France. This would help create an ‘Asiatic France solidly tied to European France’. The educated people in Vietnam would respect French sentiments and ideals, see the superiority of French culture, and work for the French. 
    (ii)    Others were opposed to French being the only medium of instruction. They suggested that Vietnamese be taught in lower classes and French in the higher classes. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.
    (iii)    Only the Vietnamese elite - comprising a small fraction of the population-could enroll in the schools, and only a few among those admitted ultimately passed the school-leaving examination. This was largely because of a deliberate policy of failing students, particular  in the final year, so that they could not qualify for the better-paid jobs.
    (iv)    School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection; they could work in the fields but not rule themselves; they were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative. School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam.

     Looking Modern
    The Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide a Western-style education. This education included classes in science, hygiene and French (these classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately). The school’s approach to what it means to be ‘modern’ is a good example of the thinking prevalent at that time. It was not enough to learn science and Western ideas: to be modern the Vietnamese had to also look modern.The school encouraged the adoption of Western styles such as having a short haircut. For the Vietnamese this meant a major break with their own identity since they traditionally kept long hair.

    Resistance in Schools
    Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum. Sometimes there was open opposition, at other times there was silent resistance. 
    It became difficult to control what was actually taught. While teaching, Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticised what was stated.
    In 1926 a major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School. A Vietnamese girl sitting in one of the front seats was asked to move to the back of the class and allow a local French student to occupy the front bench.
    Elsewhere, students fought against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collar jobs. They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society. This brought them into conflict with the French as well as the traditional elite, since both saw their positions threatened.
    Schools became an important place for political and cultural battles. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. They tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people, to make them believe in the superiority of French civilisation and the inferiority of the Vietnamese. 
    Vietnamese intellectuals, on the other hand, feared that Vietnam was losing not just control over its territory but its very identity: its own culture and customs were being devalued and the people were developing a master-slave mentality.

Illustration 1
    Why it is said that Indo-China had ‘Emerged from shadow of China’?
Solution
    Indo-China comprise of countries Vietnams, Laos and Cambodia. They still follow the Chinese system of governence and culture. They are closely connected to China through maritime silks route. 

Illustration 2
    Why French thought that colonisation was necessary?
Solution
    French thought colononisation was necessary because :
    (i)     Colonies can be used for supplying natural resources and other essential goods.
    (ii)     Advanced European countries have a mission to bring the benifits of civilization to backward peoples of the colonies.

Illustration 3
    What was the dilemma of colonial education?
Solution
    On one hand the French needed the educated labour force on the other hand educated people of colonies may question the colonial domination.

Illustration 4
    How silent resistance started in the schools of Vietnam.
Solution
    It was difficult to check what was being tanght in the class. The teachers in Vietnam quitely modified the text while teaching and criticised what was stated in the texts. This started the silent resistance in the schools of Vietnam. 

Illustration 5
    What steps were suggested by French policy makers to counter the impact of Chinese culture from Vietnam?
Solution
    French policy makers suggested that in schools of Vietnam French language should be used as medium of instruction. So that the Vietnamese people may come under French culture creating an Asiatic France tied to influence of European France.
 
    Try yourself

1    How nationalism developed in Vietnam?
2    What do you mean by civilizing mission?
3.    How France tried to consolidate their rule in Vietnam through textbooks?

 

(a) French colonialism in Indo-China.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

French colonialism in Indo-China.

 

Emerging from shadow of china 
     Indo-china comprises of the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
     Different groups of people living in this area are under the shadow of the powerful empire of China. 
This is because :
    (i)     Even today the rules of northern and central Vietnam continue to maintain the chinese system of government as well as chinese culture.
    (ii)     Vietnam was also linked to the ‘maritime silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas from China. Other networks of trade connected the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people such as khmer Cambodias lived.

    Colonial Domination and Resistance
    Vietnam was colonised by French.
    On one hand France controlled military and economic domination and on other hand tried to reshape the culture of Vietnamess.
    The people opposed the french and their policies which led to development of Nationalism in Vietnam.
    Stages in Freanch colonisation
    (i)     1858 – French troops landed in Vietnam.
    (ii)     Mid 1880 – French established firm grip over northern region.
    (iii)     1887 – After Franco-chinese war the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam leading to the formation of French Indo-china.

    Why the French thought Colonies Necessary
    Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods.France also thought it was the mission of the’ advanced’ European countries to bring the benefits of civilisation to backward peoples.
    (i)    The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
    (ii)    The vast system of irrigation works -canals and earthworks - built mainly with forced labour, increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market. 
    (iii)    Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
    (iv)    This was followed by infrastructure projects to help transport goods for trade, move military garrisons and control the entire region. Construction of a trans-lndo-China rail network that would link the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China had begun.

    Should Colonies be Developed?
    Some like Paul Bernard, an influential writer and policy-maker, strongly believed that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed. 
    (i)    He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits. Bernard suggested that there were several barriers to economic “growth in Vietnam: high population levels, low agricultural productivity and extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants. If the economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved, they would buy more goods. The market would consequently expand, leading to better profits for French business.
    (ii)    To reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity it was necessary to carry out land reforms.
    (iii)    The colonial economy in Vietnam was, however, primarily based on rice cultivation and rubber plantations owned by the French and a small Vietnamese elite. Rail and port facilities were set up to service this sector. 
    Indentured Vietnamese labour was widely used in the rubber plantations.

    The Dilemma of Colonial Education
    French colonisation was not based only on economic exploitation. It was also driven by the idea of a ‘civilising mission’. The French claimed that they were bringing modern civilisation to the Vietnamese. They took it for granted that Europe had developed the most advanced civilisation. So it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern ideas to the colony even if this meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditions, because these were seen as outdated and prevented modern development’.
    Education was seen as one way to civilise the ‘native’. But in order to educate them the French needed an educated local labour force but they feared that education might create problems. 
    (i)    Once educated, the Vietnamese may begin to question colonial domination.
    (ii)    Moreover, French citizens living in Vietnam (called colons) began fearing that they might lose their jobs-as teachers, shopkeepers, policemen - to the educated Vietnamese. So they opposed policies that would give the Vietnamese full access to French education. 

    Talking Modern
    The French were faced with yet another problem in the sphere of education: the elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese. 
    (i)    Some policymakers emphasised the need to use the French language as the medium of instruction. By learning the language, they felt, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilisation of France. This would help create an ‘Asiatic France solidly tied to European France’. The educated people in Vietnam would respect French sentiments and ideals, see the superiority of French culture, and work for the French. 
    (ii)    Others were opposed to French being the only medium of instruction. They suggested that Vietnamese be taught in lower classes and French in the higher classes. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.
    (iii)    Only the Vietnamese elite - comprising a small fraction of the population-could enroll in the schools, and only a few among those admitted ultimately passed the school-leaving examination. This was largely because of a deliberate policy of failing students, particular  in the final year, so that they could not qualify for the better-paid jobs.
    (iv)    School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection; they could work in the fields but not rule themselves; they were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative. School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam.

     Looking Modern
    The Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide a Western-style education. This education included classes in science, hygiene and French (these classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately). The school’s approach to what it means to be ‘modern’ is a good example of the thinking prevalent at that time. It was not enough to learn science and Western ideas: to be modern the Vietnamese had to also look modern.The school encouraged the adoption of Western styles such as having a short haircut. For the Vietnamese this meant a major break with their own identity since they traditionally kept long hair.

    Resistance in Schools
    Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum. Sometimes there was open opposition, at other times there was silent resistance. 
    It became difficult to control what was actually taught. While teaching, Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticised what was stated.
    In 1926 a major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School. A Vietnamese girl sitting in one of the front seats was asked to move to the back of the class and allow a local French student to occupy the front bench.
    Elsewhere, students fought against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collar jobs. They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society. This brought them into conflict with the French as well as the traditional elite, since both saw their positions threatened.
    Schools became an important place for political and cultural battles. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. They tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people, to make them believe in the superiority of French civilisation and the inferiority of the Vietnamese. 
    Vietnamese intellectuals, on the other hand, feared that Vietnam was losing not just control over its territory but its very identity: its own culture and customs were being devalued and the people were developing a master-slave mentality.

Illustration 1
    Why it is said that Indo-China had ‘Emerged from shadow of China’?
Solution
    Indo-China comprise of countries Vietnams, Laos and Cambodia. They still follow the Chinese system of governence and culture. They are closely connected to China through maritime silks route. 

Illustration 2
    Why French thought that colonisation was necessary?
Solution
    French thought colononisation was necessary because :
    (i)     Colonies can be used for supplying natural resources and other essential goods.
    (ii)     Advanced European countries have a mission to bring the benifits of civilization to backward peoples of the colonies.

Illustration 3
    What was the dilemma of colonial education?
Solution
    On one hand the French needed the educated labour force on the other hand educated people of colonies may question the colonial domination.

Illustration 4
    How silent resistance started in the schools of Vietnam.
Solution
    It was difficult to check what was being tanght in the class. The teachers in Vietnam quitely modified the text while teaching and criticised what was stated in the texts. This started the silent resistance in the schools of Vietnam. 

Illustration 5
    What steps were suggested by French policy makers to counter the impact of Chinese culture from Vietnam?
Solution
    French policy makers suggested that in schools of Vietnam French language should be used as medium of instruction. So that the Vietnamese people may come under French culture creating an Asiatic France tied to influence of European France.
 
    Try yourself

1    How nationalism developed in Vietnam?
2    What do you mean by civilizing mission?
3.    How France tried to consolidate their rule in Vietnam through textbooks?

 

(a) French colonialism in Indo-China.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

French colonialism in Indo-China.

 

Emerging from shadow of china 
     Indo-china comprises of the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
     Different groups of people living in this area are under the shadow of the powerful empire of China. 
This is because :
    (i)     Even today the rules of northern and central Vietnam continue to maintain the chinese system of government as well as chinese culture.
    (ii)     Vietnam was also linked to the ‘maritime silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas from China. Other networks of trade connected the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people such as khmer Cambodias lived.

    Colonial Domination and Resistance
    Vietnam was colonised by French.
    On one hand France controlled military and economic domination and on other hand tried to reshape the culture of Vietnamess.
    The people opposed the french and their policies which led to development of Nationalism in Vietnam.
    Stages in Freanch colonisation
    (i)     1858 – French troops landed in Vietnam.
    (ii)     Mid 1880 – French established firm grip over northern region.
    (iii)     1887 – After Franco-chinese war the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam leading to the formation of French Indo-china.

    Why the French thought Colonies Necessary
    Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods.France also thought it was the mission of the’ advanced’ European countries to bring the benefits of civilisation to backward peoples.
    (i)    The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
    (ii)    The vast system of irrigation works -canals and earthworks - built mainly with forced labour, increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market. 
    (iii)    Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
    (iv)    This was followed by infrastructure projects to help transport goods for trade, move military garrisons and control the entire region. Construction of a trans-lndo-China rail network that would link the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China had begun.

    Should Colonies be Developed?
    Some like Paul Bernard, an influential writer and policy-maker, strongly believed that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed. 
    (i)    He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits. Bernard suggested that there were several barriers to economic “growth in Vietnam: high population levels, low agricultural productivity and extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants. If the economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved, they would buy more goods. The market would consequently expand, leading to better profits for French business.
    (ii)    To reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity it was necessary to carry out land reforms.
    (iii)    The colonial economy in Vietnam was, however, primarily based on rice cultivation and rubber plantations owned by the French and a small Vietnamese elite. Rail and port facilities were set up to service this sector. 
    Indentured Vietnamese labour was widely used in the rubber plantations.

    The Dilemma of Colonial Education
    French colonisation was not based only on economic exploitation. It was also driven by the idea of a ‘civilising mission’. The French claimed that they were bringing modern civilisation to the Vietnamese. They took it for granted that Europe had developed the most advanced civilisation. So it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern ideas to the colony even if this meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditions, because these were seen as outdated and prevented modern development’.
    Education was seen as one way to civilise the ‘native’. But in order to educate them the French needed an educated local labour force but they feared that education might create problems. 
    (i)    Once educated, the Vietnamese may begin to question colonial domination.
    (ii)    Moreover, French citizens living in Vietnam (called colons) began fearing that they might lose their jobs-as teachers, shopkeepers, policemen - to the educated Vietnamese. So they opposed policies that would give the Vietnamese full access to French education. 

    Talking Modern
    The French were faced with yet another problem in the sphere of education: the elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese. 
    (i)    Some policymakers emphasised the need to use the French language as the medium of instruction. By learning the language, they felt, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilisation of France. This would help create an ‘Asiatic France solidly tied to European France’. The educated people in Vietnam would respect French sentiments and ideals, see the superiority of French culture, and work for the French. 
    (ii)    Others were opposed to French being the only medium of instruction. They suggested that Vietnamese be taught in lower classes and French in the higher classes. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.
    (iii)    Only the Vietnamese elite - comprising a small fraction of the population-could enroll in the schools, and only a few among those admitted ultimately passed the school-leaving examination. This was largely because of a deliberate policy of failing students, particular  in the final year, so that they could not qualify for the better-paid jobs.
    (iv)    School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection; they could work in the fields but not rule themselves; they were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative. School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam.

     Looking Modern
    The Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide a Western-style education. This education included classes in science, hygiene and French (these classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately). The school’s approach to what it means to be ‘modern’ is a good example of the thinking prevalent at that time. It was not enough to learn science and Western ideas: to be modern the Vietnamese had to also look modern.The school encouraged the adoption of Western styles such as having a short haircut. For the Vietnamese this meant a major break with their own identity since they traditionally kept long hair.

    Resistance in Schools
    Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum. Sometimes there was open opposition, at other times there was silent resistance. 
    It became difficult to control what was actually taught. While teaching, Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticised what was stated.
    In 1926 a major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School. A Vietnamese girl sitting in one of the front seats was asked to move to the back of the class and allow a local French student to occupy the front bench.
    Elsewhere, students fought against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collar jobs. They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society. This brought them into conflict with the French as well as the traditional elite, since both saw their positions threatened.
    Schools became an important place for political and cultural battles. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. They tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people, to make them believe in the superiority of French civilisation and the inferiority of the Vietnamese. 
    Vietnamese intellectuals, on the other hand, feared that Vietnam was losing not just control over its territory but its very identity: its own culture and customs were being devalued and the people were developing a master-slave mentality.

Illustration 1
    Why it is said that Indo-China had ‘Emerged from shadow of China’?
Solution
    Indo-China comprise of countries Vietnams, Laos and Cambodia. They still follow the Chinese system of governence and culture. They are closely connected to China through maritime silks route. 

Illustration 2
    Why French thought that colonisation was necessary?
Solution
    French thought colononisation was necessary because :
    (i)     Colonies can be used for supplying natural resources and other essential goods.
    (ii)     Advanced European countries have a mission to bring the benifits of civilization to backward peoples of the colonies.

Illustration 3
    What was the dilemma of colonial education?
Solution
    On one hand the French needed the educated labour force on the other hand educated people of colonies may question the colonial domination.

Illustration 4
    How silent resistance started in the schools of Vietnam.
Solution
    It was difficult to check what was being tanght in the class. The teachers in Vietnam quitely modified the text while teaching and criticised what was stated in the texts. This started the silent resistance in the schools of Vietnam. 

Illustration 5
    What steps were suggested by French policy makers to counter the impact of Chinese culture from Vietnam?
Solution
    French policy makers suggested that in schools of Vietnam French language should be used as medium of instruction. So that the Vietnamese people may come under French culture creating an Asiatic France tied to influence of European France.
 
    Try yourself

1    How nationalism developed in Vietnam?
2    What do you mean by civilizing mission?
3.    How France tried to consolidate their rule in Vietnam through textbooks?

 

(a) French colonialism in Indo-China.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

French colonialism in Indo-China.

 

Emerging from shadow of china 
     Indo-china comprises of the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
     Different groups of people living in this area are under the shadow of the powerful empire of China. 
This is because :
    (i)     Even today the rules of northern and central Vietnam continue to maintain the chinese system of government as well as chinese culture.
    (ii)     Vietnam was also linked to the ‘maritime silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas from China. Other networks of trade connected the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people such as khmer Cambodias lived.

    Colonial Domination and Resistance
    Vietnam was colonised by French.
    On one hand France controlled military and economic domination and on other hand tried to reshape the culture of Vietnamess.
    The people opposed the french and their policies which led to development of Nationalism in Vietnam.
    Stages in Freanch colonisation
    (i)     1858 – French troops landed in Vietnam.
    (ii)     Mid 1880 – French established firm grip over northern region.
    (iii)     1887 – After Franco-chinese war the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam leading to the formation of French Indo-china.

    Why the French thought Colonies Necessary
    Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods.France also thought it was the mission of the’ advanced’ European countries to bring the benefits of civilisation to backward peoples.
    (i)    The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
    (ii)    The vast system of irrigation works -canals and earthworks - built mainly with forced labour, increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market. 
    (iii)    Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
    (iv)    This was followed by infrastructure projects to help transport goods for trade, move military garrisons and control the entire region. Construction of a trans-lndo-China rail network that would link the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China had begun.

    Should Colonies be Developed?
    Some like Paul Bernard, an influential writer and policy-maker, strongly believed that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed. 
    (i)    He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits. Bernard suggested that there were several barriers to economic “growth in Vietnam: high population levels, low agricultural productivity and extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants. If the economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved, they would buy more goods. The market would consequently expand, leading to better profits for French business.
    (ii)    To reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity it was necessary to carry out land reforms.
    (iii)    The colonial economy in Vietnam was, however, primarily based on rice cultivation and rubber plantations owned by the French and a small Vietnamese elite. Rail and port facilities were set up to service this sector. 
    Indentured Vietnamese labour was widely used in the rubber plantations.

    The Dilemma of Colonial Education
    French colonisation was not based only on economic exploitation. It was also driven by the idea of a ‘civilising mission’. The French claimed that they were bringing modern civilisation to the Vietnamese. They took it for granted that Europe had developed the most advanced civilisation. So it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern ideas to the colony even if this meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditions, because these were seen as outdated and prevented modern development’.
    Education was seen as one way to civilise the ‘native’. But in order to educate them the French needed an educated local labour force but they feared that education might create problems. 
    (i)    Once educated, the Vietnamese may begin to question colonial domination.
    (ii)    Moreover, French citizens living in Vietnam (called colons) began fearing that they might lose their jobs-as teachers, shopkeepers, policemen - to the educated Vietnamese. So they opposed policies that would give the Vietnamese full access to French education. 

    Talking Modern
    The French were faced with yet another problem in the sphere of education: the elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese. 
    (i)    Some policymakers emphasised the need to use the French language as the medium of instruction. By learning the language, they felt, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilisation of France. This would help create an ‘Asiatic France solidly tied to European France’. The educated people in Vietnam would respect French sentiments and ideals, see the superiority of French culture, and work for the French. 
    (ii)    Others were opposed to French being the only medium of instruction. They suggested that Vietnamese be taught in lower classes and French in the higher classes. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.
    (iii)    Only the Vietnamese elite - comprising a small fraction of the population-could enroll in the schools, and only a few among those admitted ultimately passed the school-leaving examination. This was largely because of a deliberate policy of failing students, particular  in the final year, so that they could not qualify for the better-paid jobs.
    (iv)    School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection; they could work in the fields but not rule themselves; they were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative. School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam.

     Looking Modern
    The Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide a Western-style education. This education included classes in science, hygiene and French (these classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately). The school’s approach to what it means to be ‘modern’ is a good example of the thinking prevalent at that time. It was not enough to learn science and Western ideas: to be modern the Vietnamese had to also look modern.The school encouraged the adoption of Western styles such as having a short haircut. For the Vietnamese this meant a major break with their own identity since they traditionally kept long hair.

    Resistance in Schools
    Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum. Sometimes there was open opposition, at other times there was silent resistance. 
    It became difficult to control what was actually taught. While teaching, Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticised what was stated.
    In 1926 a major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School. A Vietnamese girl sitting in one of the front seats was asked to move to the back of the class and allow a local French student to occupy the front bench.
    Elsewhere, students fought against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collar jobs. They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society. This brought them into conflict with the French as well as the traditional elite, since both saw their positions threatened.
    Schools became an important place for political and cultural battles. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. They tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people, to make them believe in the superiority of French civilisation and the inferiority of the Vietnamese. 
    Vietnamese intellectuals, on the other hand, feared that Vietnam was losing not just control over its territory but its very identity: its own culture and customs were being devalued and the people were developing a master-slave mentality.

Illustration 1
    Why it is said that Indo-China had ‘Emerged from shadow of China’?
Solution
    Indo-China comprise of countries Vietnams, Laos and Cambodia. They still follow the Chinese system of governence and culture. They are closely connected to China through maritime silks route. 

Illustration 2
    Why French thought that colonisation was necessary?
Solution
    French thought colononisation was necessary because :
    (i)     Colonies can be used for supplying natural resources and other essential goods.
    (ii)     Advanced European countries have a mission to bring the benifits of civilization to backward peoples of the colonies.

Illustration 3
    What was the dilemma of colonial education?
Solution
    On one hand the French needed the educated labour force on the other hand educated people of colonies may question the colonial domination.

Illustration 4
    How silent resistance started in the schools of Vietnam.
Solution
    It was difficult to check what was being tanght in the class. The teachers in Vietnam quitely modified the text while teaching and criticised what was stated in the texts. This started the silent resistance in the schools of Vietnam. 

Illustration 5
    What steps were suggested by French policy makers to counter the impact of Chinese culture from Vietnam?
Solution
    French policy makers suggested that in schools of Vietnam French language should be used as medium of instruction. So that the Vietnamese people may come under French culture creating an Asiatic France tied to influence of European France.
 
    Try yourself

1    How nationalism developed in Vietnam?
2    What do you mean by civilizing mission?
3.    How France tried to consolidate their rule in Vietnam through textbooks?

 

(a) French colonialism in Indo-China.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

French colonialism in Indo-China.

 

Emerging from shadow of china 
     Indo-china comprises of the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
     Different groups of people living in this area are under the shadow of the powerful empire of China. 
This is because :
    (i)     Even today the rules of northern and central Vietnam continue to maintain the chinese system of government as well as chinese culture.
    (ii)     Vietnam was also linked to the ‘maritime silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas from China. Other networks of trade connected the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people such as khmer Cambodias lived.

    Colonial Domination and Resistance
    Vietnam was colonised by French.
    On one hand France controlled military and economic domination and on other hand tried to reshape the culture of Vietnamess.
    The people opposed the french and their policies which led to development of Nationalism in Vietnam.
    Stages in Freanch colonisation
    (i)     1858 – French troops landed in Vietnam.
    (ii)     Mid 1880 – French established firm grip over northern region.
    (iii)     1887 – After Franco-chinese war the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam leading to the formation of French Indo-china.

    Why the French thought Colonies Necessary
    Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods.France also thought it was the mission of the’ advanced’ European countries to bring the benefits of civilisation to backward peoples.
    (i)    The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
    (ii)    The vast system of irrigation works -canals and earthworks - built mainly with forced labour, increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market. 
    (iii)    Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
    (iv)    This was followed by infrastructure projects to help transport goods for trade, move military garrisons and control the entire region. Construction of a trans-lndo-China rail network that would link the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China had begun.

    Should Colonies be Developed?
    Some like Paul Bernard, an influential writer and policy-maker, strongly believed that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed. 
    (i)    He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits. Bernard suggested that there were several barriers to economic “growth in Vietnam: high population levels, low agricultural productivity and extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants. If the economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved, they would buy more goods. The market would consequently expand, leading to better profits for French business.
    (ii)    To reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity it was necessary to carry out land reforms.
    (iii)    The colonial economy in Vietnam was, however, primarily based on rice cultivation and rubber plantations owned by the French and a small Vietnamese elite. Rail and port facilities were set up to service this sector. 
    Indentured Vietnamese labour was widely used in the rubber plantations.

    The Dilemma of Colonial Education
    French colonisation was not based only on economic exploitation. It was also driven by the idea of a ‘civilising mission’. The French claimed that they were bringing modern civilisation to the Vietnamese. They took it for granted that Europe had developed the most advanced civilisation. So it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern ideas to the colony even if this meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditions, because these were seen as outdated and prevented modern development’.
    Education was seen as one way to civilise the ‘native’. But in order to educate them the French needed an educated local labour force but they feared that education might create problems. 
    (i)    Once educated, the Vietnamese may begin to question colonial domination.
    (ii)    Moreover, French citizens living in Vietnam (called colons) began fearing that they might lose their jobs-as teachers, shopkeepers, policemen - to the educated Vietnamese. So they opposed policies that would give the Vietnamese full access to French education. 

    Talking Modern
    The French were faced with yet another problem in the sphere of education: the elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese. 
    (i)    Some policymakers emphasised the need to use the French language as the medium of instruction. By learning the language, they felt, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilisation of France. This would help create an ‘Asiatic France solidly tied to European France’. The educated people in Vietnam would respect French sentiments and ideals, see the superiority of French culture, and work for the French. 
    (ii)    Others were opposed to French being the only medium of instruction. They suggested that Vietnamese be taught in lower classes and French in the higher classes. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.
    (iii)    Only the Vietnamese elite - comprising a small fraction of the population-could enroll in the schools, and only a few among those admitted ultimately passed the school-leaving examination. This was largely because of a deliberate policy of failing students, particular  in the final year, so that they could not qualify for the better-paid jobs.
    (iv)    School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection; they could work in the fields but not rule themselves; they were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative. School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam.

     Looking Modern
    The Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide a Western-style education. This education included classes in science, hygiene and French (these classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately). The school’s approach to what it means to be ‘modern’ is a good example of the thinking prevalent at that time. It was not enough to learn science and Western ideas: to be modern the Vietnamese had to also look modern.The school encouraged the adoption of Western styles such as having a short haircut. For the Vietnamese this meant a major break with their own identity since they traditionally kept long hair.

    Resistance in Schools
    Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum. Sometimes there was open opposition, at other times there was silent resistance. 
    It became difficult to control what was actually taught. While teaching, Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticised what was stated.
    In 1926 a major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School. A Vietnamese girl sitting in one of the front seats was asked to move to the back of the class and allow a local French student to occupy the front bench.
    Elsewhere, students fought against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collar jobs. They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society. This brought them into conflict with the French as well as the traditional elite, since both saw their positions threatened.
    Schools became an important place for political and cultural battles. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. They tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people, to make them believe in the superiority of French civilisation and the inferiority of the Vietnamese. 
    Vietnamese intellectuals, on the other hand, feared that Vietnam was losing not just control over its territory but its very identity: its own culture and customs were being devalued and the people were developing a master-slave mentality.

Illustration 1
    Why it is said that Indo-China had ‘Emerged from shadow of China’?
Solution
    Indo-China comprise of countries Vietnams, Laos and Cambodia. They still follow the Chinese system of governence and culture. They are closely connected to China through maritime silks route. 

Illustration 2
    Why French thought that colonisation was necessary?
Solution
    French thought colononisation was necessary because :
    (i)     Colonies can be used for supplying natural resources and other essential goods.
    (ii)     Advanced European countries have a mission to bring the benifits of civilization to backward peoples of the colonies.

Illustration 3
    What was the dilemma of colonial education?
Solution
    On one hand the French needed the educated labour force on the other hand educated people of colonies may question the colonial domination.

Illustration 4
    How silent resistance started in the schools of Vietnam.
Solution
    It was difficult to check what was being tanght in the class. The teachers in Vietnam quitely modified the text while teaching and criticised what was stated in the texts. This started the silent resistance in the schools of Vietnam. 

Illustration 5
    What steps were suggested by French policy makers to counter the impact of Chinese culture from Vietnam?
Solution
    French policy makers suggested that in schools of Vietnam French language should be used as medium of instruction. So that the Vietnamese people may come under French culture creating an Asiatic France tied to influence of European France.
 
    Try yourself

1    How nationalism developed in Vietnam?
2    What do you mean by civilizing mission?
3.    How France tried to consolidate their rule in Vietnam through textbooks?

 

(a) French colonialism in Indo-China.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

French colonialism in Indo-China.

 

Emerging from shadow of china 
     Indo-china comprises of the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
     Different groups of people living in this area are under the shadow of the powerful empire of China. 
This is because :
    (i)     Even today the rules of northern and central Vietnam continue to maintain the chinese system of government as well as chinese culture.
    (ii)     Vietnam was also linked to the ‘maritime silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas from China. Other networks of trade connected the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people such as khmer Cambodias lived.

    Colonial Domination and Resistance
    Vietnam was colonised by French.
    On one hand France controlled military and economic domination and on other hand tried to reshape the culture of Vietnamess.
    The people opposed the french and their policies which led to development of Nationalism in Vietnam.
    Stages in Freanch colonisation
    (i)     1858 – French troops landed in Vietnam.
    (ii)     Mid 1880 – French established firm grip over northern region.
    (iii)     1887 – After Franco-chinese war the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam leading to the formation of French Indo-china.

    Why the French thought Colonies Necessary
    Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods.France also thought it was the mission of the’ advanced’ European countries to bring the benefits of civilisation to backward peoples.
    (i)    The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
    (ii)    The vast system of irrigation works -canals and earthworks - built mainly with forced labour, increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market. 
    (iii)    Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
    (iv)    This was followed by infrastructure projects to help transport goods for trade, move military garrisons and control the entire region. Construction of a trans-lndo-China rail network that would link the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China had begun.

    Should Colonies be Developed?
    Some like Paul Bernard, an influential writer and policy-maker, strongly believed that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed. 
    (i)    He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits. Bernard suggested that there were several barriers to economic “growth in Vietnam: high population levels, low agricultural productivity and extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants. If the economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved, they would buy more goods. The market would consequently expand, leading to better profits for French business.
    (ii)    To reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity it was necessary to carry out land reforms.
    (iii)    The colonial economy in Vietnam was, however, primarily based on rice cultivation and rubber plantations owned by the French and a small Vietnamese elite. Rail and port facilities were set up to service this sector. 
    Indentured Vietnamese labour was widely used in the rubber plantations.

    The Dilemma of Colonial Education
    French colonisation was not based only on economic exploitation. It was also driven by the idea of a ‘civilising mission’. The French claimed that they were bringing modern civilisation to the Vietnamese. They took it for granted that Europe had developed the most advanced civilisation. So it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern ideas to the colony even if this meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditions, because these were seen as outdated and prevented modern development’.
    Education was seen as one way to civilise the ‘native’. But in order to educate them the French needed an educated local labour force but they feared that education might create problems. 
    (i)    Once educated, the Vietnamese may begin to question colonial domination.
    (ii)    Moreover, French citizens living in Vietnam (called colons) began fearing that they might lose their jobs-as teachers, shopkeepers, policemen - to the educated Vietnamese. So they opposed policies that would give the Vietnamese full access to French education. 

    Talking Modern
    The French were faced with yet another problem in the sphere of education: the elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese. 
    (i)    Some policymakers emphasised the need to use the French language as the medium of instruction. By learning the language, they felt, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilisation of France. This would help create an ‘Asiatic France solidly tied to European France’. The educated people in Vietnam would respect French sentiments and ideals, see the superiority of French culture, and work for the French. 
    (ii)    Others were opposed to French being the only medium of instruction. They suggested that Vietnamese be taught in lower classes and French in the higher classes. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.
    (iii)    Only the Vietnamese elite - comprising a small fraction of the population-could enroll in the schools, and only a few among those admitted ultimately passed the school-leaving examination. This was largely because of a deliberate policy of failing students, particular  in the final year, so that they could not qualify for the better-paid jobs.
    (iv)    School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection; they could work in the fields but not rule themselves; they were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative. School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam.

     Looking Modern
    The Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide a Western-style education. This education included classes in science, hygiene and French (these classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately). The school’s approach to what it means to be ‘modern’ is a good example of the thinking prevalent at that time. It was not enough to learn science and Western ideas: to be modern the Vietnamese had to also look modern.The school encouraged the adoption of Western styles such as having a short haircut. For the Vietnamese this meant a major break with their own identity since they traditionally kept long hair.

    Resistance in Schools
    Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum. Sometimes there was open opposition, at other times there was silent resistance. 
    It became difficult to control what was actually taught. While teaching, Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticised what was stated.
    In 1926 a major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School. A Vietnamese girl sitting in one of the front seats was asked to move to the back of the class and allow a local French student to occupy the front bench.
    Elsewhere, students fought against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collar jobs. They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society. This brought them into conflict with the French as well as the traditional elite, since both saw their positions threatened.
    Schools became an important place for political and cultural battles. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. They tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people, to make them believe in the superiority of French civilisation and the inferiority of the Vietnamese. 
    Vietnamese intellectuals, on the other hand, feared that Vietnam was losing not just control over its territory but its very identity: its own culture and customs were being devalued and the people were developing a master-slave mentality.

Illustration 1
    Why it is said that Indo-China had ‘Emerged from shadow of China’?
Solution
    Indo-China comprise of countries Vietnams, Laos and Cambodia. They still follow the Chinese system of governence and culture. They are closely connected to China through maritime silks route. 

Illustration 2
    Why French thought that colonisation was necessary?
Solution
    French thought colononisation was necessary because :
    (i)     Colonies can be used for supplying natural resources and other essential goods.
    (ii)     Advanced European countries have a mission to bring the benifits of civilization to backward peoples of the colonies.

Illustration 3
    What was the dilemma of colonial education?
Solution
    On one hand the French needed the educated labour force on the other hand educated people of colonies may question the colonial domination.

Illustration 4
    How silent resistance started in the schools of Vietnam.
Solution
    It was difficult to check what was being tanght in the class. The teachers in Vietnam quitely modified the text while teaching and criticised what was stated in the texts. This started the silent resistance in the schools of Vietnam. 

Illustration 5
    What steps were suggested by French policy makers to counter the impact of Chinese culture from Vietnam?
Solution
    French policy makers suggested that in schools of Vietnam French language should be used as medium of instruction. So that the Vietnamese people may come under French culture creating an Asiatic France tied to influence of European France.
 
    Try yourself

1    How nationalism developed in Vietnam?
2    What do you mean by civilizing mission?
3.    How France tried to consolidate their rule in Vietnam through textbooks?

 

(a) French colonialism in Indo-China.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

French colonialism in Indo-China.

 

Emerging from shadow of china 
     Indo-china comprises of the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
     Different groups of people living in this area are under the shadow of the powerful empire of China. 
This is because :
    (i)     Even today the rules of northern and central Vietnam continue to maintain the chinese system of government as well as chinese culture.
    (ii)     Vietnam was also linked to the ‘maritime silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas from China. Other networks of trade connected the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people such as khmer Cambodias lived.

    Colonial Domination and Resistance
    Vietnam was colonised by French.
    On one hand France controlled military and economic domination and on other hand tried to reshape the culture of Vietnamess.
    The people opposed the french and their policies which led to development of Nationalism in Vietnam.
    Stages in Freanch colonisation
    (i)     1858 – French troops landed in Vietnam.
    (ii)     Mid 1880 – French established firm grip over northern region.
    (iii)     1887 – After Franco-chinese war the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam leading to the formation of French Indo-china.

    Why the French thought Colonies Necessary
    Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods.France also thought it was the mission of the’ advanced’ European countries to bring the benefits of civilisation to backward peoples.
    (i)    The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
    (ii)    The vast system of irrigation works -canals and earthworks - built mainly with forced labour, increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market. 
    (iii)    Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
    (iv)    This was followed by infrastructure projects to help transport goods for trade, move military garrisons and control the entire region. Construction of a trans-lndo-China rail network that would link the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China had begun.

    Should Colonies be Developed?
    Some like Paul Bernard, an influential writer and policy-maker, strongly believed that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed. 
    (i)    He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits. Bernard suggested that there were several barriers to economic “growth in Vietnam: high population levels, low agricultural productivity and extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants. If the economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved, they would buy more goods. The market would consequently expand, leading to better profits for French business.
    (ii)    To reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity it was necessary to carry out land reforms.
    (iii)    The colonial economy in Vietnam was, however, primarily based on rice cultivation and rubber plantations owned by the French and a small Vietnamese elite. Rail and port facilities were set up to service this sector. 
    Indentured Vietnamese labour was widely used in the rubber plantations.

    The Dilemma of Colonial Education
    French colonisation was not based only on economic exploitation. It was also driven by the idea of a ‘civilising mission’. The French claimed that they were bringing modern civilisation to the Vietnamese. They took it for granted that Europe had developed the most advanced civilisation. So it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern ideas to the colony even if this meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditions, because these were seen as outdated and prevented modern development’.
    Education was seen as one way to civilise the ‘native’. But in order to educate them the French needed an educated local labour force but they feared that education might create problems. 
    (i)    Once educated, the Vietnamese may begin to question colonial domination.
    (ii)    Moreover, French citizens living in Vietnam (called colons) began fearing that they might lose their jobs-as teachers, shopkeepers, policemen - to the educated Vietnamese. So they opposed policies that would give the Vietnamese full access to French education. 

    Talking Modern
    The French were faced with yet another problem in the sphere of education: the elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese. 
    (i)    Some policymakers emphasised the need to use the French language as the medium of instruction. By learning the language, they felt, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilisation of France. This would help create an ‘Asiatic France solidly tied to European France’. The educated people in Vietnam would respect French sentiments and ideals, see the superiority of French culture, and work for the French. 
    (ii)    Others were opposed to French being the only medium of instruction. They suggested that Vietnamese be taught in lower classes and French in the higher classes. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.
    (iii)    Only the Vietnamese elite - comprising a small fraction of the population-could enroll in the schools, and only a few among those admitted ultimately passed the school-leaving examination. This was largely because of a deliberate policy of failing students, particular  in the final year, so that they could not qualify for the better-paid jobs.
    (iv)    School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection; they could work in the fields but not rule themselves; they were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative. School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam.

     Looking Modern
    The Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide a Western-style education. This education included classes in science, hygiene and French (these classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately). The school’s approach to what it means to be ‘modern’ is a good example of the thinking prevalent at that time. It was not enough to learn science and Western ideas: to be modern the Vietnamese had to also look modern.The school encouraged the adoption of Western styles such as having a short haircut. For the Vietnamese this meant a major break with their own identity since they traditionally kept long hair.

    Resistance in Schools
    Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum. Sometimes there was open opposition, at other times there was silent resistance. 
    It became difficult to control what was actually taught. While teaching, Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticised what was stated.
    In 1926 a major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School. A Vietnamese girl sitting in one of the front seats was asked to move to the back of the class and allow a local French student to occupy the front bench.
    Elsewhere, students fought against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collar jobs. They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society. This brought them into conflict with the French as well as the traditional elite, since both saw their positions threatened.
    Schools became an important place for political and cultural battles. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. They tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people, to make them believe in the superiority of French civilisation and the inferiority of the Vietnamese. 
    Vietnamese intellectuals, on the other hand, feared that Vietnam was losing not just control over its territory but its very identity: its own culture and customs were being devalued and the people were developing a master-slave mentality.

Illustration 1
    Why it is said that Indo-China had ‘Emerged from shadow of China’?
Solution
    Indo-China comprise of countries Vietnams, Laos and Cambodia. They still follow the Chinese system of governence and culture. They are closely connected to China through maritime silks route. 

Illustration 2
    Why French thought that colonisation was necessary?
Solution
    French thought colononisation was necessary because :
    (i)     Colonies can be used for supplying natural resources and other essential goods.
    (ii)     Advanced European countries have a mission to bring the benifits of civilization to backward peoples of the colonies.

Illustration 3
    What was the dilemma of colonial education?
Solution
    On one hand the French needed the educated labour force on the other hand educated people of colonies may question the colonial domination.

Illustration 4
    How silent resistance started in the schools of Vietnam.
Solution
    It was difficult to check what was being tanght in the class. The teachers in Vietnam quitely modified the text while teaching and criticised what was stated in the texts. This started the silent resistance in the schools of Vietnam. 

Illustration 5
    What steps were suggested by French policy makers to counter the impact of Chinese culture from Vietnam?
Solution
    French policy makers suggested that in schools of Vietnam French language should be used as medium of instruction. So that the Vietnamese people may come under French culture creating an Asiatic France tied to influence of European France.
 
    Try yourself

1    How nationalism developed in Vietnam?
2    What do you mean by civilizing mission?
3.    How France tried to consolidate their rule in Vietnam through textbooks?

 

(b) Phases of struggle against the French.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

Phases of struggle against the French.


    The French hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught.
    For the Vietnamese the rat hunt seemed to provide an early lesson in the success of collective bargaining.
    (i)    Those who did the dirty work of entering sewers found that if they came together they could negotiate a higher bounty. 
    (ii)    They also discovered innovative ways to profit from this situation. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that a rat had been killed. So the rat-catchers took to just clipping the tails and releasing the rats, so that the process could be repeated, over and over again. Some people, in fact, began raising rats to earn a bounty. 

Illustration 6
    How the problem of Plague in Hanoi was related to sever systems?
Solution
    The large sewer in the modern part of the city, a symbol of modernity, were an ideal and protected breeding ground for rats. Which was the root cause of the plague.

Illustration 7
    When was rat hunt started in Hanoi?
Solution
    1902

Illustration 8
    Why inspite of large rat hunt the rat numbers did not decline?
Solution
    Inspite of large rat hunt the numbers of rat did not decline because the bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that the rat has been killed the rat catchers chipped the tails and left the rats, so the process can be repeated. 

    Try yourself
4.    Which city of Vietnam was to be rebuilt by Franch?
5.    What happened in Hanoi in 1903?
6.    What was the cause of Bubonic plague?
7.    What was collectine bargaining in rat hunt?
8.    What was ‘native quarter’ of Hanoi?

(b) Phases of struggle against the French.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

Phases of struggle against the French.


    The French hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught.
    For the Vietnamese the rat hunt seemed to provide an early lesson in the success of collective bargaining.
    (i)    Those who did the dirty work of entering sewers found that if they came together they could negotiate a higher bounty. 
    (ii)    They also discovered innovative ways to profit from this situation. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that a rat had been killed. So the rat-catchers took to just clipping the tails and releasing the rats, so that the process could be repeated, over and over again. Some people, in fact, began raising rats to earn a bounty. 

Illustration 6
    How the problem of Plague in Hanoi was related to sever systems?
Solution
    The large sewer in the modern part of the city, a symbol of modernity, were an ideal and protected breeding ground for rats. Which was the root cause of the plague.

Illustration 7
    When was rat hunt started in Hanoi?
Solution
    1902

Illustration 8
    Why inspite of large rat hunt the rat numbers did not decline?
Solution
    Inspite of large rat hunt the numbers of rat did not decline because the bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that the rat has been killed the rat catchers chipped the tails and left the rats, so the process can be repeated. 

    Try yourself
4.    Which city of Vietnam was to be rebuilt by Franch?
5.    What happened in Hanoi in 1903?
6.    What was the cause of Bubonic plague?
7.    What was collectine bargaining in rat hunt?
8.    What was ‘native quarter’ of Hanoi?

(b) Phases of struggle against the French.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

Phases of struggle against the French.


    The French hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught.
    For the Vietnamese the rat hunt seemed to provide an early lesson in the success of collective bargaining.
    (i)    Those who did the dirty work of entering sewers found that if they came together they could negotiate a higher bounty. 
    (ii)    They also discovered innovative ways to profit from this situation. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that a rat had been killed. So the rat-catchers took to just clipping the tails and releasing the rats, so that the process could be repeated, over and over again. Some people, in fact, began raising rats to earn a bounty. 

Illustration 6
    How the problem of Plague in Hanoi was related to sever systems?
Solution
    The large sewer in the modern part of the city, a symbol of modernity, were an ideal and protected breeding ground for rats. Which was the root cause of the plague.

Illustration 7
    When was rat hunt started in Hanoi?
Solution
    1902

Illustration 8
    Why inspite of large rat hunt the rat numbers did not decline?
Solution
    Inspite of large rat hunt the numbers of rat did not decline because the bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that the rat has been killed the rat catchers chipped the tails and left the rats, so the process can be repeated. 

    Try yourself
4.    Which city of Vietnam was to be rebuilt by Franch?
5.    What happened in Hanoi in 1903?
6.    What was the cause of Bubonic plague?
7.    What was collectine bargaining in rat hunt?
8.    What was ‘native quarter’ of Hanoi?

(b) Phases of struggle against the French.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

Phases of struggle against the French.


    The French hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught.
    For the Vietnamese the rat hunt seemed to provide an early lesson in the success of collective bargaining.
    (i)    Those who did the dirty work of entering sewers found that if they came together they could negotiate a higher bounty. 
    (ii)    They also discovered innovative ways to profit from this situation. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that a rat had been killed. So the rat-catchers took to just clipping the tails and releasing the rats, so that the process could be repeated, over and over again. Some people, in fact, began raising rats to earn a bounty. 

Illustration 6
    How the problem of Plague in Hanoi was related to sever systems?
Solution
    The large sewer in the modern part of the city, a symbol of modernity, were an ideal and protected breeding ground for rats. Which was the root cause of the plague.

Illustration 7
    When was rat hunt started in Hanoi?
Solution
    1902

Illustration 8
    Why inspite of large rat hunt the rat numbers did not decline?
Solution
    Inspite of large rat hunt the numbers of rat did not decline because the bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that the rat has been killed the rat catchers chipped the tails and left the rats, so the process can be repeated. 

    Try yourself
4.    Which city of Vietnam was to be rebuilt by Franch?
5.    What happened in Hanoi in 1903?
6.    What was the cause of Bubonic plague?
7.    What was collectine bargaining in rat hunt?
8.    What was ‘native quarter’ of Hanoi?

(b) Phases of struggle against the French.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

Phases of struggle against the French.


    The French hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught.
    For the Vietnamese the rat hunt seemed to provide an early lesson in the success of collective bargaining.
    (i)    Those who did the dirty work of entering sewers found that if they came together they could negotiate a higher bounty. 
    (ii)    They also discovered innovative ways to profit from this situation. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that a rat had been killed. So the rat-catchers took to just clipping the tails and releasing the rats, so that the process could be repeated, over and over again. Some people, in fact, began raising rats to earn a bounty. 

Illustration 6
    How the problem of Plague in Hanoi was related to sever systems?
Solution
    The large sewer in the modern part of the city, a symbol of modernity, were an ideal and protected breeding ground for rats. Which was the root cause of the plague.

Illustration 7
    When was rat hunt started in Hanoi?
Solution
    1902

Illustration 8
    Why inspite of large rat hunt the rat numbers did not decline?
Solution
    Inspite of large rat hunt the numbers of rat did not decline because the bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that the rat has been killed the rat catchers chipped the tails and left the rats, so the process can be repeated. 

    Try yourself
4.    Which city of Vietnam was to be rebuilt by Franch?
5.    What happened in Hanoi in 1903?
6.    What was the cause of Bubonic plague?
7.    What was collectine bargaining in rat hunt?
8.    What was ‘native quarter’ of Hanoi?

(b) Phases of struggle against the French.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

Phases of struggle against the French.


    The French hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught.
    For the Vietnamese the rat hunt seemed to provide an early lesson in the success of collective bargaining.
    (i)    Those who did the dirty work of entering sewers found that if they came together they could negotiate a higher bounty. 
    (ii)    They also discovered innovative ways to profit from this situation. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that a rat had been killed. So the rat-catchers took to just clipping the tails and releasing the rats, so that the process could be repeated, over and over again. Some people, in fact, began raising rats to earn a bounty. 

Illustration 6
    How the problem of Plague in Hanoi was related to sever systems?
Solution
    The large sewer in the modern part of the city, a symbol of modernity, were an ideal and protected breeding ground for rats. Which was the root cause of the plague.

Illustration 7
    When was rat hunt started in Hanoi?
Solution
    1902

Illustration 8
    Why inspite of large rat hunt the rat numbers did not decline?
Solution
    Inspite of large rat hunt the numbers of rat did not decline because the bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that the rat has been killed the rat catchers chipped the tails and left the rats, so the process can be repeated. 

    Try yourself
4.    Which city of Vietnam was to be rebuilt by Franch?
5.    What happened in Hanoi in 1903?
6.    What was the cause of Bubonic plague?
7.    What was collectine bargaining in rat hunt?
8.    What was ‘native quarter’ of Hanoi?

(b) Phases of struggle against the French.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

Phases of struggle against the French.


    The French hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught.
    For the Vietnamese the rat hunt seemed to provide an early lesson in the success of collective bargaining.
    (i)    Those who did the dirty work of entering sewers found that if they came together they could negotiate a higher bounty. 
    (ii)    They also discovered innovative ways to profit from this situation. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that a rat had been killed. So the rat-catchers took to just clipping the tails and releasing the rats, so that the process could be repeated, over and over again. Some people, in fact, began raising rats to earn a bounty. 

Illustration 6
    How the problem of Plague in Hanoi was related to sever systems?
Solution
    The large sewer in the modern part of the city, a symbol of modernity, were an ideal and protected breeding ground for rats. Which was the root cause of the plague.

Illustration 7
    When was rat hunt started in Hanoi?
Solution
    1902

Illustration 8
    Why inspite of large rat hunt the rat numbers did not decline?
Solution
    Inspite of large rat hunt the numbers of rat did not decline because the bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that the rat has been killed the rat catchers chipped the tails and left the rats, so the process can be repeated. 

    Try yourself
4.    Which city of Vietnam was to be rebuilt by Franch?
5.    What happened in Hanoi in 1903?
6.    What was the cause of Bubonic plague?
7.    What was collectine bargaining in rat hunt?
8.    What was ‘native quarter’ of Hanoi?

(c) The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

 

 

the communist movement and vietnamese nationalism

    The Great Depression of the 1930s had a profound impact on Vietnam. The prices of rubber and rice fell, leading to rising rural debts, unemployment and rural uprisings, such as in the provinces of Nghe An and Ha Tinh. These provinces were among the poorest, had an old radical tradition, and have been called the ‘electrical fuses’ of Vietnam - when the system was under pressure they were the first to blow.
    In February 1930, Ho Chi Minh brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist (Vietnam Cong San Dang) Party, later renamed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party.
    In 1940 Japan occupied Vietnam, as part of its imperial drive to control Southeast Asia. So nationalists now had to fight against the Japanese as well as the French. The League for the Independence of Vietnam (Viet Narn Doc Lap Dong Minh), which came to be known as the Vietminh, fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became Chairman.

    The New Republic of Vietnam
    The new republic faced a number of challenges. The French tried to regain control by using the emperor, Bao Dai, as their puppet. Faced with the French offensive, the Vietminh were forced to retreat to the hills. After eight years of fighting, the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.
    In the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French defeat, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country. North and south were split: Ho Chi Minh and the communists took power in the north while Bao Dai’s regime was put in power in the south. 
    This division set in motion a series of events that turned -Vietnam into a battlefield bringing death-and destruction to its people as well as the environmet.

The Bao Dai regime was soon overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Diem. Diem built a repressive and authoritarian government. Anyone who opposed him was called a communist and was jailed and killed. Diem retained Ordinance 10, a French law that permitted Christianity but outlawed Buddhism. His dictatorial rule came to be opposed by a broad opposition unitedunder the banner of theNational Liberation Front (NLF).
    With the help of the Ho Chi Minh government in the north, the NLF fought for the unification of the country. The US watched this alliance with fear. Worried about communists gaining power, USA decided to intervene decisively, sending in troops and arms.

    The Entry of the US into the War
    From 1965 to 1972, over 3,403,100 US services personnel served in Vietnam (7,484 were women). Even though the USA had advanced technology and good medical supplies, casualties-were high. About 47,244 died in battle and 303,704 were wounded. 
    This phase of struggle with the US was brutal. 
    (i)    Thousands of US-troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks and backed by the most powerful bombers of the time - B52s.
    (ii)    The wide spread attacks and use of chemical weapons - Napalm, Agent Orange, and phosphorous bombs-destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.
    (iii)    The effect of the war was felt within the US as well. Many were critical of the government for getting involved in a war that they say was as indefensible.
    (iv)    When the youth were drafted for the war, the anger spread. Compulsory service in the armed forces, however, could be waived for university graduates.
    (v)    The US media and films played a major role in both supporting as a well as criticising the war. Hollywood made films in support of the war, such as John Wayne’s Green Berets.
    (vi)    Other films were more critical as they tried to understand the reasons for this war. John Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979) reflected the moral confusion that the war had caused in the US.
    The -war grew out of a fear among US policy-planners that the victory of the Ho Chi Minh government would start a domino effect - communist government would be established in other countries in the area. 
    They underestimated the power of nationalism to move people to action, inspire them to sacrifice their home and family, live under horrific conditions, and fight for independence. They underestimated the power of a small country to fight the most technologically advanced country in the world. 

    The Ho Chi Minh Trail 
    Ho Chi Minh Trail, an immense network of footpaths and roads, was used to transport men and materials from the north to the south. The trail was improved from the late 1950s, and from 1967 many North Vietnamese troops came south each month on this trail.
    The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. In some parts supplies were transported in trucks, but mostly they were carried by porters, who were mainly women. 
    Most of the trail was outside Vietnam in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia with branch lines extending into South Vietnant.
    The US regularly bombed this trail trying to disrupt supplies, but efforts to destroy this important supply lirie by intensive bombing failed because they were rebuilt very quickly. 

Illustration 9
    Which were the old religius practiced in Vietnam?
Solution
    Old religious practiced in Vietnam were mixture Buddhism, Confucianism and the local practices.

Illustration 10
    What was scholars revolt of 1868.
Solution
    It was an early movement against the French control and the spread of christianity in which in a general uprising in Nghe-An, and Ha-Tien provices, thousand of catholics were killed.

Illustration 11
    Who was Phan Boi Chau?
Solution
    Phan Boi Chau (1867-1940) was a nationalist who formed the revolutionary society (Duy Tan Hoi) in 1903 with prince Cuong Dea.

Illustration 12
    Which organisation was created by Vietnamese students in Japan and in China?
Solution
    Vietnamese students formed–
    (i) Restoration society in Tokyo, Japan.
    (ii) Restoration of Vietnamis China.

Illustration 13
    Which two cities of Vietnam are called the electrical fuses and why?
Solution
    Two cities– ‘Nghe An and Ha Tinh’ were called electrical fuses because these cities were leading miserable life. These people may play an active role in freedom movement.

    Try yourself
9.    What was ‘go east movement’?
10.    Why Japan was the main destination of Vietnamese revolutionaries?
11.    What was ‘ordinance 10’?
12.    What was HO Chi Minh Trail?

(c) The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

 

 

the communist movement and vietnamese nationalism

    The Great Depression of the 1930s had a profound impact on Vietnam. The prices of rubber and rice fell, leading to rising rural debts, unemployment and rural uprisings, such as in the provinces of Nghe An and Ha Tinh. These provinces were among the poorest, had an old radical tradition, and have been called the ‘electrical fuses’ of Vietnam - when the system was under pressure they were the first to blow.
    In February 1930, Ho Chi Minh brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist (Vietnam Cong San Dang) Party, later renamed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party.
    In 1940 Japan occupied Vietnam, as part of its imperial drive to control Southeast Asia. So nationalists now had to fight against the Japanese as well as the French. The League for the Independence of Vietnam (Viet Narn Doc Lap Dong Minh), which came to be known as the Vietminh, fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became Chairman.

    The New Republic of Vietnam
    The new republic faced a number of challenges. The French tried to regain control by using the emperor, Bao Dai, as their puppet. Faced with the French offensive, the Vietminh were forced to retreat to the hills. After eight years of fighting, the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.
    In the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French defeat, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country. North and south were split: Ho Chi Minh and the communists took power in the north while Bao Dai’s regime was put in power in the south. 
    This division set in motion a series of events that turned -Vietnam into a battlefield bringing death-and destruction to its people as well as the environmet.

The Bao Dai regime was soon overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Diem. Diem built a repressive and authoritarian government. Anyone who opposed him was called a communist and was jailed and killed. Diem retained Ordinance 10, a French law that permitted Christianity but outlawed Buddhism. His dictatorial rule came to be opposed by a broad opposition unitedunder the banner of theNational Liberation Front (NLF).
    With the help of the Ho Chi Minh government in the north, the NLF fought for the unification of the country. The US watched this alliance with fear. Worried about communists gaining power, USA decided to intervene decisively, sending in troops and arms.

    The Entry of the US into the War
    From 1965 to 1972, over 3,403,100 US services personnel served in Vietnam (7,484 were women). Even though the USA had advanced technology and good medical supplies, casualties-were high. About 47,244 died in battle and 303,704 were wounded. 
    This phase of struggle with the US was brutal. 
    (i)    Thousands of US-troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks and backed by the most powerful bombers of the time - B52s.
    (ii)    The wide spread attacks and use of chemical weapons - Napalm, Agent Orange, and phosphorous bombs-destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.
    (iii)    The effect of the war was felt within the US as well. Many were critical of the government for getting involved in a war that they say was as indefensible.
    (iv)    When the youth were drafted for the war, the anger spread. Compulsory service in the armed forces, however, could be waived for university graduates.
    (v)    The US media and films played a major role in both supporting as a well as criticising the war. Hollywood made films in support of the war, such as John Wayne’s Green Berets.
    (vi)    Other films were more critical as they tried to understand the reasons for this war. John Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979) reflected the moral confusion that the war had caused in the US.
    The -war grew out of a fear among US policy-planners that the victory of the Ho Chi Minh government would start a domino effect - communist government would be established in other countries in the area. 
    They underestimated the power of nationalism to move people to action, inspire them to sacrifice their home and family, live under horrific conditions, and fight for independence. They underestimated the power of a small country to fight the most technologically advanced country in the world. 

    The Ho Chi Minh Trail 
    Ho Chi Minh Trail, an immense network of footpaths and roads, was used to transport men and materials from the north to the south. The trail was improved from the late 1950s, and from 1967 many North Vietnamese troops came south each month on this trail.
    The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. In some parts supplies were transported in trucks, but mostly they were carried by porters, who were mainly women. 
    Most of the trail was outside Vietnam in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia with branch lines extending into South Vietnant.
    The US regularly bombed this trail trying to disrupt supplies, but efforts to destroy this important supply lirie by intensive bombing failed because they were rebuilt very quickly. 

Illustration 9
    Which were the old religius practiced in Vietnam?
Solution
    Old religious practiced in Vietnam were mixture Buddhism, Confucianism and the local practices.

Illustration 10
    What was scholars revolt of 1868.
Solution
    It was an early movement against the French control and the spread of christianity in which in a general uprising in Nghe-An, and Ha-Tien provices, thousand of catholics were killed.

Illustration 11
    Who was Phan Boi Chau?
Solution
    Phan Boi Chau (1867-1940) was a nationalist who formed the revolutionary society (Duy Tan Hoi) in 1903 with prince Cuong Dea.

Illustration 12
    Which organisation was created by Vietnamese students in Japan and in China?
Solution
    Vietnamese students formed–
    (i) Restoration society in Tokyo, Japan.
    (ii) Restoration of Vietnamis China.

Illustration 13
    Which two cities of Vietnam are called the electrical fuses and why?
Solution
    Two cities– ‘Nghe An and Ha Tinh’ were called electrical fuses because these cities were leading miserable life. These people may play an active role in freedom movement.

    Try yourself
9.    What was ‘go east movement’?
10.    Why Japan was the main destination of Vietnamese revolutionaries?
11.    What was ‘ordinance 10’?
12.    What was HO Chi Minh Trail?

(c) The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

 

 

the communist movement and vietnamese nationalism

    The Great Depression of the 1930s had a profound impact on Vietnam. The prices of rubber and rice fell, leading to rising rural debts, unemployment and rural uprisings, such as in the provinces of Nghe An and Ha Tinh. These provinces were among the poorest, had an old radical tradition, and have been called the ‘electrical fuses’ of Vietnam - when the system was under pressure they were the first to blow.
    In February 1930, Ho Chi Minh brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist (Vietnam Cong San Dang) Party, later renamed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party.
    In 1940 Japan occupied Vietnam, as part of its imperial drive to control Southeast Asia. So nationalists now had to fight against the Japanese as well as the French. The League for the Independence of Vietnam (Viet Narn Doc Lap Dong Minh), which came to be known as the Vietminh, fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became Chairman.

    The New Republic of Vietnam
    The new republic faced a number of challenges. The French tried to regain control by using the emperor, Bao Dai, as their puppet. Faced with the French offensive, the Vietminh were forced to retreat to the hills. After eight years of fighting, the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.
    In the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French defeat, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country. North and south were split: Ho Chi Minh and the communists took power in the north while Bao Dai’s regime was put in power in the south. 
    This division set in motion a series of events that turned -Vietnam into a battlefield bringing death-and destruction to its people as well as the environmet.

The Bao Dai regime was soon overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Diem. Diem built a repressive and authoritarian government. Anyone who opposed him was called a communist and was jailed and killed. Diem retained Ordinance 10, a French law that permitted Christianity but outlawed Buddhism. His dictatorial rule came to be opposed by a broad opposition unitedunder the banner of theNational Liberation Front (NLF).
    With the help of the Ho Chi Minh government in the north, the NLF fought for the unification of the country. The US watched this alliance with fear. Worried about communists gaining power, USA decided to intervene decisively, sending in troops and arms.

    The Entry of the US into the War
    From 1965 to 1972, over 3,403,100 US services personnel served in Vietnam (7,484 were women). Even though the USA had advanced technology and good medical supplies, casualties-were high. About 47,244 died in battle and 303,704 were wounded. 
    This phase of struggle with the US was brutal. 
    (i)    Thousands of US-troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks and backed by the most powerful bombers of the time - B52s.
    (ii)    The wide spread attacks and use of chemical weapons - Napalm, Agent Orange, and phosphorous bombs-destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.
    (iii)    The effect of the war was felt within the US as well. Many were critical of the government for getting involved in a war that they say was as indefensible.
    (iv)    When the youth were drafted for the war, the anger spread. Compulsory service in the armed forces, however, could be waived for university graduates.
    (v)    The US media and films played a major role in both supporting as a well as criticising the war. Hollywood made films in support of the war, such as John Wayne’s Green Berets.
    (vi)    Other films were more critical as they tried to understand the reasons for this war. John Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979) reflected the moral confusion that the war had caused in the US.
    The -war grew out of a fear among US policy-planners that the victory of the Ho Chi Minh government would start a domino effect - communist government would be established in other countries in the area. 
    They underestimated the power of nationalism to move people to action, inspire them to sacrifice their home and family, live under horrific conditions, and fight for independence. They underestimated the power of a small country to fight the most technologically advanced country in the world. 

    The Ho Chi Minh Trail 
    Ho Chi Minh Trail, an immense network of footpaths and roads, was used to transport men and materials from the north to the south. The trail was improved from the late 1950s, and from 1967 many North Vietnamese troops came south each month on this trail.
    The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. In some parts supplies were transported in trucks, but mostly they were carried by porters, who were mainly women. 
    Most of the trail was outside Vietnam in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia with branch lines extending into South Vietnant.
    The US regularly bombed this trail trying to disrupt supplies, but efforts to destroy this important supply lirie by intensive bombing failed because they were rebuilt very quickly. 

Illustration 9
    Which were the old religius practiced in Vietnam?
Solution
    Old religious practiced in Vietnam were mixture Buddhism, Confucianism and the local practices.

Illustration 10
    What was scholars revolt of 1868.
Solution
    It was an early movement against the French control and the spread of christianity in which in a general uprising in Nghe-An, and Ha-Tien provices, thousand of catholics were killed.

Illustration 11
    Who was Phan Boi Chau?
Solution
    Phan Boi Chau (1867-1940) was a nationalist who formed the revolutionary society (Duy Tan Hoi) in 1903 with prince Cuong Dea.

Illustration 12
    Which organisation was created by Vietnamese students in Japan and in China?
Solution
    Vietnamese students formed–
    (i) Restoration society in Tokyo, Japan.
    (ii) Restoration of Vietnamis China.

Illustration 13
    Which two cities of Vietnam are called the electrical fuses and why?
Solution
    Two cities– ‘Nghe An and Ha Tinh’ were called electrical fuses because these cities were leading miserable life. These people may play an active role in freedom movement.

    Try yourself
9.    What was ‘go east movement’?
10.    Why Japan was the main destination of Vietnamese revolutionaries?
11.    What was ‘ordinance 10’?
12.    What was HO Chi Minh Trail?

(c) The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

 

 

the communist movement and vietnamese nationalism

    The Great Depression of the 1930s had a profound impact on Vietnam. The prices of rubber and rice fell, leading to rising rural debts, unemployment and rural uprisings, such as in the provinces of Nghe An and Ha Tinh. These provinces were among the poorest, had an old radical tradition, and have been called the ‘electrical fuses’ of Vietnam - when the system was under pressure they were the first to blow.
    In February 1930, Ho Chi Minh brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist (Vietnam Cong San Dang) Party, later renamed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party.
    In 1940 Japan occupied Vietnam, as part of its imperial drive to control Southeast Asia. So nationalists now had to fight against the Japanese as well as the French. The League for the Independence of Vietnam (Viet Narn Doc Lap Dong Minh), which came to be known as the Vietminh, fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became Chairman.

    The New Republic of Vietnam
    The new republic faced a number of challenges. The French tried to regain control by using the emperor, Bao Dai, as their puppet. Faced with the French offensive, the Vietminh were forced to retreat to the hills. After eight years of fighting, the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.
    In the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French defeat, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country. North and south were split: Ho Chi Minh and the communists took power in the north while Bao Dai’s regime was put in power in the south. 
    This division set in motion a series of events that turned -Vietnam into a battlefield bringing death-and destruction to its people as well as the environmet.

The Bao Dai regime was soon overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Diem. Diem built a repressive and authoritarian government. Anyone who opposed him was called a communist and was jailed and killed. Diem retained Ordinance 10, a French law that permitted Christianity but outlawed Buddhism. His dictatorial rule came to be opposed by a broad opposition unitedunder the banner of theNational Liberation Front (NLF).
    With the help of the Ho Chi Minh government in the north, the NLF fought for the unification of the country. The US watched this alliance with fear. Worried about communists gaining power, USA decided to intervene decisively, sending in troops and arms.

    The Entry of the US into the War
    From 1965 to 1972, over 3,403,100 US services personnel served in Vietnam (7,484 were women). Even though the USA had advanced technology and good medical supplies, casualties-were high. About 47,244 died in battle and 303,704 were wounded. 
    This phase of struggle with the US was brutal. 
    (i)    Thousands of US-troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks and backed by the most powerful bombers of the time - B52s.
    (ii)    The wide spread attacks and use of chemical weapons - Napalm, Agent Orange, and phosphorous bombs-destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.
    (iii)    The effect of the war was felt within the US as well. Many were critical of the government for getting involved in a war that they say was as indefensible.
    (iv)    When the youth were drafted for the war, the anger spread. Compulsory service in the armed forces, however, could be waived for university graduates.
    (v)    The US media and films played a major role in both supporting as a well as criticising the war. Hollywood made films in support of the war, such as John Wayne’s Green Berets.
    (vi)    Other films were more critical as they tried to understand the reasons for this war. John Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979) reflected the moral confusion that the war had caused in the US.
    The -war grew out of a fear among US policy-planners that the victory of the Ho Chi Minh government would start a domino effect - communist government would be established in other countries in the area. 
    They underestimated the power of nationalism to move people to action, inspire them to sacrifice their home and family, live under horrific conditions, and fight for independence. They underestimated the power of a small country to fight the most technologically advanced country in the world. 

    The Ho Chi Minh Trail 
    Ho Chi Minh Trail, an immense network of footpaths and roads, was used to transport men and materials from the north to the south. The trail was improved from the late 1950s, and from 1967 many North Vietnamese troops came south each month on this trail.
    The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. In some parts supplies were transported in trucks, but mostly they were carried by porters, who were mainly women. 
    Most of the trail was outside Vietnam in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia with branch lines extending into South Vietnant.
    The US regularly bombed this trail trying to disrupt supplies, but efforts to destroy this important supply lirie by intensive bombing failed because they were rebuilt very quickly. 

Illustration 9
    Which were the old religius practiced in Vietnam?
Solution
    Old religious practiced in Vietnam were mixture Buddhism, Confucianism and the local practices.

Illustration 10
    What was scholars revolt of 1868.
Solution
    It was an early movement against the French control and the spread of christianity in which in a general uprising in Nghe-An, and Ha-Tien provices, thousand of catholics were killed.

Illustration 11
    Who was Phan Boi Chau?
Solution
    Phan Boi Chau (1867-1940) was a nationalist who formed the revolutionary society (Duy Tan Hoi) in 1903 with prince Cuong Dea.

Illustration 12
    Which organisation was created by Vietnamese students in Japan and in China?
Solution
    Vietnamese students formed–
    (i) Restoration society in Tokyo, Japan.
    (ii) Restoration of Vietnamis China.

Illustration 13
    Which two cities of Vietnam are called the electrical fuses and why?
Solution
    Two cities– ‘Nghe An and Ha Tinh’ were called electrical fuses because these cities were leading miserable life. These people may play an active role in freedom movement.

    Try yourself
9.    What was ‘go east movement’?
10.    Why Japan was the main destination of Vietnamese revolutionaries?
11.    What was ‘ordinance 10’?
12.    What was HO Chi Minh Trail?

(c) The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

 

 

the communist movement and vietnamese nationalism

    The Great Depression of the 1930s had a profound impact on Vietnam. The prices of rubber and rice fell, leading to rising rural debts, unemployment and rural uprisings, such as in the provinces of Nghe An and Ha Tinh. These provinces were among the poorest, had an old radical tradition, and have been called the ‘electrical fuses’ of Vietnam - when the system was under pressure they were the first to blow.
    In February 1930, Ho Chi Minh brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist (Vietnam Cong San Dang) Party, later renamed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party.
    In 1940 Japan occupied Vietnam, as part of its imperial drive to control Southeast Asia. So nationalists now had to fight against the Japanese as well as the French. The League for the Independence of Vietnam (Viet Narn Doc Lap Dong Minh), which came to be known as the Vietminh, fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became Chairman.

    The New Republic of Vietnam
    The new republic faced a number of challenges. The French tried to regain control by using the emperor, Bao Dai, as their puppet. Faced with the French offensive, the Vietminh were forced to retreat to the hills. After eight years of fighting, the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.
    In the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French defeat, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country. North and south were split: Ho Chi Minh and the communists took power in the north while Bao Dai’s regime was put in power in the south. 
    This division set in motion a series of events that turned -Vietnam into a battlefield bringing death-and destruction to its people as well as the environmet.

The Bao Dai regime was soon overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Diem. Diem built a repressive and authoritarian government. Anyone who opposed him was called a communist and was jailed and killed. Diem retained Ordinance 10, a French law that permitted Christianity but outlawed Buddhism. His dictatorial rule came to be opposed by a broad opposition unitedunder the banner of theNational Liberation Front (NLF).
    With the help of the Ho Chi Minh government in the north, the NLF fought for the unification of the country. The US watched this alliance with fear. Worried about communists gaining power, USA decided to intervene decisively, sending in troops and arms.

    The Entry of the US into the War
    From 1965 to 1972, over 3,403,100 US services personnel served in Vietnam (7,484 were women). Even though the USA had advanced technology and good medical supplies, casualties-were high. About 47,244 died in battle and 303,704 were wounded. 
    This phase of struggle with the US was brutal. 
    (i)    Thousands of US-troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks and backed by the most powerful bombers of the time - B52s.
    (ii)    The wide spread attacks and use of chemical weapons - Napalm, Agent Orange, and phosphorous bombs-destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.
    (iii)    The effect of the war was felt within the US as well. Many were critical of the government for getting involved in a war that they say was as indefensible.
    (iv)    When the youth were drafted for the war, the anger spread. Compulsory service in the armed forces, however, could be waived for university graduates.
    (v)    The US media and films played a major role in both supporting as a well as criticising the war. Hollywood made films in support of the war, such as John Wayne’s Green Berets.
    (vi)    Other films were more critical as they tried to understand the reasons for this war. John Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979) reflected the moral confusion that the war had caused in the US.
    The -war grew out of a fear among US policy-planners that the victory of the Ho Chi Minh government would start a domino effect - communist government would be established in other countries in the area. 
    They underestimated the power of nationalism to move people to action, inspire them to sacrifice their home and family, live under horrific conditions, and fight for independence. They underestimated the power of a small country to fight the most technologically advanced country in the world. 

    The Ho Chi Minh Trail 
    Ho Chi Minh Trail, an immense network of footpaths and roads, was used to transport men and materials from the north to the south. The trail was improved from the late 1950s, and from 1967 many North Vietnamese troops came south each month on this trail.
    The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. In some parts supplies were transported in trucks, but mostly they were carried by porters, who were mainly women. 
    Most of the trail was outside Vietnam in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia with branch lines extending into South Vietnant.
    The US regularly bombed this trail trying to disrupt supplies, but efforts to destroy this important supply lirie by intensive bombing failed because they were rebuilt very quickly. 

Illustration 9
    Which were the old religius practiced in Vietnam?
Solution
    Old religious practiced in Vietnam were mixture Buddhism, Confucianism and the local practices.

Illustration 10
    What was scholars revolt of 1868.
Solution
    It was an early movement against the French control and the spread of christianity in which in a general uprising in Nghe-An, and Ha-Tien provices, thousand of catholics were killed.

Illustration 11
    Who was Phan Boi Chau?
Solution
    Phan Boi Chau (1867-1940) was a nationalist who formed the revolutionary society (Duy Tan Hoi) in 1903 with prince Cuong Dea.

Illustration 12
    Which organisation was created by Vietnamese students in Japan and in China?
Solution
    Vietnamese students formed–
    (i) Restoration society in Tokyo, Japan.
    (ii) Restoration of Vietnamis China.

Illustration 13
    Which two cities of Vietnam are called the electrical fuses and why?
Solution
    Two cities– ‘Nghe An and Ha Tinh’ were called electrical fuses because these cities were leading miserable life. These people may play an active role in freedom movement.

    Try yourself
9.    What was ‘go east movement’?
10.    Why Japan was the main destination of Vietnamese revolutionaries?
11.    What was ‘ordinance 10’?
12.    What was HO Chi Minh Trail?

(c) The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

 

 

the communist movement and vietnamese nationalism

    The Great Depression of the 1930s had a profound impact on Vietnam. The prices of rubber and rice fell, leading to rising rural debts, unemployment and rural uprisings, such as in the provinces of Nghe An and Ha Tinh. These provinces were among the poorest, had an old radical tradition, and have been called the ‘electrical fuses’ of Vietnam - when the system was under pressure they were the first to blow.
    In February 1930, Ho Chi Minh brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist (Vietnam Cong San Dang) Party, later renamed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party.
    In 1940 Japan occupied Vietnam, as part of its imperial drive to control Southeast Asia. So nationalists now had to fight against the Japanese as well as the French. The League for the Independence of Vietnam (Viet Narn Doc Lap Dong Minh), which came to be known as the Vietminh, fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became Chairman.

    The New Republic of Vietnam
    The new republic faced a number of challenges. The French tried to regain control by using the emperor, Bao Dai, as their puppet. Faced with the French offensive, the Vietminh were forced to retreat to the hills. After eight years of fighting, the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.
    In the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French defeat, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country. North and south were split: Ho Chi Minh and the communists took power in the north while Bao Dai’s regime was put in power in the south. 
    This division set in motion a series of events that turned -Vietnam into a battlefield bringing death-and destruction to its people as well as the environmet.

The Bao Dai regime was soon overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Diem. Diem built a repressive and authoritarian government. Anyone who opposed him was called a communist and was jailed and killed. Diem retained Ordinance 10, a French law that permitted Christianity but outlawed Buddhism. His dictatorial rule came to be opposed by a broad opposition unitedunder the banner of theNational Liberation Front (NLF).
    With the help of the Ho Chi Minh government in the north, the NLF fought for the unification of the country. The US watched this alliance with fear. Worried about communists gaining power, USA decided to intervene decisively, sending in troops and arms.

    The Entry of the US into the War
    From 1965 to 1972, over 3,403,100 US services personnel served in Vietnam (7,484 were women). Even though the USA had advanced technology and good medical supplies, casualties-were high. About 47,244 died in battle and 303,704 were wounded. 
    This phase of struggle with the US was brutal. 
    (i)    Thousands of US-troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks and backed by the most powerful bombers of the time - B52s.
    (ii)    The wide spread attacks and use of chemical weapons - Napalm, Agent Orange, and phosphorous bombs-destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.
    (iii)    The effect of the war was felt within the US as well. Many were critical of the government for getting involved in a war that they say was as indefensible.
    (iv)    When the youth were drafted for the war, the anger spread. Compulsory service in the armed forces, however, could be waived for university graduates.
    (v)    The US media and films played a major role in both supporting as a well as criticising the war. Hollywood made films in support of the war, such as John Wayne’s Green Berets.
    (vi)    Other films were more critical as they tried to understand the reasons for this war. John Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979) reflected the moral confusion that the war had caused in the US.
    The -war grew out of a fear among US policy-planners that the victory of the Ho Chi Minh government would start a domino effect - communist government would be established in other countries in the area. 
    They underestimated the power of nationalism to move people to action, inspire them to sacrifice their home and family, live under horrific conditions, and fight for independence. They underestimated the power of a small country to fight the most technologically advanced country in the world. 

    The Ho Chi Minh Trail 
    Ho Chi Minh Trail, an immense network of footpaths and roads, was used to transport men and materials from the north to the south. The trail was improved from the late 1950s, and from 1967 many North Vietnamese troops came south each month on this trail.
    The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. In some parts supplies were transported in trucks, but mostly they were carried by porters, who were mainly women. 
    Most of the trail was outside Vietnam in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia with branch lines extending into South Vietnant.
    The US regularly bombed this trail trying to disrupt supplies, but efforts to destroy this important supply lirie by intensive bombing failed because they were rebuilt very quickly. 

Illustration 9
    Which were the old religius practiced in Vietnam?
Solution
    Old religious practiced in Vietnam were mixture Buddhism, Confucianism and the local practices.

Illustration 10
    What was scholars revolt of 1868.
Solution
    It was an early movement against the French control and the spread of christianity in which in a general uprising in Nghe-An, and Ha-Tien provices, thousand of catholics were killed.

Illustration 11
    Who was Phan Boi Chau?
Solution
    Phan Boi Chau (1867-1940) was a nationalist who formed the revolutionary society (Duy Tan Hoi) in 1903 with prince Cuong Dea.

Illustration 12
    Which organisation was created by Vietnamese students in Japan and in China?
Solution
    Vietnamese students formed–
    (i) Restoration society in Tokyo, Japan.
    (ii) Restoration of Vietnamis China.

Illustration 13
    Which two cities of Vietnam are called the electrical fuses and why?
Solution
    Two cities– ‘Nghe An and Ha Tinh’ were called electrical fuses because these cities were leading miserable life. These people may play an active role in freedom movement.

    Try yourself
9.    What was ‘go east movement’?
10.    Why Japan was the main destination of Vietnamese revolutionaries?
11.    What was ‘ordinance 10’?
12.    What was HO Chi Minh Trail?

(c) The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China

The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh

 

 

the communist movement and vietnamese nationalism

    The Great Depression of the 1930s had a profound impact on Vietnam. The prices of rubber and rice fell, leading to rising rural debts, unemployment and rural uprisings, such as in the provinces of Nghe An and Ha Tinh. These provinces were among the poorest, had an old radical tradition, and have been called the ‘electrical fuses’ of Vietnam - when the system was under pressure they were the first to blow.
    In February 1930, Ho Chi Minh brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist (Vietnam Cong San Dang) Party, later renamed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party.
    In 1940 Japan occupied Vietnam, as part of its imperial drive to control Southeast Asia. So nationalists now had to fight against the Japanese as well as the French. The League for the Independence of Vietnam (Viet Narn Doc Lap Dong Minh), which came to be known as the Vietminh, fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became Chairman.

    The New Republic of Vietnam
    The new republic faced a number of challenges. The French tried to regain control by using the emperor, Bao Dai, as their puppet. Faced with the French offensive, the Vietminh were forced to retreat to the hills. After eight years of fighting, the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.
    In the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French defeat, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country. North and south were split: Ho Chi Minh and the communists took power in the north while Bao Dai’s regime was put in power in the south. 
    This division set in motion a series of events that turned -Vietnam into a battlefield bringing death-and destruction to its people as well as the environmet.

The Bao Dai regime was soon overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Diem. Diem built a repressive and authoritarian government. Anyone who opposed him was called a communist and was jailed and killed. Diem retained Ordinance 10, a French law that permitted Christianity but outlawed Buddhism. His dictatorial rule came to be opposed by a broad opposition unitedunder the banner of theNational Liberation Front (NLF).
    With the help of the Ho Chi Minh government in the north, the NLF fought for the unification of the country. The US watched this alliance with fear. Worried about communists gaining power, USA decided to intervene decisively, sending in troops and arms.

    The Entry of the US into the War
    From 1965 to 1972, over 3,403,100 US services personnel served in Vietnam (7,484 were women). Even though the USA had advanced technology and good medical supplies, casualties-were high. About 47,244 died in battle and 303,704 were wounded. 
    This phase of struggle with the US was brutal. 
    (i)    Thousands of US-troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks and backed by the most powerful bombers of the time - B52s.
    (ii)    The wide spread attacks and use of chemical weapons - Napalm, Agent Orange, and phosphorous bombs-destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.
    (iii)    The effect of the war was felt within the US as well. Many were critical of the government for getting involved in a war that they say was as indefensible.
    (iv)    When the youth were drafted for the war, the anger spread. Compulsory service in the armed forces, however, could be waived for university graduates.
    (v)    The US media and films played a major role in both supporting as a well as criticising the war. Hollywood made films in support of the war, such as John Wayne’s Green Berets.
    (vi)    Other films were more critical as they tried to understand the reasons for this war. John Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979) reflected the moral confusion that the war had caused in the US.
    The -war grew out of a fear among US policy-planners that the victory of the Ho Chi Minh government would start a domino effect - communist government would be established in other countries in the area. 
    They underestimated the power of nationalism to move people to action, inspire them to sacrifice their home and family, live under horrific conditions, and fight for independence. They underestimated the power of a small country to fight the most technologically advanced country in the world. 

    The Ho Chi Minh Trail 
    Ho Chi Minh Trail, an immense network of footpaths and roads, was used to transport men and materials from the north to the south. The trail was improved from the late 1950s, and from 1967 many North Vietnamese troops came south each month on this trail.
    The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. In some parts supplies were transported in trucks, but mostly they were carried by porters, who were mainly women. 
    Most of the trail was outside Vietnam in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia with branch lines extending into South Vietnant.
    The US regularly bombed this trail trying to disrupt supplies, but efforts to destroy this important supply lirie by intensive bombing failed because they were rebuilt very quickly. 

Illustration 9
    Which were the old religius practiced in Vietnam?
Solution
    Old religious practiced in Vietnam were mixture Buddhism, Confucianism and the local practices.

Illustration 10
    What was scholars revolt of 1868.
Solution
    It was an early movement against the French control and the spread of christianity in which in a general uprising in Nghe-An, and Ha-Tien provices, thousand of catholics were killed.

Illustration 11
    Who was Phan Boi Chau?
Solution
    Phan Boi Chau (1867-1940) was a nationalist who formed the revolutionary society (Duy Tan Hoi) in 1903 with prince Cuong Dea.

Illustration 12
    Which organisation was created by Vietnamese students in Japan and in China?
Solution
    Vietnamese students formed–
    (i) Restoration society in Tokyo, Japan.
    (ii) Restoration of Vietnamis China.

Illustration 13
    Which two cities of Vietnam are called the electrical fuses and why?
Solution
    Two cities– ‘Nghe An and Ha Tinh’ were called electrical fuses because these cities were leading miserable life. These people may play an active role in freedom movement.

    Try yourself
9.    What was ‘go east movement’?
10.    Why Japan was the main destination of Vietnamese revolutionaries?
11.    What was ‘ordinance 10’?
12.    What was HO Chi Minh Trail?

Salt Satyagraha.

Nationalism in India

Salt Satyagraha.

 

The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Salt Satyagraha.

Nationalism in India

Salt Satyagraha.

 

The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Salt Satyagraha.

Nationalism in India

Salt Satyagraha.

 

The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Salt Satyagraha.

Nationalism in India

Salt Satyagraha.

 

The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Salt Satyagraha.

Nationalism in India

Salt Satyagraha.

 

The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Salt Satyagraha.

Nationalism in India

Salt Satyagraha.

 

The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Salt Satyagraha.

Nationalism in India

Salt Satyagraha.

 

The Idea of Satyagraha
    Mahatma Gandhi successfully fought the racist regime with a nobel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
    It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
    By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this Dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

    Satyagraha movements in various places
    In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pleasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
    In 1917, Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection to be relaxed.
    In 1918, Ahmedabad too organised a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Limits of Civil Disobedience.

The Limits of Civil Disobedience


    (i)    Untouchables: 
        From around the 1930s they had begun to call themselves dalit or oppressed. For long the Congress had ignored the dalits, for fear of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus. But Mahatma Gandhi declared that swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called the ‘untouchables’ harijan, or the children of God, organised satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
        But many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils.
        Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.

    (ii)    Poona Pact:
        When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
        It gave the Depressed Classes, later to be known as the Schedule Castes, reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
        The dalit movement, however, continued to be apprehensive of the Congress-led national movement.

    (iii)    Muslim political organisations
        After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
        Each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities.
        The important difference were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.

    (iv)     Muhammad Ali Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.
        But all hope of resolving the issue at the All Parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts of compromise.
        When the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was thus an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities. Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.

Illustration 7
    What was the main motive of setting up Swaraj Party?
Solution
    The main motive was to participate in elections of provincial council and to oppose British policies from within the council.

Illustration 8
    Why Simon commission was appointed?
Solution
    Simon commission was appointed under Sir John Simon to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.

Illustration 9
    On what conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates?
Solution
    On following conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up demand for separate electrode
    (i)    If Muslims were assured reserved seats in central Assembly
    (ii)    Reservation in proportion to populations in muslim dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.

    Try yourself
7.    On what conditions Gandhi ji agreed to participate in Round table  Conference?
8.    What was Poona Pact?

Limits of Civil Disobedience.

The Limits of Civil Disobedience


    (i)    Untouchables: 
        From around the 1930s they had begun to call themselves dalit or oppressed. For long the Congress had ignored the dalits, for fear of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus. But Mahatma Gandhi declared that swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called the ‘untouchables’ harijan, or the children of God, organised satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
        But many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils.
        Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.

    (ii)    Poona Pact:
        When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
        It gave the Depressed Classes, later to be known as the Schedule Castes, reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
        The dalit movement, however, continued to be apprehensive of the Congress-led national movement.

    (iii)    Muslim political organisations
        After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
        Each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities.
        The important difference were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.

    (iv)     Muhammad Ali Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.
        But all hope of resolving the issue at the All Parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts of compromise.
        When the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was thus an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities. Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.

Illustration 7
    What was the main motive of setting up Swaraj Party?
Solution
    The main motive was to participate in elections of provincial council and to oppose British policies from within the council.

Illustration 8
    Why Simon commission was appointed?
Solution
    Simon commission was appointed under Sir John Simon to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.

Illustration 9
    On what conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates?
Solution
    On following conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up demand for separate electrode
    (i)    If Muslims were assured reserved seats in central Assembly
    (ii)    Reservation in proportion to populations in muslim dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.

    Try yourself
7.    On what conditions Gandhi ji agreed to participate in Round table  Conference?
8.    What was Poona Pact?

Limits of Civil Disobedience.

The Limits of Civil Disobedience


    (i)    Untouchables: 
        From around the 1930s they had begun to call themselves dalit or oppressed. For long the Congress had ignored the dalits, for fear of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus. But Mahatma Gandhi declared that swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called the ‘untouchables’ harijan, or the children of God, organised satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
        But many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils.
        Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.

    (ii)    Poona Pact:
        When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
        It gave the Depressed Classes, later to be known as the Schedule Castes, reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
        The dalit movement, however, continued to be apprehensive of the Congress-led national movement.

    (iii)    Muslim political organisations
        After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
        Each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities.
        The important difference were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.

    (iv)     Muhammad Ali Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.
        But all hope of resolving the issue at the All Parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts of compromise.
        When the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was thus an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities. Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.

Illustration 7
    What was the main motive of setting up Swaraj Party?
Solution
    The main motive was to participate in elections of provincial council and to oppose British policies from within the council.

Illustration 8
    Why Simon commission was appointed?
Solution
    Simon commission was appointed under Sir John Simon to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.

Illustration 9
    On what conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates?
Solution
    On following conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up demand for separate electrode
    (i)    If Muslims were assured reserved seats in central Assembly
    (ii)    Reservation in proportion to populations in muslim dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.

    Try yourself
7.    On what conditions Gandhi ji agreed to participate in Round table  Conference?
8.    What was Poona Pact?

Limits of Civil Disobedience.

The Limits of Civil Disobedience


    (i)    Untouchables: 
        From around the 1930s they had begun to call themselves dalit or oppressed. For long the Congress had ignored the dalits, for fear of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus. But Mahatma Gandhi declared that swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called the ‘untouchables’ harijan, or the children of God, organised satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
        But many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils.
        Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.

    (ii)    Poona Pact:
        When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
        It gave the Depressed Classes, later to be known as the Schedule Castes, reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
        The dalit movement, however, continued to be apprehensive of the Congress-led national movement.

    (iii)    Muslim political organisations
        After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
        Each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities.
        The important difference were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.

    (iv)     Muhammad Ali Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.
        But all hope of resolving the issue at the All Parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts of compromise.
        When the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was thus an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities. Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.

Illustration 7
    What was the main motive of setting up Swaraj Party?
Solution
    The main motive was to participate in elections of provincial council and to oppose British policies from within the council.

Illustration 8
    Why Simon commission was appointed?
Solution
    Simon commission was appointed under Sir John Simon to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.

Illustration 9
    On what conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates?
Solution
    On following conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up demand for separate electrode
    (i)    If Muslims were assured reserved seats in central Assembly
    (ii)    Reservation in proportion to populations in muslim dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.

    Try yourself
7.    On what conditions Gandhi ji agreed to participate in Round table  Conference?
8.    What was Poona Pact?

Limits of Civil Disobedience.

The Limits of Civil Disobedience


    (i)    Untouchables: 
        From around the 1930s they had begun to call themselves dalit or oppressed. For long the Congress had ignored the dalits, for fear of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus. But Mahatma Gandhi declared that swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called the ‘untouchables’ harijan, or the children of God, organised satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
        But many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils.
        Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.

    (ii)    Poona Pact:
        When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
        It gave the Depressed Classes, later to be known as the Schedule Castes, reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
        The dalit movement, however, continued to be apprehensive of the Congress-led national movement.

    (iii)    Muslim political organisations
        After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
        Each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities.
        The important difference were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.

    (iv)     Muhammad Ali Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.
        But all hope of resolving the issue at the All Parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts of compromise.
        When the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was thus an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities. Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.

Illustration 7
    What was the main motive of setting up Swaraj Party?
Solution
    The main motive was to participate in elections of provincial council and to oppose British policies from within the council.

Illustration 8
    Why Simon commission was appointed?
Solution
    Simon commission was appointed under Sir John Simon to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.

Illustration 9
    On what conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates?
Solution
    On following conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up demand for separate electrode
    (i)    If Muslims were assured reserved seats in central Assembly
    (ii)    Reservation in proportion to populations in muslim dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.

    Try yourself
7.    On what conditions Gandhi ji agreed to participate in Round table  Conference?
8.    What was Poona Pact?

Limits of Civil Disobedience.

The Limits of Civil Disobedience


    (i)    Untouchables: 
        From around the 1930s they had begun to call themselves dalit or oppressed. For long the Congress had ignored the dalits, for fear of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus. But Mahatma Gandhi declared that swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called the ‘untouchables’ harijan, or the children of God, organised satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
        But many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils.
        Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.

    (ii)    Poona Pact:
        When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
        It gave the Depressed Classes, later to be known as the Schedule Castes, reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
        The dalit movement, however, continued to be apprehensive of the Congress-led national movement.

    (iii)    Muslim political organisations
        After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
        Each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities.
        The important difference were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.

    (iv)     Muhammad Ali Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.
        But all hope of resolving the issue at the All Parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts of compromise.
        When the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was thus an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities. Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.

Illustration 7
    What was the main motive of setting up Swaraj Party?
Solution
    The main motive was to participate in elections of provincial council and to oppose British policies from within the council.

Illustration 8
    Why Simon commission was appointed?
Solution
    Simon commission was appointed under Sir John Simon to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.

Illustration 9
    On what conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates?
Solution
    On following conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up demand for separate electrode
    (i)    If Muslims were assured reserved seats in central Assembly
    (ii)    Reservation in proportion to populations in muslim dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.

    Try yourself
7.    On what conditions Gandhi ji agreed to participate in Round table  Conference?
8.    What was Poona Pact?

Limits of Civil Disobedience.

The Limits of Civil Disobedience


    (i)    Untouchables: 
        From around the 1930s they had begun to call themselves dalit or oppressed. For long the Congress had ignored the dalits, for fear of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus. But Mahatma Gandhi declared that swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called the ‘untouchables’ harijan, or the children of God, organised satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
        But many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils.
        Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.

    (ii)    Poona Pact:
        When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
        It gave the Depressed Classes, later to be known as the Schedule Castes, reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
        The dalit movement, however, continued to be apprehensive of the Congress-led national movement.

    (iii)    Muslim political organisations
        After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
        Each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities.
        The important difference were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.

    (iv)     Muhammad Ali Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.
        But all hope of resolving the issue at the All Parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts of compromise.
        When the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was thus an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities. Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.

Illustration 7
    What was the main motive of setting up Swaraj Party?
Solution
    The main motive was to participate in elections of provincial council and to oppose British policies from within the council.

Illustration 8
    Why Simon commission was appointed?
Solution
    Simon commission was appointed under Sir John Simon to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.

Illustration 9
    On what conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates?
Solution
    On following conditions M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up demand for separate electrode
    (i)    If Muslims were assured reserved seats in central Assembly
    (ii)    Reservation in proportion to populations in muslim dominated provinces Bengal and Punjab.

    Try yourself
7.    On what conditions Gandhi ji agreed to participate in Round table  Conference?
8.    What was Poona Pact?

The Sense of Collective Belonging.

The Sense of Collective Belonging

 

How did people belong to different communities, regions or language group develop a sense of collective belonging?
    This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles, History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism.

    Identity of the nation
    It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
    The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal. 
    Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Devotion to the mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

    Movement to revive Indian folklore
    In late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. These tales, they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces.
    In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the movement for folk revival. 
    In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India. He believed that folklore was national literature.

    Symbols
    During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims. 
    By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

    Reinterpretation of History
    By the end of the nineteenth century many Indians began feeling that to instill a sense of pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently.
    The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements. 
    They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade had flourished. This glorious time, in their view, was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonised.
    These nationalist historians urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

    Conclusion
    The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi tried to channel people’s grievances into organised movements for independence.
    Through such movements the nationalists tried to forge a national unity.
    The Congress continuously attempted to resolve differences, and ensure that the demands of one group did not alienate another. This is precisely why the unity within the movement often broke down.
    What was emerging was a nation with many voices wanting freedom from colonial rule.    

 

The Sense of Collective Belonging.

The Sense of Collective Belonging

 

How did people belong to different communities, regions or language group develop a sense of collective belonging?
    This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles, History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism.

    Identity of the nation
    It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
    The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal. 
    Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Devotion to the mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

    Movement to revive Indian folklore
    In late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. These tales, they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces.
    In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the movement for folk revival. 
    In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India. He believed that folklore was national literature.

    Symbols
    During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims. 
    By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

    Reinterpretation of History
    By the end of the nineteenth century many Indians began feeling that to instill a sense of pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently.
    The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements. 
    They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade had flourished. This glorious time, in their view, was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonised.
    These nationalist historians urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

    Conclusion
    The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi tried to channel people’s grievances into organised movements for independence.
    Through such movements the nationalists tried to forge a national unity.
    The Congress continuously attempted to resolve differences, and ensure that the demands of one group did not alienate another. This is precisely why the unity within the movement often broke down.
    What was emerging was a nation with many voices wanting freedom from colonial rule.    

 

The Sense of Collective Belonging.

The Sense of Collective Belonging

 

How did people belong to different communities, regions or language group develop a sense of collective belonging?
    This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles, History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism.

    Identity of the nation
    It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
    The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal. 
    Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Devotion to the mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

    Movement to revive Indian folklore
    In late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. These tales, they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces.
    In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the movement for folk revival. 
    In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India. He believed that folklore was national literature.

    Symbols
    During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims. 
    By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

    Reinterpretation of History
    By the end of the nineteenth century many Indians began feeling that to instill a sense of pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently.
    The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements. 
    They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade had flourished. This glorious time, in their view, was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonised.
    These nationalist historians urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

    Conclusion
    The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi tried to channel people’s grievances into organised movements for independence.
    Through such movements the nationalists tried to forge a national unity.
    The Congress continuously attempted to resolve differences, and ensure that the demands of one group did not alienate another. This is precisely why the unity within the movement often broke down.
    What was emerging was a nation with many voices wanting freedom from colonial rule.    

 

The Sense of Collective Belonging.

The Sense of Collective Belonging

 

How did people belong to different communities, regions or language group develop a sense of collective belonging?
    This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles, History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism.

    Identity of the nation
    It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
    The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal. 
    Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Devotion to the mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

    Movement to revive Indian folklore
    In late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. These tales, they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces.
    In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the movement for folk revival. 
    In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India. He believed that folklore was national literature.

    Symbols
    During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims. 
    By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

    Reinterpretation of History
    By the end of the nineteenth century many Indians began feeling that to instill a sense of pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently.
    The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements. 
    They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade had flourished. This glorious time, in their view, was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonised.
    These nationalist historians urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

    Conclusion
    The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi tried to channel people’s grievances into organised movements for independence.
    Through such movements the nationalists tried to forge a national unity.
    The Congress continuously attempted to resolve differences, and ensure that the demands of one group did not alienate another. This is precisely why the unity within the movement often broke down.
    What was emerging was a nation with many voices wanting freedom from colonial rule.    

 

The Sense of Collective Belonging.

The Sense of Collective Belonging

 

How did people belong to different communities, regions or language group develop a sense of collective belonging?
    This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles, History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism.

    Identity of the nation
    It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
    The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal. 
    Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Devotion to the mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

    Movement to revive Indian folklore
    In late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. These tales, they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces.
    In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the movement for folk revival. 
    In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India. He believed that folklore was national literature.

    Symbols
    During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims. 
    By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

    Reinterpretation of History
    By the end of the nineteenth century many Indians began feeling that to instill a sense of pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently.
    The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements. 
    They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade had flourished. This glorious time, in their view, was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonised.
    These nationalist historians urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

    Conclusion
    The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi tried to channel people’s grievances into organised movements for independence.
    Through such movements the nationalists tried to forge a national unity.
    The Congress continuously attempted to resolve differences, and ensure that the demands of one group did not alienate another. This is precisely why the unity within the movement often broke down.
    What was emerging was a nation with many voices wanting freedom from colonial rule.    

 

The Sense of Collective Belonging.

The Sense of Collective Belonging

 

How did people belong to different communities, regions or language group develop a sense of collective belonging?
    This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles, History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism.

    Identity of the nation
    It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
    The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal. 
    Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Devotion to the mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

    Movement to revive Indian folklore
    In late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. These tales, they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces.
    In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the movement for folk revival. 
    In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India. He believed that folklore was national literature.

    Symbols
    During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims. 
    By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

    Reinterpretation of History
    By the end of the nineteenth century many Indians began feeling that to instill a sense of pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently.
    The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements. 
    They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade had flourished. This glorious time, in their view, was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonised.
    These nationalist historians urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

    Conclusion
    The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi tried to channel people’s grievances into organised movements for independence.
    Through such movements the nationalists tried to forge a national unity.
    The Congress continuously attempted to resolve differences, and ensure that the demands of one group did not alienate another. This is precisely why the unity within the movement often broke down.
    What was emerging was a nation with many voices wanting freedom from colonial rule.    

 

The Sense of Collective Belonging.

The Sense of Collective Belonging

 

How did people belong to different communities, regions or language group develop a sense of collective belonging?
    This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles, History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism.

    Identity of the nation
    It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
    The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal. 
    Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Devotion to the mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

    Movement to revive Indian folklore
    In late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. These tales, they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces.
    In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the movement for folk revival. 
    In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India. He believed that folklore was national literature.

    Symbols
    During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims. 
    By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

    Reinterpretation of History
    By the end of the nineteenth century many Indians began feeling that to instill a sense of pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently.
    The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements. 
    They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade had flourished. This glorious time, in their view, was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonised.
    These nationalist historians urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

    Conclusion
    The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi tried to channel people’s grievances into organised movements for independence.
    Through such movements the nationalists tried to forge a national unity.
    The Congress continuously attempted to resolve differences, and ensure that the demands of one group did not alienate another. This is precisely why the unity within the movement often broke down.
    What was emerging was a nation with many voices wanting freedom from colonial rule.    

 

The Nineteenth Century global economy (colonialism).

The nineteenth century (1815-1914)    
Economists identify three types of movement or ‘flows’ within international economic exchanges. 
    1.    The first is the flow of trade which  nineteenth century referred largely to trade in goods (e.g., cloth or wheat). 
    2.    The second is the flow of labour - the migration of people in search of employment. 
    3.    The third is the movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances.

 A world economy takes shape
Population growth from the late eighteenth century had increased the demand for food grains in Britain. As urban centres expanded and industry grew, the demand for agricultural products went up, pushing up food grain prices.
Under pressure from land owner groups, the government also restricted the import of corn. The laws allowing the government to do this were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws’.
    After the Corn Laws were scrapped because of high prices of grains.
    1.    Food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.
    2.    British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated,
    3.    Thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.
As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose. From the mid-nineteenth century, faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes, and therefore more food imports. 
    1.    Railways were needed to link the agricultural regions to the ports.
    2.    New harbours had to be built and old ones expanded to ship the new-cargoes. 
    3.    People had to settle on the lands to bring them under cultivation. This meant building homes and     settlements. 
    4.    All these activities in turn required capital, and labour. Capital flowed from financial centres such as London. 
    5.    The demand for labour in places where labour was in short supply - as in America and 
Australia -led to more migration.

India
In West Punjab the British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals to transform 
semi-desert wastes, into fertile agricultural lands that could grow wheat and cotton for export. The Canal Colonies, as the areas irrigated by the new canals were called, were settled by peasants from other parts of Punjab.
Of course, food is merely an example. A similar story can be told for cotton, the cultivation of which expanded worldwide to feed British textile mills or the crop of rubber. 

Role of technology
Technological advances were the result of larger social, political and economic factors. For example, colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport: faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.
The trade in meat offers a good example of this connected process. Till the 1870s, animals were shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there. But live animals took up alot of ship space. Many also died in voyage, fell ill, lost weight, or became unfit to eat. Meat was hence an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor. 

After refregerated ships
Now animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point - in America, Australia or New Zealand - and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. To the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, though not all, could now add meat (and butter and eggs) to their diet. Better living conditions promoted -social peace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.

Late Nineteenth-century colonialism
Darker Side of Economic Expansion

1.    In many parts of the world, the expansion of trade and a closer relationship with the world economy also meant a loss of freedoms and livelihoods. 
2.    Late-nineteenth -century European conquests produced many painful economic, social and ecological changes
3.    Rival European powers in Africa drew up the borders demarcating their respective territories. In 1885 the big Europen powers met in Berlin to                   complete the carving up of Africa between them.
4.    Britain and France made vast additions to their overseas territories in the late nineteenth century. 
5.    Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers. 
6.    The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890s by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.

Rinderpest or the cattle plague
In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast-spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihood and the local economy.
Historically, Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. For centuries, land and livestock sustained African livelihoods and people rarely worked for a wage. In late-nineteenth-century Africa there were few consumer goods that wages could buy. 
In the late nineteenth century, Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals. Europeans came to Africa hoping to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for export to Europe. But there was an unexpected problem - a shortage of labour willing to work for wages.

Methods to recruit and retain labour. 
1.    Heavy takes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines. 
2.    Inheritance laws were changed so that peasants were displaced from land: only one member of a family was allowed to inherit land, as a result of           which the others were pushed into the labour market. 
3.    Mineworkers were also confined in compounds and not allowed to move about freely.
       Rinderpest arrived in Africa spread of rinder pest was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading                    Eritrea   in East Africa. Entering Africa in the east, rinderpest moved west ‘like forest fire’, reaching Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892. It reached the              Cape (Africa’s southernmost tip) five vears later. Along the way rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle. 

 Impact of coming of Rinderpast
1.    The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods. 
2.    Planters, mine owners in colonial governments now successfully monopolised what scarce cattle resources remained, to strengthen their power and to force  Africans into the labour market. 
3.    Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.

Indentured labout migration from India
In the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world. In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts which promised return travel to India after they had worked five years on their employer’s plantation. 
Most Indian indenture workers came from the present-day regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu.

Causes for Migration of Workers 
1.    In the mid-nineteenth century these regions experienced many changes - cottage industries declined, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations. 
2.    All this affected the lives of the poor: they failed to pay their rents, became deeply indebted and were forced to migrate in search of work.
3.    Many migrants agreed to take up work hoping to escape poverty or oppression in their home villages.
4.    Agents also tempted the prospective migrants by providing false information about final destinations, modes of travel, the nature of the work living and working conditions. 
5.    Often migrants were not even told that they were to embark on a long sea voyage. Sometimes agents even forcibly abducted less willing migrants. 
The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam), Mauritius and Fiji. Closer home, to Ceylon and Malaya. 

Ways of surviving by worker. 
1.    Many of them escaped into the wilds, though if caught they faced severe punishment.
2.    Others developed new forms of individual and collective self- expression, blending different cultural forms, old and new. In Trinidad the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ (for Imam Hussain) in which workers of all races and religions joined. 
3.    Similarly, the protest religion of Rastafarianism (made famous by the Jamaican reggae star Bob Marley) is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean. 
4.    ‘Chutney music’, popular in Trinidad and Guyana, is another creative contemporary expression of the post-indenture experience.

Indian entrepreneurs Abroad
1.    Shikaripuri shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars. They were amongst the many groups of bankers and traders who financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia, using either their own funds or those borrowed from European banks. They had a sophisticated system to transfer money over large distances, and even developed indigenous forms of corporate organisation.
2.    Hyderabadi Sindhi traders, however, ventured beyond European colonies. From the 1860s they established flourishing emporia at busy ports worldwide, selling local and imported curios to tourists whose numbers were beginning to swell, thanks to the development of safe and comfortable passenger vessels.

Indian trade, colonialsim and the global system
1.    Historically, fine cottons produced in India were exported to Europe. With industrialisation, British cotton manufacture began to expand, and industrialists pressurised the government to restrict cotton, imports and protect local industries. Tariffs were imposed on cloth imports into Britain. Consequently, the inflow of fine Indian cotton began to decline.
2.    From the early nineteenth century, British manufacturers also began to seek overseas markets for their cloth. Excluded from the British market by tariff barriers, Indian textiles now faced stiff competition in other international markets. 

While exports of manufactures declined rapidly, export of raw materials increased equally fast. 
    1.    Between 1812 and 1871, the share of raw cotton exports rose from 5 per cent to 35 per cent 
    2.    Indigo used for dyeing cloth was another important export for many decades.
    3.    Opium shipments to China- grew rapidly from the 1820s to become for a while India’s single largest export. Britain grew opium in India and exported it to China with the money earned through this sale, it financed its other imports from China.
Food grain and raw material exports from India to Britain and  the rest of the world increased. But the value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. 
Thus Britain had a ‘trade surplus’ with India. Britain used this to balance its trade deficits with other countries- that is, with countries from which Britain was importing more than it was selling to.
This is how a multilateral settlement system works it allows one country’s deficit with another country to be settled by its surplus with a third country.
Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt, and pensions of British officials in India.

Illustration 6
Which were the two groups of I world war name the countries of those groups?
Solution
The two groups of the I world war were the Allies and the central powers.
 The Allies Britain, France and Russia (later joined by U.S.)
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungry and Ottoman Turkey.

Illustration 7
What was the impacts of I world war on the European Economy?
Solution
    (i)     This was used weapons and Ammunition product in industries which increased the weapon industrialisation on modern lines.
    (ii)     It reduced the able bodied workforce in Europe.
    (iii)     Household income declined because of low number of family members.
    (iv)     The position of women improved in economy.
    (v)    Many fighting countries borrowed funds from developed countries.

Illustration 8
What was ‘Assembly line’ adopted by Henry Ford?
Solution
Production of goods by different persons at different points so that they become expert of the job. That enabled the company to produce goods faster.

Illustration 9
What was the time duration of the great depression.
Solution
It began around 1929 and lasted till 1930’s.

The Nineteenth Century global economy (colonialism).

The nineteenth century (1815-1914)    
Economists identify three types of movement or ‘flows’ within international economic exchanges. 
    1.    The first is the flow of trade which  nineteenth century referred largely to trade in goods (e.g., cloth or wheat). 
    2.    The second is the flow of labour - the migration of people in search of employment. 
    3.    The third is the movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances.

 A world economy takes shape
Population growth from the late eighteenth century had increased the demand for food grains in Britain. As urban centres expanded and industry grew, the demand for agricultural products went up, pushing up food grain prices.
Under pressure from land owner groups, the government also restricted the import of corn. The laws allowing the government to do this were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws’.
    After the Corn Laws were scrapped because of high prices of grains.
    1.    Food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.
    2.    British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated,
    3.    Thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.
As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose. From the mid-nineteenth century, faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes, and therefore more food imports. 
    1.    Railways were needed to link the agricultural regions to the ports.
    2.    New harbours had to be built and old ones expanded to ship the new-cargoes. 
    3.    People had to settle on the lands to bring them under cultivation. This meant building homes and     settlements. 
    4.    All these activities in turn required capital, and labour. Capital flowed from financial centres such as London. 
    5.    The demand for labour in places where labour was in short supply - as in America and 
Australia -led to more migration.

India
In West Punjab the British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals to transform 
semi-desert wastes, into fertile agricultural lands that could grow wheat and cotton for export. The Canal Colonies, as the areas irrigated by the new canals were called, were settled by peasants from other parts of Punjab.
Of course, food is merely an example. A similar story can be told for cotton, the cultivation of which expanded worldwide to feed British textile mills or the crop of rubber. 

Role of technology
Technological advances were the result of larger social, political and economic factors. For example, colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport: faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.
The trade in meat offers a good example of this connected process. Till the 1870s, animals were shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there. But live animals took up alot of ship space. Many also died in voyage, fell ill, lost weight, or became unfit to eat. Meat was hence an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor. 

After refregerated ships
Now animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point - in America, Australia or New Zealand - and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. To the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, though not all, could now add meat (and butter and eggs) to their diet. Better living conditions promoted -social peace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.

Late Nineteenth-century colonialism
Darker Side of Economic Expansion

1.    In many parts of the world, the expansion of trade and a closer relationship with the world economy also meant a loss of freedoms and livelihoods. 
2.    Late-nineteenth -century European conquests produced many painful economic, social and ecological changes
3.    Rival European powers in Africa drew up the borders demarcating their respective territories. In 1885 the big Europen powers met in Berlin to                   complete the carving up of Africa between them.
4.    Britain and France made vast additions to their overseas territories in the late nineteenth century. 
5.    Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers. 
6.    The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890s by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.

Rinderpest or the cattle plague
In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast-spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihood and the local economy.
Historically, Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. For centuries, land and livestock sustained African livelihoods and people rarely worked for a wage. In late-nineteenth-century Africa there were few consumer goods that wages could buy. 
In the late nineteenth century, Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals. Europeans came to Africa hoping to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for export to Europe. But there was an unexpected problem - a shortage of labour willing to work for wages.

Methods to recruit and retain labour. 
1.    Heavy takes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines. 
2.    Inheritance laws were changed so that peasants were displaced from land: only one member of a family was allowed to inherit land, as a result of           which the others were pushed into the labour market. 
3.    Mineworkers were also confined in compounds and not allowed to move about freely.
       Rinderpest arrived in Africa spread of rinder pest was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading                    Eritrea   in East Africa. Entering Africa in the east, rinderpest moved west ‘like forest fire’, reaching Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892. It reached the              Cape (Africa’s southernmost tip) five vears later. Along the way rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle. 

 Impact of coming of Rinderpast
1.    The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods. 
2.    Planters, mine owners in colonial governments now successfully monopolised what scarce cattle resources remained, to strengthen their power and to force  Africans into the labour market. 
3.    Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.

Indentured labout migration from India
In the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world. In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts which promised return travel to India after they had worked five years on their employer’s plantation. 
Most Indian indenture workers came from the present-day regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu.

Causes for Migration of Workers 
1.    In the mid-nineteenth century these regions experienced many changes - cottage industries declined, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations. 
2.    All this affected the lives of the poor: they failed to pay their rents, became deeply indebted and were forced to migrate in search of work.
3.    Many migrants agreed to take up work hoping to escape poverty or oppression in their home villages.
4.    Agents also tempted the prospective migrants by providing false information about final destinations, modes of travel, the nature of the work living and working conditions. 
5.    Often migrants were not even told that they were to embark on a long sea voyage. Sometimes agents even forcibly abducted less willing migrants. 
The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam), Mauritius and Fiji. Closer home, to Ceylon and Malaya. 

Ways of surviving by worker. 
1.    Many of them escaped into the wilds, though if caught they faced severe punishment.
2.    Others developed new forms of individual and collective self- expression, blending different cultural forms, old and new. In Trinidad the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ (for Imam Hussain) in which workers of all races and religions joined. 
3.    Similarly, the protest religion of Rastafarianism (made famous by the Jamaican reggae star Bob Marley) is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean. 
4.    ‘Chutney music’, popular in Trinidad and Guyana, is another creative contemporary expression of the post-indenture experience.

Indian entrepreneurs Abroad
1.    Shikaripuri shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars. They were amongst the many groups of bankers and traders who financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia, using either their own funds or those borrowed from European banks. They had a sophisticated system to transfer money over large distances, and even developed indigenous forms of corporate organisation.
2.    Hyderabadi Sindhi traders, however, ventured beyond European colonies. From the 1860s they established flourishing emporia at busy ports worldwide, selling local and imported curios to tourists whose numbers were beginning to swell, thanks to the development of safe and comfortable passenger vessels.

Indian trade, colonialsim and the global system
1.    Historically, fine cottons produced in India were exported to Europe. With industrialisation, British cotton manufacture began to expand, and industrialists pressurised the government to restrict cotton, imports and protect local industries. Tariffs were imposed on cloth imports into Britain. Consequently, the inflow of fine Indian cotton began to decline.
2.    From the early nineteenth century, British manufacturers also began to seek overseas markets for their cloth. Excluded from the British market by tariff barriers, Indian textiles now faced stiff competition in other international markets. 

While exports of manufactures declined rapidly, export of raw materials increased equally fast. 
    1.    Between 1812 and 1871, the share of raw cotton exports rose from 5 per cent to 35 per cent 
    2.    Indigo used for dyeing cloth was another important export for many decades.
    3.    Opium shipments to China- grew rapidly from the 1820s to become for a while India’s single largest export. Britain grew opium in India and exported it to China with the money earned through this sale, it financed its other imports from China.
Food grain and raw material exports from India to Britain and  the rest of the world increased. But the value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. 
Thus Britain had a ‘trade surplus’ with India. Britain used this to balance its trade deficits with other countries- that is, with countries from which Britain was importing more than it was selling to.
This is how a multilateral settlement system works it allows one country’s deficit with another country to be settled by its surplus with a third country.
Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt, and pensions of British officials in India.

Illustration 6
Which were the two groups of I world war name the countries of those groups?
Solution
The two groups of the I world war were the Allies and the central powers.
 The Allies Britain, France and Russia (later joined by U.S.)
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungry and Ottoman Turkey.

Illustration 7
What was the impacts of I world war on the European Economy?
Solution
    (i)     This was used weapons and Ammunition product in industries which increased the weapon industrialisation on modern lines.
    (ii)     It reduced the able bodied workforce in Europe.
    (iii)     Household income declined because of low number of family members.
    (iv)     The position of women improved in economy.
    (v)    Many fighting countries borrowed funds from developed countries.

Illustration 8
What was ‘Assembly line’ adopted by Henry Ford?
Solution
Production of goods by different persons at different points so that they become expert of the job. That enabled the company to produce goods faster.

Illustration 9
What was the time duration of the great depression.
Solution
It began around 1929 and lasted till 1930’s.

The Nineteenth Century global economy (colonialism).

The nineteenth century (1815-1914)    
Economists identify three types of movement or ‘flows’ within international economic exchanges. 
    1.    The first is the flow of trade which  nineteenth century referred largely to trade in goods (e.g., cloth or wheat). 
    2.    The second is the flow of labour - the migration of people in search of employment. 
    3.    The third is the movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances.

 A world economy takes shape
Population growth from the late eighteenth century had increased the demand for food grains in Britain. As urban centres expanded and industry grew, the demand for agricultural products went up, pushing up food grain prices.
Under pressure from land owner groups, the government also restricted the import of corn. The laws allowing the government to do this were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws’.
    After the Corn Laws were scrapped because of high prices of grains.
    1.    Food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.
    2.    British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated,
    3.    Thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.
As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose. From the mid-nineteenth century, faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes, and therefore more food imports. 
    1.    Railways were needed to link the agricultural regions to the ports.
    2.    New harbours had to be built and old ones expanded to ship the new-cargoes. 
    3.    People had to settle on the lands to bring them under cultivation. This meant building homes and     settlements. 
    4.    All these activities in turn required capital, and labour. Capital flowed from financial centres such as London. 
    5.    The demand for labour in places where labour was in short supply - as in America and 
Australia -led to more migration.

India
In West Punjab the British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals to transform 
semi-desert wastes, into fertile agricultural lands that could grow wheat and cotton for export. The Canal Colonies, as the areas irrigated by the new canals were called, were settled by peasants from other parts of Punjab.
Of course, food is merely an example. A similar story can be told for cotton, the cultivation of which expanded worldwide to feed British textile mills or the crop of rubber. 

Role of technology
Technological advances were the result of larger social, political and economic factors. For example, colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport: faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.
The trade in meat offers a good example of this connected process. Till the 1870s, animals were shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there. But live animals took up alot of ship space. Many also died in voyage, fell ill, lost weight, or became unfit to eat. Meat was hence an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor. 

After refregerated ships
Now animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point - in America, Australia or New Zealand - and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. To the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, though not all, could now add meat (and butter and eggs) to their diet. Better living conditions promoted -social peace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.

Late Nineteenth-century colonialism
Darker Side of Economic Expansion

1.    In many parts of the world, the expansion of trade and a closer relationship with the world economy also meant a loss of freedoms and livelihoods. 
2.    Late-nineteenth -century European conquests produced many painful economic, social and ecological changes
3.    Rival European powers in Africa drew up the borders demarcating their respective territories. In 1885 the big Europen powers met in Berlin to                   complete the carving up of Africa between them.
4.    Britain and France made vast additions to their overseas territories in the late nineteenth century. 
5.    Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers. 
6.    The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890s by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.

Rinderpest or the cattle plague
In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast-spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihood and the local economy.
Historically, Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. For centuries, land and livestock sustained African livelihoods and people rarely worked for a wage. In late-nineteenth-century Africa there were few consumer goods that wages could buy. 
In the late nineteenth century, Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals. Europeans came to Africa hoping to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for export to Europe. But there was an unexpected problem - a shortage of labour willing to work for wages.

Methods to recruit and retain labour. 
1.    Heavy takes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines. 
2.    Inheritance laws were changed so that peasants were displaced from land: only one member of a family was allowed to inherit land, as a result of           which the others were pushed into the labour market. 
3.    Mineworkers were also confined in compounds and not allowed to move about freely.
       Rinderpest arrived in Africa spread of rinder pest was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading                    Eritrea   in East Africa. Entering Africa in the east, rinderpest moved west ‘like forest fire’, reaching Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892. It reached the              Cape (Africa’s southernmost tip) five vears later. Along the way rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle. 

 Impact of coming of Rinderpast
1.    The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods. 
2.    Planters, mine owners in colonial governments now successfully monopolised what scarce cattle resources remained, to strengthen their power and to force  Africans into the labour market. 
3.    Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.

Indentured labout migration from India
In the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world. In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts which promised return travel to India after they had worked five years on their employer’s plantation. 
Most Indian indenture workers came from the present-day regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu.

Causes for Migration of Workers 
1.    In the mid-nineteenth century these regions experienced many changes - cottage industries declined, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations. 
2.    All this affected the lives of the poor: they failed to pay their rents, became deeply indebted and were forced to migrate in search of work.
3.    Many migrants agreed to take up work hoping to escape poverty or oppression in their home villages.
4.    Agents also tempted the prospective migrants by providing false information about final destinations, modes of travel, the nature of the work living and working conditions. 
5.    Often migrants were not even told that they were to embark on a long sea voyage. Sometimes agents even forcibly abducted less willing migrants. 
The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam), Mauritius and Fiji. Closer home, to Ceylon and Malaya. 

Ways of surviving by worker. 
1.    Many of them escaped into the wilds, though if caught they faced severe punishment.
2.    Others developed new forms of individual and collective self- expression, blending different cultural forms, old and new. In Trinidad the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ (for Imam Hussain) in which workers of all races and religions joined. 
3.    Similarly, the protest religion of Rastafarianism (made famous by the Jamaican reggae star Bob Marley) is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean. 
4.    ‘Chutney music’, popular in Trinidad and Guyana, is another creative contemporary expression of the post-indenture experience.

Indian entrepreneurs Abroad
1.    Shikaripuri shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars. They were amongst the many groups of bankers and traders who financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia, using either their own funds or those borrowed from European banks. They had a sophisticated system to transfer money over large distances, and even developed indigenous forms of corporate organisation.
2.    Hyderabadi Sindhi traders, however, ventured beyond European colonies. From the 1860s they established flourishing emporia at busy ports worldwide, selling local and imported curios to tourists whose numbers were beginning to swell, thanks to the development of safe and comfortable passenger vessels.

Indian trade, colonialsim and the global system
1.    Historically, fine cottons produced in India were exported to Europe. With industrialisation, British cotton manufacture began to expand, and industrialists pressurised the government to restrict cotton, imports and protect local industries. Tariffs were imposed on cloth imports into Britain. Consequently, the inflow of fine Indian cotton began to decline.
2.    From the early nineteenth century, British manufacturers also began to seek overseas markets for their cloth. Excluded from the British market by tariff barriers, Indian textiles now faced stiff competition in other international markets. 

While exports of manufactures declined rapidly, export of raw materials increased equally fast. 
    1.    Between 1812 and 1871, the share of raw cotton exports rose from 5 per cent to 35 per cent 
    2.    Indigo used for dyeing cloth was another important export for many decades.
    3.    Opium shipments to China- grew rapidly from the 1820s to become for a while India’s single largest export. Britain grew opium in India and exported it to China with the money earned through this sale, it financed its other imports from China.
Food grain and raw material exports from India to Britain and  the rest of the world increased. But the value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. 
Thus Britain had a ‘trade surplus’ with India. Britain used this to balance its trade deficits with other countries- that is, with countries from which Britain was importing more than it was selling to.
This is how a multilateral settlement system works it allows one country’s deficit with another country to be settled by its surplus with a third country.
Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt, and pensions of British officials in India.

Illustration 6
Which were the two groups of I world war name the countries of those groups?
Solution
The two groups of the I world war were the Allies and the central powers.
 The Allies Britain, France and Russia (later joined by U.S.)
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungry and Ottoman Turkey.

Illustration 7
What was the impacts of I world war on the European Economy?
Solution
    (i)     This was used weapons and Ammunition product in industries which increased the weapon industrialisation on modern lines.
    (ii)     It reduced the able bodied workforce in Europe.
    (iii)     Household income declined because of low number of family members.
    (iv)     The position of women improved in economy.
    (v)    Many fighting countries borrowed funds from developed countries.

Illustration 8
What was ‘Assembly line’ adopted by Henry Ford?
Solution
Production of goods by different persons at different points so that they become expert of the job. That enabled the company to produce goods faster.

Illustration 9
What was the time duration of the great depression.
Solution
It began around 1929 and lasted till 1930’s.

The Nineteenth Century global economy (colonialism).

The nineteenth century (1815-1914)    
Economists identify three types of movement or ‘flows’ within international economic exchanges. 
    1.    The first is the flow of trade which  nineteenth century referred largely to trade in goods (e.g., cloth or wheat). 
    2.    The second is the flow of labour - the migration of people in search of employment. 
    3.    The third is the movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances.

 A world economy takes shape
Population growth from the late eighteenth century had increased the demand for food grains in Britain. As urban centres expanded and industry grew, the demand for agricultural products went up, pushing up food grain prices.
Under pressure from land owner groups, the government also restricted the import of corn. The laws allowing the government to do this were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws’.
    After the Corn Laws were scrapped because of high prices of grains.
    1.    Food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.
    2.    British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated,
    3.    Thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.
As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose. From the mid-nineteenth century, faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes, and therefore more food imports. 
    1.    Railways were needed to link the agricultural regions to the ports.
    2.    New harbours had to be built and old ones expanded to ship the new-cargoes. 
    3.    People had to settle on the lands to bring them under cultivation. This meant building homes and     settlements. 
    4.    All these activities in turn required capital, and labour. Capital flowed from financial centres such as London. 
    5.    The demand for labour in places where labour was in short supply - as in America and 
Australia -led to more migration.

India
In West Punjab the British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals to transform 
semi-desert wastes, into fertile agricultural lands that could grow wheat and cotton for export. The Canal Colonies, as the areas irrigated by the new canals were called, were settled by peasants from other parts of Punjab.
Of course, food is merely an example. A similar story can be told for cotton, the cultivation of which expanded worldwide to feed British textile mills or the crop of rubber. 

Role of technology
Technological advances were the result of larger social, political and economic factors. For example, colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport: faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.
The trade in meat offers a good example of this connected process. Till the 1870s, animals were shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there. But live animals took up alot of ship space. Many also died in voyage, fell ill, lost weight, or became unfit to eat. Meat was hence an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor. 

After refregerated ships
Now animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point - in America, Australia or New Zealand - and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. To the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, though not all, could now add meat (and butter and eggs) to their diet. Better living conditions promoted -social peace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.

Late Nineteenth-century colonialism
Darker Side of Economic Expansion

1.    In many parts of the world, the expansion of trade and a closer relationship with the world economy also meant a loss of freedoms and livelihoods. 
2.    Late-nineteenth -century European conquests produced many painful economic, social and ecological changes
3.    Rival European powers in Africa drew up the borders demarcating their respective territories. In 1885 the big Europen powers met in Berlin to                   complete the carving up of Africa between them.
4.    Britain and France made vast additions to their overseas territories in the late nineteenth century. 
5.    Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers. 
6.    The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890s by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.

Rinderpest or the cattle plague
In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast-spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihood and the local economy.
Historically, Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. For centuries, land and livestock sustained African livelihoods and people rarely worked for a wage. In late-nineteenth-century Africa there were few consumer goods that wages could buy. 
In the late nineteenth century, Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals. Europeans came to Africa hoping to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for export to Europe. But there was an unexpected problem - a shortage of labour willing to work for wages.

Methods to recruit and retain labour. 
1.    Heavy takes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines. 
2.    Inheritance laws were changed so that peasants were displaced from land: only one member of a family was allowed to inherit land, as a result of           which the others were pushed into the labour market. 
3.    Mineworkers were also confined in compounds and not allowed to move about freely.
       Rinderpest arrived in Africa spread of rinder pest was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading                    Eritrea   in East Africa. Entering Africa in the east, rinderpest moved west ‘like forest fire’, reaching Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892. It reached the              Cape (Africa’s southernmost tip) five vears later. Along the way rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle. 

 Impact of coming of Rinderpast
1.    The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods. 
2.    Planters, mine owners in colonial governments now successfully monopolised what scarce cattle resources remained, to strengthen their power and to force  Africans into the labour market. 
3.    Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.

Indentured labout migration from India
In the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world. In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts which promised return travel to India after they had worked five years on their employer’s plantation. 
Most Indian indenture workers came from the present-day regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu.

Causes for Migration of Workers 
1.    In the mid-nineteenth century these regions experienced many changes - cottage industries declined, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations. 
2.    All this affected the lives of the poor: they failed to pay their rents, became deeply indebted and were forced to migrate in search of work.
3.    Many migrants agreed to take up work hoping to escape poverty or oppression in their home villages.
4.    Agents also tempted the prospective migrants by providing false information about final destinations, modes of travel, the nature of the work living and working conditions. 
5.    Often migrants were not even told that they were to embark on a long sea voyage. Sometimes agents even forcibly abducted less willing migrants. 
The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam), Mauritius and Fiji. Closer home, to Ceylon and Malaya. 

Ways of surviving by worker. 
1.    Many of them escaped into the wilds, though if caught they faced severe punishment.
2.    Others developed new forms of individual and collective self- expression, blending different cultural forms, old and new. In Trinidad the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ (for Imam Hussain) in which workers of all races and religions joined. 
3.    Similarly, the protest religion of Rastafarianism (made famous by the Jamaican reggae star Bob Marley) is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean. 
4.    ‘Chutney music’, popular in Trinidad and Guyana, is another creative contemporary expression of the post-indenture experience.

Indian entrepreneurs Abroad
1.    Shikaripuri shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars. They were amongst the many groups of bankers and traders who financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia, using either their own funds or those borrowed from European banks. They had a sophisticated system to transfer money over large distances, and even developed indigenous forms of corporate organisation.
2.    Hyderabadi Sindhi traders, however, ventured beyond European colonies. From the 1860s they established flourishing emporia at busy ports worldwide, selling local and imported curios to tourists whose numbers were beginning to swell, thanks to the development of safe and comfortable passenger vessels.

Indian trade, colonialsim and the global system
1.    Historically, fine cottons produced in India were exported to Europe. With industrialisation, British cotton manufacture began to expand, and industrialists pressurised the government to restrict cotton, imports and protect local industries. Tariffs were imposed on cloth imports into Britain. Consequently, the inflow of fine Indian cotton began to decline.
2.    From the early nineteenth century, British manufacturers also began to seek overseas markets for their cloth. Excluded from the British market by tariff barriers, Indian textiles now faced stiff competition in other international markets. 

While exports of manufactures declined rapidly, export of raw materials increased equally fast. 
    1.    Between 1812 and 1871, the share of raw cotton exports rose from 5 per cent to 35 per cent 
    2.    Indigo used for dyeing cloth was another important export for many decades.
    3.    Opium shipments to China- grew rapidly from the 1820s to become for a while India’s single largest export. Britain grew opium in India and exported it to China with the money earned through this sale, it financed its other imports from China.
Food grain and raw material exports from India to Britain and  the rest of the world increased. But the value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. 
Thus Britain had a ‘trade surplus’ with India. Britain used this to balance its trade deficits with other countries- that is, with countries from which Britain was importing more than it was selling to.
This is how a multilateral settlement system works it allows one country’s deficit with another country to be settled by its surplus with a third country.
Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt, and pensions of British officials in India.

Illustration 6
Which were the two groups of I world war name the countries of those groups?
Solution
The two groups of the I world war were the Allies and the central powers.
 The Allies Britain, France and Russia (later joined by U.S.)
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungry and Ottoman Turkey.

Illustration 7
What was the impacts of I world war on the European Economy?
Solution
    (i)     This was used weapons and Ammunition product in industries which increased the weapon industrialisation on modern lines.
    (ii)     It reduced the able bodied workforce in Europe.
    (iii)     Household income declined because of low number of family members.
    (iv)     The position of women improved in economy.
    (v)    Many fighting countries borrowed funds from developed countries.

Illustration 8
What was ‘Assembly line’ adopted by Henry Ford?
Solution
Production of goods by different persons at different points so that they become expert of the job. That enabled the company to produce goods faster.

Illustration 9
What was the time duration of the great depression.
Solution
It began around 1929 and lasted till 1930’s.

The Nineteenth Century global economy (colonialism).

The nineteenth century (1815-1914)    
Economists identify three types of movement or ‘flows’ within international economic exchanges. 
    1.    The first is the flow of trade which  nineteenth century referred largely to trade in goods (e.g., cloth or wheat). 
    2.    The second is the flow of labour - the migration of people in search of employment. 
    3.    The third is the movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances.

 A world economy takes shape
Population growth from the late eighteenth century had increased the demand for food grains in Britain. As urban centres expanded and industry grew, the demand for agricultural products went up, pushing up food grain prices.
Under pressure from land owner groups, the government also restricted the import of corn. The laws allowing the government to do this were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws’.
    After the Corn Laws were scrapped because of high prices of grains.
    1.    Food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.
    2.    British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated,
    3.    Thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.
As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose. From the mid-nineteenth century, faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes, and therefore more food imports. 
    1.    Railways were needed to link the agricultural regions to the ports.
    2.    New harbours had to be built and old ones expanded to ship the new-cargoes. 
    3.    People had to settle on the lands to bring them under cultivation. This meant building homes and     settlements. 
    4.    All these activities in turn required capital, and labour. Capital flowed from financial centres such as London. 
    5.    The demand for labour in places where labour was in short supply - as in America and 
Australia -led to more migration.

India
In West Punjab the British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals to transform 
semi-desert wastes, into fertile agricultural lands that could grow wheat and cotton for export. The Canal Colonies, as the areas irrigated by the new canals were called, were settled by peasants from other parts of Punjab.
Of course, food is merely an example. A similar story can be told for cotton, the cultivation of which expanded worldwide to feed British textile mills or the crop of rubber. 

Role of technology
Technological advances were the result of larger social, political and economic factors. For example, colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport: faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.
The trade in meat offers a good example of this connected process. Till the 1870s, animals were shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there. But live animals took up alot of ship space. Many also died in voyage, fell ill, lost weight, or became unfit to eat. Meat was hence an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor. 

After refregerated ships
Now animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point - in America, Australia or New Zealand - and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. To the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, though not all, could now add meat (and butter and eggs) to their diet. Better living conditions promoted -social peace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.

Late Nineteenth-century colonialism
Darker Side of Economic Expansion

1.    In many parts of the world, the expansion of trade and a closer relationship with the world economy also meant a loss of freedoms and livelihoods. 
2.    Late-nineteenth -century European conquests produced many painful economic, social and ecological changes
3.    Rival European powers in Africa drew up the borders demarcating their respective territories. In 1885 the big Europen powers met in Berlin to                   complete the carving up of Africa between them.
4.    Britain and France made vast additions to their overseas territories in the late nineteenth century. 
5.    Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers. 
6.    The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890s by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.

Rinderpest or the cattle plague
In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast-spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihood and the local economy.
Historically, Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. For centuries, land and livestock sustained African livelihoods and people rarely worked for a wage. In late-nineteenth-century Africa there were few consumer goods that wages could buy. 
In the late nineteenth century, Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals. Europeans came to Africa hoping to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for export to Europe. But there was an unexpected problem - a shortage of labour willing to work for wages.

Methods to recruit and retain labour. 
1.    Heavy takes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines. 
2.    Inheritance laws were changed so that peasants were displaced from land: only one member of a family was allowed to inherit land, as a result of           which the others were pushed into the labour market. 
3.    Mineworkers were also confined in compounds and not allowed to move about freely.
       Rinderpest arrived in Africa spread of rinder pest was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading                    Eritrea   in East Africa. Entering Africa in the east, rinderpest moved west ‘like forest fire’, reaching Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892. It reached the              Cape (Africa’s southernmost tip) five vears later. Along the way rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle. 

 Impact of coming of Rinderpast
1.    The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods. 
2.    Planters, mine owners in colonial governments now successfully monopolised what scarce cattle resources remained, to strengthen their power and to force  Africans into the labour market. 
3.    Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.

Indentured labout migration from India
In the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world. In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts which promised return travel to India after they had worked five years on their employer’s plantation. 
Most Indian indenture workers came from the present-day regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu.

Causes for Migration of Workers 
1.    In the mid-nineteenth century these regions experienced many changes - cottage industries declined, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations. 
2.    All this affected the lives of the poor: they failed to pay their rents, became deeply indebted and were forced to migrate in search of work.
3.    Many migrants agreed to take up work hoping to escape poverty or oppression in their home villages.
4.    Agents also tempted the prospective migrants by providing false information about final destinations, modes of travel, the nature of the work living and working conditions. 
5.    Often migrants were not even told that they were to embark on a long sea voyage. Sometimes agents even forcibly abducted less willing migrants. 
The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam), Mauritius and Fiji. Closer home, to Ceylon and Malaya. 

Ways of surviving by worker. 
1.    Many of them escaped into the wilds, though if caught they faced severe punishment.
2.    Others developed new forms of individual and collective self- expression, blending different cultural forms, old and new. In Trinidad the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ (for Imam Hussain) in which workers of all races and religions joined. 
3.    Similarly, the protest religion of Rastafarianism (made famous by the Jamaican reggae star Bob Marley) is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean. 
4.    ‘Chutney music’, popular in Trinidad and Guyana, is another creative contemporary expression of the post-indenture experience.

Indian entrepreneurs Abroad
1.    Shikaripuri shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars. They were amongst the many groups of bankers and traders who financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia, using either their own funds or those borrowed from European banks. They had a sophisticated system to transfer money over large distances, and even developed indigenous forms of corporate organisation.
2.    Hyderabadi Sindhi traders, however, ventured beyond European colonies. From the 1860s they established flourishing emporia at busy ports worldwide, selling local and imported curios to tourists whose numbers were beginning to swell, thanks to the development of safe and comfortable passenger vessels.

Indian trade, colonialsim and the global system
1.    Historically, fine cottons produced in India were exported to Europe. With industrialisation, British cotton manufacture began to expand, and industrialists pressurised the government to restrict cotton, imports and protect local industries. Tariffs were imposed on cloth imports into Britain. Consequently, the inflow of fine Indian cotton began to decline.
2.    From the early nineteenth century, British manufacturers also began to seek overseas markets for their cloth. Excluded from the British market by tariff barriers, Indian textiles now faced stiff competition in other international markets. 

While exports of manufactures declined rapidly, export of raw materials increased equally fast. 
    1.    Between 1812 and 1871, the share of raw cotton exports rose from 5 per cent to 35 per cent 
    2.    Indigo used for dyeing cloth was another important export for many decades.
    3.    Opium shipments to China- grew rapidly from the 1820s to become for a while India’s single largest export. Britain grew opium in India and exported it to China with the money earned through this sale, it financed its other imports from China.
Food grain and raw material exports from India to Britain and  the rest of the world increased. But the value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. 
Thus Britain had a ‘trade surplus’ with India. Britain used this to balance its trade deficits with other countries- that is, with countries from which Britain was importing more than it was selling to.
This is how a multilateral settlement system works it allows one country’s deficit with another country to be settled by its surplus with a third country.
Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt, and pensions of British officials in India.

Illustration 6
Which were the two groups of I world war name the countries of those groups?
Solution
The two groups of the I world war were the Allies and the central powers.
 The Allies Britain, France and Russia (later joined by U.S.)
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungry and Ottoman Turkey.

Illustration 7
What was the impacts of I world war on the European Economy?
Solution
    (i)     This was used weapons and Ammunition product in industries which increased the weapon industrialisation on modern lines.
    (ii)     It reduced the able bodied workforce in Europe.
    (iii)     Household income declined because of low number of family members.
    (iv)     The position of women improved in economy.
    (v)    Many fighting countries borrowed funds from developed countries.

Illustration 8
What was ‘Assembly line’ adopted by Henry Ford?
Solution
Production of goods by different persons at different points so that they become expert of the job. That enabled the company to produce goods faster.

Illustration 9
What was the time duration of the great depression.
Solution
It began around 1929 and lasted till 1930’s.

The Nineteenth Century global economy (colonialism).

The nineteenth century (1815-1914)    
Economists identify three types of movement or ‘flows’ within international economic exchanges. 
    1.    The first is the flow of trade which  nineteenth century referred largely to trade in goods (e.g., cloth or wheat). 
    2.    The second is the flow of labour - the migration of people in search of employment. 
    3.    The third is the movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances.

 A world economy takes shape
Population growth from the late eighteenth century had increased the demand for food grains in Britain. As urban centres expanded and industry grew, the demand for agricultural products went up, pushing up food grain prices.
Under pressure from land owner groups, the government also restricted the import of corn. The laws allowing the government to do this were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws’.
    After the Corn Laws were scrapped because of high prices of grains.
    1.    Food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.
    2.    British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated,
    3.    Thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.
As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose. From the mid-nineteenth century, faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes, and therefore more food imports. 
    1.    Railways were needed to link the agricultural regions to the ports.
    2.    New harbours had to be built and old ones expanded to ship the new-cargoes. 
    3.    People had to settle on the lands to bring them under cultivation. This meant building homes and     settlements. 
    4.    All these activities in turn required capital, and labour. Capital flowed from financial centres such as London. 
    5.    The demand for labour in places where labour was in short supply - as in America and 
Australia -led to more migration.

India
In West Punjab the British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals to transform 
semi-desert wastes, into fertile agricultural lands that could grow wheat and cotton for export. The Canal Colonies, as the areas irrigated by the new canals were called, were settled by peasants from other parts of Punjab.
Of course, food is merely an example. A similar story can be told for cotton, the cultivation of which expanded worldwide to feed British textile mills or the crop of rubber. 

Role of technology
Technological advances were the result of larger social, political and economic factors. For example, colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport: faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.
The trade in meat offers a good example of this connected process. Till the 1870s, animals were shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there. But live animals took up alot of ship space. Many also died in voyage, fell ill, lost weight, or became unfit to eat. Meat was hence an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor. 

After refregerated ships
Now animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point - in America, Australia or New Zealand - and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. To the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, though not all, could now add meat (and butter and eggs) to their diet. Better living conditions promoted -social peace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.

Late Nineteenth-century colonialism
Darker Side of Economic Expansion

1.    In many parts of the world, the expansion of trade and a closer relationship with the world economy also meant a loss of freedoms and livelihoods. 
2.    Late-nineteenth -century European conquests produced many painful economic, social and ecological changes
3.    Rival European powers in Africa drew up the borders demarcating their respective territories. In 1885 the big Europen powers met in Berlin to                   complete the carving up of Africa between them.
4.    Britain and France made vast additions to their overseas territories in the late nineteenth century. 
5.    Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers. 
6.    The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890s by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.

Rinderpest or the cattle plague
In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast-spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihood and the local economy.
Historically, Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. For centuries, land and livestock sustained African livelihoods and people rarely worked for a wage. In late-nineteenth-century Africa there were few consumer goods that wages could buy. 
In the late nineteenth century, Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals. Europeans came to Africa hoping to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for export to Europe. But there was an unexpected problem - a shortage of labour willing to work for wages.

Methods to recruit and retain labour. 
1.    Heavy takes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines. 
2.    Inheritance laws were changed so that peasants were displaced from land: only one member of a family was allowed to inherit land, as a result of           which the others were pushed into the labour market. 
3.    Mineworkers were also confined in compounds and not allowed to move about freely.
       Rinderpest arrived in Africa spread of rinder pest was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading                    Eritrea   in East Africa. Entering Africa in the east, rinderpest moved west ‘like forest fire’, reaching Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892. It reached the              Cape (Africa’s southernmost tip) five vears later. Along the way rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle. 

 Impact of coming of Rinderpast
1.    The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods. 
2.    Planters, mine owners in colonial governments now successfully monopolised what scarce cattle resources remained, to strengthen their power and to force  Africans into the labour market. 
3.    Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.

Indentured labout migration from India
In the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world. In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts which promised return travel to India after they had worked five years on their employer’s plantation. 
Most Indian indenture workers came from the present-day regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu.

Causes for Migration of Workers 
1.    In the mid-nineteenth century these regions experienced many changes - cottage industries declined, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations. 
2.    All this affected the lives of the poor: they failed to pay their rents, became deeply indebted and were forced to migrate in search of work.
3.    Many migrants agreed to take up work hoping to escape poverty or oppression in their home villages.
4.    Agents also tempted the prospective migrants by providing false information about final destinations, modes of travel, the nature of the work living and working conditions. 
5.    Often migrants were not even told that they were to embark on a long sea voyage. Sometimes agents even forcibly abducted less willing migrants. 
The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam), Mauritius and Fiji. Closer home, to Ceylon and Malaya. 

Ways of surviving by worker. 
1.    Many of them escaped into the wilds, though if caught they faced severe punishment.
2.    Others developed new forms of individual and collective self- expression, blending different cultural forms, old and new. In Trinidad the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ (for Imam Hussain) in which workers of all races and religions joined. 
3.    Similarly, the protest religion of Rastafarianism (made famous by the Jamaican reggae star Bob Marley) is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean. 
4.    ‘Chutney music’, popular in Trinidad and Guyana, is another creative contemporary expression of the post-indenture experience.

Indian entrepreneurs Abroad
1.    Shikaripuri shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars. They were amongst the many groups of bankers and traders who financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia, using either their own funds or those borrowed from European banks. They had a sophisticated system to transfer money over large distances, and even developed indigenous forms of corporate organisation.
2.    Hyderabadi Sindhi traders, however, ventured beyond European colonies. From the 1860s they established flourishing emporia at busy ports worldwide, selling local and imported curios to tourists whose numbers were beginning to swell, thanks to the development of safe and comfortable passenger vessels.

Indian trade, colonialsim and the global system
1.    Historically, fine cottons produced in India were exported to Europe. With industrialisation, British cotton manufacture began to expand, and industrialists pressurised the government to restrict cotton, imports and protect local industries. Tariffs were imposed on cloth imports into Britain. Consequently, the inflow of fine Indian cotton began to decline.
2.    From the early nineteenth century, British manufacturers also began to seek overseas markets for their cloth. Excluded from the British market by tariff barriers, Indian textiles now faced stiff competition in other international markets. 

While exports of manufactures declined rapidly, export of raw materials increased equally fast. 
    1.    Between 1812 and 1871, the share of raw cotton exports rose from 5 per cent to 35 per cent 
    2.    Indigo used for dyeing cloth was another important export for many decades.
    3.    Opium shipments to China- grew rapidly from the 1820s to become for a while India’s single largest export. Britain grew opium in India and exported it to China with the money earned through this sale, it financed its other imports from China.
Food grain and raw material exports from India to Britain and  the rest of the world increased. But the value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. 
Thus Britain had a ‘trade surplus’ with India. Britain used this to balance its trade deficits with other countries- that is, with countries from which Britain was importing more than it was selling to.
This is how a multilateral settlement system works it allows one country’s deficit with another country to be settled by its surplus with a third country.
Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt, and pensions of British officials in India.

Illustration 6
Which were the two groups of I world war name the countries of those groups?
Solution
The two groups of the I world war were the Allies and the central powers.
 The Allies Britain, France and Russia (later joined by U.S.)
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungry and Ottoman Turkey.

Illustration 7
What was the impacts of I world war on the European Economy?
Solution
    (i)     This was used weapons and Ammunition product in industries which increased the weapon industrialisation on modern lines.
    (ii)     It reduced the able bodied workforce in Europe.
    (iii)     Household income declined because of low number of family members.
    (iv)     The position of women improved in economy.
    (v)    Many fighting countries borrowed funds from developed countries.

Illustration 8
What was ‘Assembly line’ adopted by Henry Ford?
Solution
Production of goods by different persons at different points so that they become expert of the job. That enabled the company to produce goods faster.

Illustration 9
What was the time duration of the great depression.
Solution
It began around 1929 and lasted till 1930’s.

The Nineteenth Century global economy (colonialism).

The nineteenth century (1815-1914)    
Economists identify three types of movement or ‘flows’ within international economic exchanges. 
    1.    The first is the flow of trade which  nineteenth century referred largely to trade in goods (e.g., cloth or wheat). 
    2.    The second is the flow of labour - the migration of people in search of employment. 
    3.    The third is the movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances.

 A world economy takes shape
Population growth from the late eighteenth century had increased the demand for food grains in Britain. As urban centres expanded and industry grew, the demand for agricultural products went up, pushing up food grain prices.
Under pressure from land owner groups, the government also restricted the import of corn. The laws allowing the government to do this were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws’.
    After the Corn Laws were scrapped because of high prices of grains.
    1.    Food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.
    2.    British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated,
    3.    Thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.
As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose. From the mid-nineteenth century, faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes, and therefore more food imports. 
    1.    Railways were needed to link the agricultural regions to the ports.
    2.    New harbours had to be built and old ones expanded to ship the new-cargoes. 
    3.    People had to settle on the lands to bring them under cultivation. This meant building homes and     settlements. 
    4.    All these activities in turn required capital, and labour. Capital flowed from financial centres such as London. 
    5.    The demand for labour in places where labour was in short supply - as in America and 
Australia -led to more migration.

India
In West Punjab the British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals to transform 
semi-desert wastes, into fertile agricultural lands that could grow wheat and cotton for export. The Canal Colonies, as the areas irrigated by the new canals were called, were settled by peasants from other parts of Punjab.
Of course, food is merely an example. A similar story can be told for cotton, the cultivation of which expanded worldwide to feed British textile mills or the crop of rubber. 

Role of technology
Technological advances were the result of larger social, political and economic factors. For example, colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport: faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.
The trade in meat offers a good example of this connected process. Till the 1870s, animals were shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there. But live animals took up alot of ship space. Many also died in voyage, fell ill, lost weight, or became unfit to eat. Meat was hence an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor. 

After refregerated ships
Now animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point - in America, Australia or New Zealand - and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. To the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, though not all, could now add meat (and butter and eggs) to their diet. Better living conditions promoted -social peace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.

Late Nineteenth-century colonialism
Darker Side of Economic Expansion

1.    In many parts of the world, the expansion of trade and a closer relationship with the world economy also meant a loss of freedoms and livelihoods. 
2.    Late-nineteenth -century European conquests produced many painful economic, social and ecological changes
3.    Rival European powers in Africa drew up the borders demarcating their respective territories. In 1885 the big Europen powers met in Berlin to                   complete the carving up of Africa between them.
4.    Britain and France made vast additions to their overseas territories in the late nineteenth century. 
5.    Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers. 
6.    The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890s by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.

Rinderpest or the cattle plague
In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast-spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihood and the local economy.
Historically, Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. For centuries, land and livestock sustained African livelihoods and people rarely worked for a wage. In late-nineteenth-century Africa there were few consumer goods that wages could buy. 
In the late nineteenth century, Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals. Europeans came to Africa hoping to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for export to Europe. But there was an unexpected problem - a shortage of labour willing to work for wages.

Methods to recruit and retain labour. 
1.    Heavy takes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines. 
2.    Inheritance laws were changed so that peasants were displaced from land: only one member of a family was allowed to inherit land, as a result of           which the others were pushed into the labour market. 
3.    Mineworkers were also confined in compounds and not allowed to move about freely.
       Rinderpest arrived in Africa spread of rinder pest was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading                    Eritrea   in East Africa. Entering Africa in the east, rinderpest moved west ‘like forest fire’, reaching Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892. It reached the              Cape (Africa’s southernmost tip) five vears later. Along the way rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle. 

 Impact of coming of Rinderpast
1.    The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods. 
2.    Planters, mine owners in colonial governments now successfully monopolised what scarce cattle resources remained, to strengthen their power and to force  Africans into the labour market. 
3.    Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.

Indentured labout migration from India
In the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world. In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts which promised return travel to India after they had worked five years on their employer’s plantation. 
Most Indian indenture workers came from the present-day regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu.

Causes for Migration of Workers 
1.    In the mid-nineteenth century these regions experienced many changes - cottage industries declined, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations. 
2.    All this affected the lives of the poor: they failed to pay their rents, became deeply indebted and were forced to migrate in search of work.
3.    Many migrants agreed to take up work hoping to escape poverty or oppression in their home villages.
4.    Agents also tempted the prospective migrants by providing false information about final destinations, modes of travel, the nature of the work living and working conditions. 
5.    Often migrants were not even told that they were to embark on a long sea voyage. Sometimes agents even forcibly abducted less willing migrants. 
The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam), Mauritius and Fiji. Closer home, to Ceylon and Malaya. 

Ways of surviving by worker. 
1.    Many of them escaped into the wilds, though if caught they faced severe punishment.
2.    Others developed new forms of individual and collective self- expression, blending different cultural forms, old and new. In Trinidad the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ (for Imam Hussain) in which workers of all races and religions joined. 
3.    Similarly, the protest religion of Rastafarianism (made famous by the Jamaican reggae star Bob Marley) is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean. 
4.    ‘Chutney music’, popular in Trinidad and Guyana, is another creative contemporary expression of the post-indenture experience.

Indian entrepreneurs Abroad
1.    Shikaripuri shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars. They were amongst the many groups of bankers and traders who financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia, using either their own funds or those borrowed from European banks. They had a sophisticated system to transfer money over large distances, and even developed indigenous forms of corporate organisation.
2.    Hyderabadi Sindhi traders, however, ventured beyond European colonies. From the 1860s they established flourishing emporia at busy ports worldwide, selling local and imported curios to tourists whose numbers were beginning to swell, thanks to the development of safe and comfortable passenger vessels.

Indian trade, colonialsim and the global system
1.    Historically, fine cottons produced in India were exported to Europe. With industrialisation, British cotton manufacture began to expand, and industrialists pressurised the government to restrict cotton, imports and protect local industries. Tariffs were imposed on cloth imports into Britain. Consequently, the inflow of fine Indian cotton began to decline.
2.    From the early nineteenth century, British manufacturers also began to seek overseas markets for their cloth. Excluded from the British market by tariff barriers, Indian textiles now faced stiff competition in other international markets. 

While exports of manufactures declined rapidly, export of raw materials increased equally fast. 
    1.    Between 1812 and 1871, the share of raw cotton exports rose from 5 per cent to 35 per cent 
    2.    Indigo used for dyeing cloth was another important export for many decades.
    3.    Opium shipments to China- grew rapidly from the 1820s to become for a while India’s single largest export. Britain grew opium in India and exported it to China with the money earned through this sale, it financed its other imports from China.
Food grain and raw material exports from India to Britain and  the rest of the world increased. But the value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. 
Thus Britain had a ‘trade surplus’ with India. Britain used this to balance its trade deficits with other countries- that is, with countries from which Britain was importing more than it was selling to.
This is how a multilateral settlement system works it allows one country’s deficit with another country to be settled by its surplus with a third country.
Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt, and pensions of British officials in India.

Illustration 6
Which were the two groups of I world war name the countries of those groups?
Solution
The two groups of the I world war were the Allies and the central powers.
 The Allies Britain, France and Russia (later joined by U.S.)
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungry and Ottoman Turkey.

Illustration 7
What was the impacts of I world war on the European Economy?
Solution
    (i)     This was used weapons and Ammunition product in industries which increased the weapon industrialisation on modern lines.
    (ii)     It reduced the able bodied workforce in Europe.
    (iii)     Household income declined because of low number of family members.
    (iv)     The position of women improved in economy.
    (v)    Many fighting countries borrowed funds from developed countries.

Illustration 8
What was ‘Assembly line’ adopted by Henry Ford?
Solution
Production of goods by different persons at different points so that they become expert of the job. That enabled the company to produce goods faster.

Illustration 9
What was the time duration of the great depression.
Solution
It began around 1929 and lasted till 1930’s.

The Inter war Economy (Great Depression).

The inter-war economy
Wartime transformations
On the one side were the Allies – Britain, France and Russia (later joined by the US); and on the opposite side were the Central Powers – Germany, Austria - Hungary and Ottoman Turkey.
This war was thus the first modern industrial war. It saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modern large- scale industry. To fight the war, millions of soldiers had to be recruited from around the world and moved to the frontlines on large ships and trains.
1.    These deaths and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe.
2.    With fewer numbers within the family, household incomes declined after the war. 
3.    During the war, industries were restructured to produce war-related goods. Entire societies were also reorganised for war - as men went to battle, women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do.
4.    The war led to the shapping of  economic links between some of the largest economic powers which were now fighting each other to pay for them. So Britain borrowed large sums from US banks as well as the US public.

Post-war recovery
Britain, which was the world’s leading economy in the pre-war period, in particular faced a prolonged crisis.
1. While Britain was preoccupied with war, industries had developed in India and Japan. After the war Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market, and to compete with Japan internationally. 
2. Moreover, to finance war expenditures Britain had borrowed liberally from the US. This meant that at the end of the war Britain was burdened with huge external debts.
3. The war had led to an economic boom, that is, to a large increase in demand, production and employment. When the war boom ended, production contracted and unemployment increased. At the same time the government reduced bloated war expenditures to bring them into line with peacetime revenues. These developments led to huge job losses.
4. Before the war, eastern Europe was a major supplier of wheat in the world market. When this supply was disrupted during the war, wheat production in Canada, America and Australia expanded dramatically, But once the war was over, production in eastern Europe revived and created a glut in wheat output. Grain prices fell, rural incomes declined, and farmers fell deeper into debt. 

Rise of mass production and consumption
One important feature of the US economy was that 1920s was mass production.
A well-known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford. He adapted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughterhouse to his new car plant in Detroit He realised that the ‘assembly line’ method would allow a faster and cheaper way of producing vehicles. 
1.    The assembly line forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously - such as fitting a particular part to the car - at a pace dictated by the conveyor belt. 
2.    This was a way of increasing the output per worker by speeding up the pace of work. 
3.    Standing in front of a conveyor belt no worker could afford to delay the motions, take a break, or even have a friendly word with a workmate. As a result, Henry Ford’s cars came off the assembly line at three-minute intervals, a speed much faster than that achieved by previous methods. The T-Model Ford was the world’s first mass-produced car.

At first workers at the Ford factory were unable to cope with the stress of working on assembly lines in which they could not control the pace of work. 
1.    So they quit in large numbers. In desperation Ford doubled the daily wage. 
2.    At the same time he banned trade unions from operating in his plants.
3.    Fordist industrial practices was also widely copied in Europe in the 1920s. Mass production lowered costs and prices of engineered goods. Thanks to higher wages, more workers could now afford to purchase durable consumer goods such as cars.
4.    Similarly, there was a spur in the purchase of refrigerators, washing machines, radios, gramophone players, all through a system of hire purchase’ (i.e., on credit repaid in weekly or monthly instalments).
In 1923, the US resumed exporting capital to the rest of the world and became the largest overseas lender. US imports and capital exports also boosted European recovery and world trade and income growth over the next six years.

The Great Depression
The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid – 1930s. During this period most parts of the world experienced catastrophic declines in production, employment, incomes and trade.
Agricultural regions and communities were the worst affected. This was because the fall in agricultural prices was greater and more prolonged than that In the prices of industrial goods.

Causes of The great depression
1.    First: agricultural overproduction remained a problem. This was made worse by falling agricultural prices. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production and bring a larger volume of produce to the market to maintain their overall income. This worsened the glut in the market, pushing down prices even further. Farm produce rotted for a lack of buyers.
2.    In the mid-1920s, many countries financed their investments throughloans from the US. While it was often extremely easy to raise loans in the US when the going was good, US overseas lenders panicked at the first sign of trouble. In the first half of 1928, US.overseas loans amounted to over $ 1 billion. A year later it was one quarter of that amount. Countries that depended crucial on US loans now faced an acute crisis.

Impact of great depression
    1.    In Europe it led to the failure of some major banks and the collapse of currencies such as the British pound sterling.
    2.    In Latin America and elsewhere it intensified the slump in agricultural and raw material prices.
    3.    With the fall in prices and the prospect of a depression, US banks had also slashed domestic lending and called back loans. 
    4.    Farms could not sell their harvests, households were ruined, and businesses collapsed.
    5.    Faced with falling incomes, many households in the US could not repay what they had borrowed, and were forced to give up their homes, cars and other consumer durables. 
    6.    The consumerist prosperity of the 1920s now disappeared in a puff of dust. 
    7.    As unemployment soared, people moved long distances looking for any work they could find. Ultimately, the US banking system itself collapsed. 
    8.    Unable to recover investments, collect loans and repay depositors, thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to closer.

India and the Great Depression
Impact

The depression immediately affected Indian trade. 
1.    India’s exports imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged. Between 1928 and 1934. As international prices, the prices in India fell by 50 per cent.
2.    Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. Peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit. 
3.    The jute producers of Bengal grew raw jute that was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags. But as gunny exports collapsed, the price of raw jute crashed more than 60 per cent. Peasants who borrowed in the hope of better times or to increase output in the hope of higher incomes faced even lower prices, and fell deeper and deeper into debt.
4.    Peasants’ indebtedness increased. They used up their savings, mortgaged lands, and sold whatever jewellery and precious metals they had to meet their expenses.
5.    Because of falling prices, those with fixed incomes - say town-dwelling landowners who received rents and middle-class salaried employees - now found themselves better off. Eventhing cost less.
6.    Industrial investment also grew as the government extended tarrif protection to industries, under the pressure of nationalist opinion.

Rebuilding a world economy: The post-war era
The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War. It was fought between the Axis powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy) and the Allies (Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the US.
1.    Once again death and destruction was enormous. At least 60 million people, or about 3 per cent of the world’s 1939 population, are believed to have been killed.
2.    Many more civilians than soldiers died from war-related “Casualties Vast parts of Europe and Asia were devastated, and several cities were destroyed by aerial bombardment or relentless artillery attacks. 
3.    The war caused an immense amount of economic devastation and social disruption. Reconstruction promised to be long and difficult.

Two crucial influences shaped post-war reconstruction. 
1.    The first was the US’s emergence as the dominant economic, political and military power in the Western world.
2.    The second was the dominance of the Soviet Union.
Post-war settlement and the bretton woods institution
Lessons from interwar eco - experiences

1.    First, an industrial society based on mass production cannot be sustained without mass consumption. But to ensure mass consumption, there was a need for high and stable incomes. Incomes could not be stable if employment was unstable. Thus stable incomes also required steady, full employment.  
But markets alone could not guarantee full employment. Therefore governments would have to step in to minimise fluctuations of price, output and employment. Economic stability could be ensured only through the intervention of the government.
2.    The second lesson related to a country’s economic links with the outside world. The goal of full employment could only be achieved if governments had power to control flows of goods, capital and Labour.
3.    Thus in brief, the main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.
Its framework was agreed upon at the United Nations Monetaryand Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.

Bretton Woods Institution
1.    The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (popularly known as the World Bank) was set up to finance postwar reconstruction. 
2.    The IMF and the World Bank are referred to as the Bretton Woods institutions or sometimes the Bretton Woods twins.
3.    Decision-making in these institutions is controlled by the Western industrial powers. The US has an effective right of veto over key IMF and World Bank decisions.
4.    The international monetary system is the system linking national currencies and monetary system. The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates. In this system, national currencies, for example the Indian rupee, were pegged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate.

The early post-war years
The Bretton Woods system inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth of trade and incomes for the Western industrial nations and Japan. World trade grew annually at over 8 per cent between 1950 and 1970 and incomes at nearly 5 per cent.
The growth was also mostly stable, without large fluctuation. For much of this period the unemployment rate, for example, averaged less than 5 per cent in most industrial countries.
These decades also saw the worldwide spread of technology and enterprise. Developing countries were in a hurry to catch up with the advanced industrial countries.

Decolonisation and independence
The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries. They were not equipped to cope with the challenge of poverty and lack of development in the former colonies. But as Europe and Japan rapidly rebuilt their economies, they grew less dependent on the IMF and the World Bank. Thus from the late 1950s the Bretton Woods institutions began to shift their attention more towards developing countries. 
Ironically, as newly independent countries facing urgent pressures to lift their populations out of poverty, they came under the guidance of international agencies dominated by the former colonial powers. Even after many years of decolonisation, the former colonial powers still, controlled vital resources such as minerals and land in many of their former colonies.
At the same time, most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth the-Western economies experienced in the 1950s and 1960s. Therefore they organised themselves as a group - the Group of  77 (or G-77) - to demand a new international economic order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

Illustration 10
    Which were the two opposite groups in II world war?
Solution
II world war was faught between Axis Powers (Germany, Japan and Italy) and Allies (Britain, France, Soviet Union and the U.S.)

Illustration 11
Which new super power blocks emerged in the world after II world war?
Solution
U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.

Illustration 12
Which institutions were called as Bretton woods Institution or Brettonwoods Twins.
Solution
    I.M.F. and World Bank.

Illustration 13
    What do you mean by NIEO?
Solution
New international economic order means a system that would give G-77 the real control over their natural resources, more developed assistance, fair prices raw materials and better access for their manufactured goods in developed country. 

The Inter war Economy (Great Depression).

The inter-war economy
Wartime transformations
On the one side were the Allies – Britain, France and Russia (later joined by the US); and on the opposite side were the Central Powers – Germany, Austria - Hungary and Ottoman Turkey.
This war was thus the first modern industrial war. It saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modern large- scale industry. To fight the war, millions of soldiers had to be recruited from around the world and moved to the frontlines on large ships and trains.
1.    These deaths and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe.
2.    With fewer numbers within the family, household incomes declined after the war. 
3.    During the war, industries were restructured to produce war-related goods. Entire societies were also reorganised for war - as men went to battle, women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do.
4.    The war led to the shapping of  economic links between some of the largest economic powers which were now fighting each other to pay for them. So Britain borrowed large sums from US banks as well as the US public.

Post-war recovery
Britain, which was the world’s leading economy in the pre-war period, in particular faced a prolonged crisis.
1. While Britain was preoccupied with war, industries had developed in India and Japan. After the war Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market, and to compete with Japan internationally. 
2. Moreover, to finance war expenditures Britain had borrowed liberally from the US. This meant that at the end of the war Britain was burdened with huge external debts.
3. The war had led to an economic boom, that is, to a large increase in demand, production and employment. When the war boom ended, production contracted and unemployment increased. At the same time the government reduced bloated war expenditures to bring them into line with peacetime revenues. These developments led to huge job losses.
4. Before the war, eastern Europe was a major supplier of wheat in the world market. When this supply was disrupted during the war, wheat production in Canada, America and Australia expanded dramatically, But once the war was over, production in eastern Europe revived and created a glut in wheat output. Grain prices fell, rural incomes declined, and farmers fell deeper into debt. 

Rise of mass production and consumption
One important feature of the US economy was that 1920s was mass production.
A well-known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford. He adapted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughterhouse to his new car plant in Detroit He realised that the ‘assembly line’ method would allow a faster and cheaper way of producing vehicles. 
1.    The assembly line forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously - such as fitting a particular part to the car - at a pace dictated by the conveyor belt. 
2.    This was a way of increasing the output per worker by speeding up the pace of work. 
3.    Standing in front of a conveyor belt no worker could afford to delay the motions, take a break, or even have a friendly word with a workmate. As a result, Henry Ford’s cars came off the assembly line at three-minute intervals, a speed much faster than that achieved by previous methods. The T-Model Ford was the world’s first mass-produced car.

At first workers at the Ford factory were unable to cope with the stress of working on assembly lines in which they could not control the pace of work. 
1.    So they quit in large numbers. In desperation Ford doubled the daily wage. 
2.    At the same time he banned trade unions from operating in his plants.
3.    Fordist industrial practices was also widely copied in Europe in the 1920s. Mass production lowered costs and prices of engineered goods. Thanks to higher wages, more workers could now afford to purchase durable consumer goods such as cars.
4.    Similarly, there was a spur in the purchase of refrigerators, washing machines, radios, gramophone players, all through a system of hire purchase’ (i.e., on credit repaid in weekly or monthly instalments).
In 1923, the US resumed exporting capital to the rest of the world and became the largest overseas lender. US imports and capital exports also boosted European recovery and world trade and income growth over the next six years.

The Great Depression
The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid – 1930s. During this period most parts of the world experienced catastrophic declines in production, employment, incomes and trade.
Agricultural regions and communities were the worst affected. This was because the fall in agricultural prices was greater and more prolonged than that In the prices of industrial goods.

Causes of The great depression
1.    First: agricultural overproduction remained a problem. This was made worse by falling agricultural prices. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production and bring a larger volume of produce to the market to maintain their overall income. This worsened the glut in the market, pushing down prices even further. Farm produce rotted for a lack of buyers.
2.    In the mid-1920s, many countries financed their investments throughloans from the US. While it was often extremely easy to raise loans in the US when the going was good, US overseas lenders panicked at the first sign of trouble. In the first half of 1928, US.overseas loans amounted to over $ 1 billion. A year later it was one quarter of that amount. Countries that depended crucial on US loans now faced an acute crisis.

Impact of great depression
    1.    In Europe it led to the failure of some major banks and the collapse of currencies such as the British pound sterling.
    2.    In Latin America and elsewhere it intensified the slump in agricultural and raw material prices.
    3.    With the fall in prices and the prospect of a depression, US banks had also slashed domestic lending and called back loans. 
    4.    Farms could not sell their harvests, households were ruined, and businesses collapsed.
    5.    Faced with falling incomes, many households in the US could not repay what they had borrowed, and were forced to give up their homes, cars and other consumer durables. 
    6.    The consumerist prosperity of the 1920s now disappeared in a puff of dust. 
    7.    As unemployment soared, people moved long distances looking for any work they could find. Ultimately, the US banking system itself collapsed. 
    8.    Unable to recover investments, collect loans and repay depositors, thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to closer.

India and the Great Depression
Impact

The depression immediately affected Indian trade. 
1.    India’s exports imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged. Between 1928 and 1934. As international prices, the prices in India fell by 50 per cent.
2.    Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. Peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit. 
3.    The jute producers of Bengal grew raw jute that was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags. But as gunny exports collapsed, the price of raw jute crashed more than 60 per cent. Peasants who borrowed in the hope of better times or to increase output in the hope of higher incomes faced even lower prices, and fell deeper and deeper into debt.
4.    Peasants’ indebtedness increased. They used up their savings, mortgaged lands, and sold whatever jewellery and precious metals they had to meet their expenses.
5.    Because of falling prices, those with fixed incomes - say town-dwelling landowners who received rents and middle-class salaried employees - now found themselves better off. Eventhing cost less.
6.    Industrial investment also grew as the government extended tarrif protection to industries, under the pressure of nationalist opinion.

Rebuilding a world economy: The post-war era
The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War. It was fought between the Axis powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy) and the Allies (Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the US.
1.    Once again death and destruction was enormous. At least 60 million people, or about 3 per cent of the world’s 1939 population, are believed to have been killed.
2.    Many more civilians than soldiers died from war-related “Casualties Vast parts of Europe and Asia were devastated, and several cities were destroyed by aerial bombardment or relentless artillery attacks. 
3.    The war caused an immense amount of economic devastation and social disruption. Reconstruction promised to be long and difficult.

Two crucial influences shaped post-war reconstruction. 
1.    The first was the US’s emergence as the dominant economic, political and military power in the Western world.
2.    The second was the dominance of the Soviet Union.
Post-war settlement and the bretton woods institution
Lessons from interwar eco - experiences

1.    First, an industrial society based on mass production cannot be sustained without mass consumption. But to ensure mass consumption, there was a need for high and stable incomes. Incomes could not be stable if employment was unstable. Thus stable incomes also required steady, full employment.  
But markets alone could not guarantee full employment. Therefore governments would have to step in to minimise fluctuations of price, output and employment. Economic stability could be ensured only through the intervention of the government.
2.    The second lesson related to a country’s economic links with the outside world. The goal of full employment could only be achieved if governments had power to control flows of goods, capital and Labour.
3.    Thus in brief, the main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.
Its framework was agreed upon at the United Nations Monetaryand Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.

Bretton Woods Institution
1.    The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (popularly known as the World Bank) was set up to finance postwar reconstruction. 
2.    The IMF and the World Bank are referred to as the Bretton Woods institutions or sometimes the Bretton Woods twins.
3.    Decision-making in these institutions is controlled by the Western industrial powers. The US has an effective right of veto over key IMF and World Bank decisions.
4.    The international monetary system is the system linking national currencies and monetary system. The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates. In this system, national currencies, for example the Indian rupee, were pegged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate.

The early post-war years
The Bretton Woods system inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth of trade and incomes for the Western industrial nations and Japan. World trade grew annually at over 8 per cent between 1950 and 1970 and incomes at nearly 5 per cent.
The growth was also mostly stable, without large fluctuation. For much of this period the unemployment rate, for example, averaged less than 5 per cent in most industrial countries.
These decades also saw the worldwide spread of technology and enterprise. Developing countries were in a hurry to catch up with the advanced industrial countries.

Decolonisation and independence
The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries. They were not equipped to cope with the challenge of poverty and lack of development in the former colonies. But as Europe and Japan rapidly rebuilt their economies, they grew less dependent on the IMF and the World Bank. Thus from the late 1950s the Bretton Woods institutions began to shift their attention more towards developing countries. 
Ironically, as newly independent countries facing urgent pressures to lift their populations out of poverty, they came under the guidance of international agencies dominated by the former colonial powers. Even after many years of decolonisation, the former colonial powers still, controlled vital resources such as minerals and land in many of their former colonies.
At the same time, most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth the-Western economies experienced in the 1950s and 1960s. Therefore they organised themselves as a group - the Group of  77 (or G-77) - to demand a new international economic order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

Illustration 10
    Which were the two opposite groups in II world war?
Solution
II world war was faught between Axis Powers (Germany, Japan and Italy) and Allies (Britain, France, Soviet Union and the U.S.)

Illustration 11
Which new super power blocks emerged in the world after II world war?
Solution
U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.

Illustration 12
Which institutions were called as Bretton woods Institution or Brettonwoods Twins.
Solution
    I.M.F. and World Bank.

Illustration 13
    What do you mean by NIEO?
Solution
New international economic order means a system that would give G-77 the real control over their natural resources, more developed assistance, fair prices raw materials and better access for their manufactured goods in developed country. 

The Inter war Economy (Great Depression).

The inter-war economy
Wartime transformations
On the one side were the Allies – Britain, France and Russia (later joined by the US); and on the opposite side were the Central Powers – Germany, Austria - Hungary and Ottoman Turkey.
This war was thus the first modern industrial war. It saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modern large- scale industry. To fight the war, millions of soldiers had to be recruited from around the world and moved to the frontlines on large ships and trains.
1.    These deaths and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe.
2.    With fewer numbers within the family, household incomes declined after the war. 
3.    During the war, industries were restructured to produce war-related goods. Entire societies were also reorganised for war - as men went to battle, women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do.
4.    The war led to the shapping of  economic links between some of the largest economic powers which were now fighting each other to pay for them. So Britain borrowed large sums from US banks as well as the US public.

Post-war recovery
Britain, which was the world’s leading economy in the pre-war period, in particular faced a prolonged crisis.
1. While Britain was preoccupied with war, industries had developed in India and Japan. After the war Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market, and to compete with Japan internationally. 
2. Moreover, to finance war expenditures Britain had borrowed liberally from the US. This meant that at the end of the war Britain was burdened with huge external debts.
3. The war had led to an economic boom, that is, to a large increase in demand, production and employment. When the war boom ended, production contracted and unemployment increased. At the same time the government reduced bloated war expenditures to bring them into line with peacetime revenues. These developments led to huge job losses.
4. Before the war, eastern Europe was a major supplier of wheat in the world market. When this supply was disrupted during the war, wheat production in Canada, America and Australia expanded dramatically, But once the war was over, production in eastern Europe revived and created a glut in wheat output. Grain prices fell, rural incomes declined, and farmers fell deeper into debt. 

Rise of mass production and consumption
One important feature of the US economy was that 1920s was mass production.
A well-known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford. He adapted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughterhouse to his new car plant in Detroit He realised that the ‘assembly line’ method would allow a faster and cheaper way of producing vehicles. 
1.    The assembly line forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously - such as fitting a particular part to the car - at a pace dictated by the conveyor belt. 
2.    This was a way of increasing the output per worker by speeding up the pace of work. 
3.    Standing in front of a conveyor belt no worker could afford to delay the motions, take a break, or even have a friendly word with a workmate. As a result, Henry Ford’s cars came off the assembly line at three-minute intervals, a speed much faster than that achieved by previous methods. The T-Model Ford was the world’s first mass-produced car.

At first workers at the Ford factory were unable to cope with the stress of working on assembly lines in which they could not control the pace of work. 
1.    So they quit in large numbers. In desperation Ford doubled the daily wage. 
2.    At the same time he banned trade unions from operating in his plants.
3.    Fordist industrial practices was also widely copied in Europe in the 1920s. Mass production lowered costs and prices of engineered goods. Thanks to higher wages, more workers could now afford to purchase durable consumer goods such as cars.
4.    Similarly, there was a spur in the purchase of refrigerators, washing machines, radios, gramophone players, all through a system of hire purchase’ (i.e., on credit repaid in weekly or monthly instalments).
In 1923, the US resumed exporting capital to the rest of the world and became the largest overseas lender. US imports and capital exports also boosted European recovery and world trade and income growth over the next six years.

The Great Depression
The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid – 1930s. During this period most parts of the world experienced catastrophic declines in production, employment, incomes and trade.
Agricultural regions and communities were the worst affected. This was because the fall in agricultural prices was greater and more prolonged than that In the prices of industrial goods.

Causes of The great depression
1.    First: agricultural overproduction remained a problem. This was made worse by falling agricultural prices. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production and bring a larger volume of produce to the market to maintain their overall income. This worsened the glut in the market, pushing down prices even further. Farm produce rotted for a lack of buyers.
2.    In the mid-1920s, many countries financed their investments throughloans from the US. While it was often extremely easy to raise loans in the US when the going was good, US overseas lenders panicked at the first sign of trouble. In the first half of 1928, US.overseas loans amounted to over $ 1 billion. A year later it was one quarter of that amount. Countries that depended crucial on US loans now faced an acute crisis.

Impact of great depression
    1.    In Europe it led to the failure of some major banks and the collapse of currencies such as the British pound sterling.
    2.    In Latin America and elsewhere it intensified the slump in agricultural and raw material prices.
    3.    With the fall in prices and the prospect of a depression, US banks had also slashed domestic lending and called back loans. 
    4.    Farms could not sell their harvests, households were ruined, and businesses collapsed.
    5.    Faced with falling incomes, many households in the US could not repay what they had borrowed, and were forced to give up their homes, cars and other consumer durables. 
    6.    The consumerist prosperity of the 1920s now disappeared in a puff of dust. 
    7.    As unemployment soared, people moved long distances looking for any work they could find. Ultimately, the US banking system itself collapsed. 
    8.    Unable to recover investments, collect loans and repay depositors, thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to closer.

India and the Great Depression
Impact

The depression immediately affected Indian trade. 
1.    India’s exports imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged. Between 1928 and 1934. As international prices, the prices in India fell by 50 per cent.
2.    Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. Peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit. 
3.    The jute producers of Bengal grew raw jute that was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags. But as gunny exports collapsed, the price of raw jute crashed more than 60 per cent. Peasants who borrowed in the hope of better times or to increase output in the hope of higher incomes faced even lower prices, and fell deeper and deeper into debt.
4.    Peasants’ indebtedness increased. They used up their savings, mortgaged lands, and sold whatever jewellery and precious metals they had to meet their expenses.
5.    Because of falling prices, those with fixed incomes - say town-dwelling landowners who received rents and middle-class salaried employees - now found themselves better off. Eventhing cost less.
6.    Industrial investment also grew as the government extended tarrif protection to industries, under the pressure of nationalist opinion.

Rebuilding a world economy: The post-war era
The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War. It was fought between the Axis powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy) and the Allies (Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the US.
1.    Once again death and destruction was enormous. At least 60 million people, or about 3 per cent of the world’s 1939 population, are believed to have been killed.
2.    Many more civilians than soldiers died from war-related “Casualties Vast parts of Europe and Asia were devastated, and several cities were destroyed by aerial bombardment or relentless artillery attacks. 
3.    The war caused an immense amount of economic devastation and social disruption. Reconstruction promised to be long and difficult.

Two crucial influences shaped post-war reconstruction. 
1.    The first was the US’s emergence as the dominant economic, political and military power in the Western world.
2.    The second was the dominance of the Soviet Union.
Post-war settlement and the bretton woods institution
Lessons from interwar eco - experiences

1.    First, an industrial society based on mass production cannot be sustained without mass consumption. But to ensure mass consumption, there was a need for high and stable incomes. Incomes could not be stable if employment was unstable. Thus stable incomes also required steady, full employment.  
But markets alone could not guarantee full employment. Therefore governments would have to step in to minimise fluctuations of price, output and employment. Economic stability could be ensured only through the intervention of the government.
2.    The second lesson related to a country’s economic links with the outside world. The goal of full employment could only be achieved if governments had power to control flows of goods, capital and Labour.
3.    Thus in brief, the main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.
Its framework was agreed upon at the United Nations Monetaryand Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.

Bretton Woods Institution
1.    The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (popularly known as the World Bank) was set up to finance postwar reconstruction. 
2.    The IMF and the World Bank are referred to as the Bretton Woods institutions or sometimes the Bretton Woods twins.
3.    Decision-making in these institutions is controlled by the Western industrial powers. The US has an effective right of veto over key IMF and World Bank decisions.
4.    The international monetary system is the system linking national currencies and monetary system. The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates. In this system, national currencies, for example the Indian rupee, were pegged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate.

The early post-war years
The Bretton Woods system inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth of trade and incomes for the Western industrial nations and Japan. World trade grew annually at over 8 per cent between 1950 and 1970 and incomes at nearly 5 per cent.
The growth was also mostly stable, without large fluctuation. For much of this period the unemployment rate, for example, averaged less than 5 per cent in most industrial countries.
These decades also saw the worldwide spread of technology and enterprise. Developing countries were in a hurry to catch up with the advanced industrial countries.

Decolonisation and independence
The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries. They were not equipped to cope with the challenge of poverty and lack of development in the former colonies. But as Europe and Japan rapidly rebuilt their economies, they grew less dependent on the IMF and the World Bank. Thus from the late 1950s the Bretton Woods institutions began to shift their attention more towards developing countries. 
Ironically, as newly independent countries facing urgent pressures to lift their populations out of poverty, they came under the guidance of international agencies dominated by the former colonial powers. Even after many years of decolonisation, the former colonial powers still, controlled vital resources such as minerals and land in many of their former colonies.
At the same time, most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth the-Western economies experienced in the 1950s and 1960s. Therefore they organised themselves as a group - the Group of  77 (or G-77) - to demand a new international economic order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

Illustration 10
    Which were the two opposite groups in II world war?
Solution
II world war was faught between Axis Powers (Germany, Japan and Italy) and Allies (Britain, France, Soviet Union and the U.S.)

Illustration 11
Which new super power blocks emerged in the world after II world war?
Solution
U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.

Illustration 12
Which institutions were called as Bretton woods Institution or Brettonwoods Twins.
Solution
    I.M.F. and World Bank.

Illustration 13
    What do you mean by NIEO?
Solution
New international economic order means a system that would give G-77 the real control over their natural resources, more developed assistance, fair prices raw materials and better access for their manufactured goods in developed country. 

The Inter war Economy (Great Depression).

The inter-war economy
Wartime transformations
On the one side were the Allies – Britain, France and Russia (later joined by the US); and on the opposite side were the Central Powers – Germany, Austria - Hungary and Ottoman Turkey.
This war was thus the first modern industrial war. It saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modern large- scale industry. To fight the war, millions of soldiers had to be recruited from around the world and moved to the frontlines on large ships and trains.
1.    These deaths and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe.
2.    With fewer numbers within the family, household incomes declined after the war. 
3.    During the war, industries were restructured to produce war-related goods. Entire societies were also reorganised for war - as men went to battle, women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do.
4.    The war led to the shapping of  economic links between some of the largest economic powers which were now fighting each other to pay for them. So Britain borrowed large sums from US banks as well as the US public.

Post-war recovery
Britain, which was the world’s leading economy in the pre-war period, in particular faced a prolonged crisis.
1. While Britain was preoccupied with war, industries had developed in India and Japan. After the war Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market, and to compete with Japan internationally. 
2. Moreover, to finance war expenditures Britain had borrowed liberally from the US. This meant that at the end of the war Britain was burdened with huge external debts.
3. The war had led to an economic boom, that is, to a large increase in demand, production and employment. When the war boom ended, production contracted and unemployment increased. At the same time the government reduced bloated war expenditures to bring them into line with peacetime revenues. These developments led to huge job losses.
4. Before the war, eastern Europe was a major supplier of wheat in the world market. When this supply was disrupted during the war, wheat production in Canada, America and Australia expanded dramatically, But once the war was over, production in eastern Europe revived and created a glut in wheat output. Grain prices fell, rural incomes declined, and farmers fell deeper into debt. 

Rise of mass production and consumption
One important feature of the US economy was that 1920s was mass production.
A well-known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford. He adapted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughterhouse to his new car plant in Detroit He realised that the ‘assembly line’ method would allow a faster and cheaper way of producing vehicles. 
1.    The assembly line forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously - such as fitting a particular part to the car - at a pace dictated by the conveyor belt. 
2.    This was a way of increasing the output per worker by speeding up the pace of work. 
3.    Standing in front of a conveyor belt no worker could afford to delay the motions, take a break, or even have a friendly word with a workmate. As a result, Henry Ford’s cars came off the assembly line at three-minute intervals, a speed much faster than that achieved by previous methods. The T-Model Ford was the world’s first mass-produced car.

At first workers at the Ford factory were unable to cope with the stress of working on assembly lines in which they could not control the pace of work. 
1.    So they quit in large numbers. In desperation Ford doubled the daily wage. 
2.    At the same time he banned trade unions from operating in his plants.
3.    Fordist industrial practices was also widely copied in Europe in the 1920s. Mass production lowered costs and prices of engineered goods. Thanks to higher wages, more workers could now afford to purchase durable consumer goods such as cars.
4.    Similarly, there was a spur in the purchase of refrigerators, washing machines, radios, gramophone players, all through a system of hire purchase’ (i.e., on credit repaid in weekly or monthly instalments).
In 1923, the US resumed exporting capital to the rest of the world and became the largest overseas lender. US imports and capital exports also boosted European recovery and world trade and income growth over the next six years.

The Great Depression
The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid – 1930s. During this period most parts of the world experienced catastrophic declines in production, employment, incomes and trade.
Agricultural regions and communities were the worst affected. This was because the fall in agricultural prices was greater and more prolonged than that In the prices of industrial goods.

Causes of The great depression
1.    First: agricultural overproduction remained a problem. This was made worse by falling agricultural prices. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production and bring a larger volume of produce to the market to maintain their overall income. This worsened the glut in the market, pushing down prices even further. Farm produce rotted for a lack of buyers.
2.    In the mid-1920s, many countries financed their investments throughloans from the US. While it was often extremely easy to raise loans in the US when the going was good, US overseas lenders panicked at the first sign of trouble. In the first half of 1928, US.overseas loans amounted to over $ 1 billion. A year later it was one quarter of that amount. Countries that depended crucial on US loans now faced an acute crisis.

Impact of great depression
    1.    In Europe it led to the failure of some major banks and the collapse of currencies such as the British pound sterling.
    2.    In Latin America and elsewhere it intensified the slump in agricultural and raw material prices.
    3.    With the fall in prices and the prospect of a depression, US banks had also slashed domestic lending and called back loans. 
    4.    Farms could not sell their harvests, households were ruined, and businesses collapsed.
    5.    Faced with falling incomes, many households in the US could not repay what they had borrowed, and were forced to give up their homes, cars and other consumer durables. 
    6.    The consumerist prosperity of the 1920s now disappeared in a puff of dust. 
    7.    As unemployment soared, people moved long distances looking for any work they could find. Ultimately, the US banking system itself collapsed. 
    8.    Unable to recover investments, collect loans and repay depositors, thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to closer.

India and the Great Depression
Impact

The depression immediately affected Indian trade. 
1.    India’s exports imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged. Between 1928 and 1934. As international prices, the prices in India fell by 50 per cent.
2.    Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. Peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit. 
3.    The jute producers of Bengal grew raw jute that was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags. But as gunny exports collapsed, the price of raw jute crashed more than 60 per cent. Peasants who borrowed in the hope of better times or to increase output in the hope of higher incomes faced even lower prices, and fell deeper and deeper into debt.
4.    Peasants’ indebtedness increased. They used up their savings, mortgaged lands, and sold whatever jewellery and precious metals they had to meet their expenses.
5.    Because of falling prices, those with fixed incomes - say town-dwelling landowners who received rents and middle-class salaried employees - now found themselves better off. Eventhing cost less.
6.    Industrial investment also grew as the government extended tarrif protection to industries, under the pressure of nationalist opinion.

Rebuilding a world economy: The post-war era
The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War. It was fought between the Axis powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy) and the Allies (Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the US.
1.    Once again death and destruction was enormous. At least 60 million people, or about 3 per cent of the world’s 1939 population, are believed to have been killed.
2.    Many more civilians than soldiers died from war-related “Casualties Vast parts of Europe and Asia were devastated, and several cities were destroyed by aerial bombardment or relentless artillery attacks. 
3.    The war caused an immense amount of economic devastation and social disruption. Reconstruction promised to be long and difficult.

Two crucial influences shaped post-war reconstruction. 
1.    The first was the US’s emergence as the dominant economic, political and military power in the Western world.
2.    The second was the dominance of the Soviet Union.
Post-war settlement and the bretton woods institution
Lessons from interwar eco - experiences

1.    First, an industrial society based on mass production cannot be sustained without mass consumption. But to ensure mass consumption, there was a need for high and stable incomes. Incomes could not be stable if employment was unstable. Thus stable incomes also required steady, full employment.  
But markets alone could not guarantee full employment. Therefore governments would have to step in to minimise fluctuations of price, output and employment. Economic stability could be ensured only through the intervention of the government.
2.    The second lesson related to a country’s economic links with the outside world. The goal of full employment could only be achieved if governments had power to control flows of goods, capital and Labour.
3.    Thus in brief, the main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.
Its framework was agreed upon at the United Nations Monetaryand Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.

Bretton Woods Institution
1.    The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (popularly known as the World Bank) was set up to finance postwar reconstruction. 
2.    The IMF and the World Bank are referred to as the Bretton Woods institutions or sometimes the Bretton Woods twins.
3.    Decision-making in these institutions is controlled by the Western industrial powers. The US has an effective right of veto over key IMF and World Bank decisions.
4.    The international monetary system is the system linking national currencies and monetary system. The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates. In this system, national currencies, for example the Indian rupee, were pegged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate.

The early post-war years
The Bretton Woods system inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth of trade and incomes for the Western industrial nations and Japan. World trade grew annually at over 8 per cent between 1950 and 1970 and incomes at nearly 5 per cent.
The growth was also mostly stable, without large fluctuation. For much of this period the unemployment rate, for example, averaged less than 5 per cent in most industrial countries.
These decades also saw the worldwide spread of technology and enterprise. Developing countries were in a hurry to catch up with the advanced industrial countries.

Decolonisation and independence
The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries. They were not equipped to cope with the challenge of poverty and lack of development in the former colonies. But as Europe and Japan rapidly rebuilt their economies, they grew less dependent on the IMF and the World Bank. Thus from the late 1950s the Bretton Woods institutions began to shift their attention more towards developing countries. 
Ironically, as newly independent countries facing urgent pressures to lift their populations out of poverty, they came under the guidance of international agencies dominated by the former colonial powers. Even after many years of decolonisation, the former colonial powers still, controlled vital resources such as minerals and land in many of their former colonies.
At the same time, most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth the-Western economies experienced in the 1950s and 1960s. Therefore they organised themselves as a group - the Group of  77 (or G-77) - to demand a new international economic order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

Illustration 10
    Which were the two opposite groups in II world war?
Solution
II world war was faught between Axis Powers (Germany, Japan and Italy) and Allies (Britain, France, Soviet Union and the U.S.)

Illustration 11
Which new super power blocks emerged in the world after II world war?
Solution
U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.

Illustration 12
Which institutions were called as Bretton woods Institution or Brettonwoods Twins.
Solution
    I.M.F. and World Bank.

Illustration 13
    What do you mean by NIEO?
Solution
New international economic order means a system that would give G-77 the real control over their natural resources, more developed assistance, fair prices raw materials and better access for their manufactured goods in developed country. 

The Inter war Economy (Great Depression).

The inter-war economy
Wartime transformations
On the one side were the Allies – Britain, France and Russia (later joined by the US); and on the opposite side were the Central Powers – Germany, Austria - Hungary and Ottoman Turkey.
This war was thus the first modern industrial war. It saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modern large- scale industry. To fight the war, millions of soldiers had to be recruited from around the world and moved to the frontlines on large ships and trains.
1.    These deaths and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe.
2.    With fewer numbers within the family, household incomes declined after the war. 
3.    During the war, industries were restructured to produce war-related goods. Entire societies were also reorganised for war - as men went to battle, women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do.
4.    The war led to the shapping of  economic links between some of the largest economic powers which were now fighting each other to pay for them. So Britain borrowed large sums from US banks as well as the US public.

Post-war recovery
Britain, which was the world’s leading economy in the pre-war period, in particular faced a prolonged crisis.
1. While Britain was preoccupied with war, industries had developed in India and Japan. After the war Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market, and to compete with Japan internationally. 
2. Moreover, to finance war expenditures Britain had borrowed liberally from the US. This meant that at the end of the war Britain was burdened with huge external debts.
3. The war had led to an economic boom, that is, to a large increase in demand, production and employment. When the war boom ended, production contracted and unemployment increased. At the same time the government reduced bloated war expenditures to bring them into line with peacetime revenues. These developments led to huge job losses.
4. Before the war, eastern Europe was a major supplier of wheat in the world market. When this supply was disrupted during the war, wheat production in Canada, America and Australia expanded dramatically, But once the war was over, production in eastern Europe revived and created a glut in wheat output. Grain prices fell, rural incomes declined, and farmers fell deeper into debt. 

Rise of mass production and consumption
One important feature of the US economy was that 1920s was mass production.
A well-known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford. He adapted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughterhouse to his new car plant in Detroit He realised that the ‘assembly line’ method would allow a faster and cheaper way of producing vehicles. 
1.    The assembly line forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously - such as fitting a particular part to the car - at a pace dictated by the conveyor belt. 
2.    This was a way of increasing the output per worker by speeding up the pace of work. 
3.    Standing in front of a conveyor belt no worker could afford to delay the motions, take a break, or even have a friendly word with a workmate. As a result, Henry Ford’s cars came off the assembly line at three-minute intervals, a speed much faster than that achieved by previous methods. The T-Model Ford was the world’s first mass-produced car.

At first workers at the Ford factory were unable to cope with the stress of working on assembly lines in which they could not control the pace of work. 
1.    So they quit in large numbers. In desperation Ford doubled the daily wage. 
2.    At the same time he banned trade unions from operating in his plants.
3.    Fordist industrial practices was also widely copied in Europe in the 1920s. Mass production lowered costs and prices of engineered goods. Thanks to higher wages, more workers could now afford to purchase durable consumer goods such as cars.
4.    Similarly, there was a spur in the purchase of refrigerators, washing machines, radios, gramophone players, all through a system of hire purchase’ (i.e., on credit repaid in weekly or monthly instalments).
In 1923, the US resumed exporting capital to the rest of the world and became the largest overseas lender. US imports and capital exports also boosted European recovery and world trade and income growth over the next six years.

The Great Depression
The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid – 1930s. During this period most parts of the world experienced catastrophic declines in production, employment, incomes and trade.
Agricultural regions and communities were the worst affected. This was because the fall in agricultural prices was greater and more prolonged than that In the prices of industrial goods.

Causes of The great depression
1.    First: agricultural overproduction remained a problem. This was made worse by falling agricultural prices. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production and bring a larger volume of produce to the market to maintain their overall income. This worsened the glut in the market, pushing down prices even further. Farm produce rotted for a lack of buyers.
2.    In the mid-1920s, many countries financed their investments throughloans from the US. While it was often extremely easy to raise loans in the US when the going was good, US overseas lenders panicked at the first sign of trouble. In the first half of 1928, US.overseas loans amounted to over $ 1 billion. A year later it was one quarter of that amount. Countries that depended crucial on US loans now faced an acute crisis.

Impact of great depression
    1.    In Europe it led to the failure of some major banks and the collapse of currencies such as the British pound sterling.
    2.    In Latin America and elsewhere it intensified the slump in agricultural and raw material prices.
    3.    With the fall in prices and the prospect of a depression, US banks had also slashed domestic lending and called back loans. 
    4.    Farms could not sell their harvests, households were ruined, and businesses collapsed.
    5.    Faced with falling incomes, many households in the US could not repay what they had borrowed, and were forced to give up their homes, cars and other consumer durables. 
    6.    The consumerist prosperity of the 1920s now disappeared in a puff of dust. 
    7.    As unemployment soared, people moved long distances looking for any work they could find. Ultimately, the US banking system itself collapsed. 
    8.    Unable to recover investments, collect loans and repay depositors, thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to closer.

India and the Great Depression
Impact

The depression immediately affected Indian trade. 
1.    India’s exports imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged. Between 1928 and 1934. As international prices, the prices in India fell by 50 per cent.
2.    Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. Peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit. 
3.    The jute producers of Bengal grew raw jute that was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags. But as gunny exports collapsed, the price of raw jute crashed more than 60 per cent. Peasants who borrowed in the hope of better times or to increase output in the hope of higher incomes faced even lower prices, and fell deeper and deeper into debt.
4.    Peasants’ indebtedness increased. They used up their savings, mortgaged lands, and sold whatever jewellery and precious metals they had to meet their expenses.
5.    Because of falling prices, those with fixed incomes - say town-dwelling landowners who received rents and middle-class salaried employees - now found themselves better off. Eventhing cost less.
6.    Industrial investment also grew as the government extended tarrif protection to industries, under the pressure of nationalist opinion.

Rebuilding a world economy: The post-war era
The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War. It was fought between the Axis powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy) and the Allies (Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the US.
1.    Once again death and destruction was enormous. At least 60 million people, or about 3 per cent of the world’s 1939 population, are believed to have been killed.
2.    Many more civilians than soldiers died from war-related “Casualties Vast parts of Europe and Asia were devastated, and several cities were destroyed by aerial bombardment or relentless artillery attacks. 
3.    The war caused an immense amount of economic devastation and social disruption. Reconstruction promised to be long and difficult.

Two crucial influences shaped post-war reconstruction. 
1.    The first was the US’s emergence as the dominant economic, political and military power in the Western world.
2.    The second was the dominance of the Soviet Union.
Post-war settlement and the bretton woods institution
Lessons from interwar eco - experiences

1.    First, an industrial society based on mass production cannot be sustained without mass consumption. But to ensure mass consumption, there was a need for high and stable incomes. Incomes could not be stable if employment was unstable. Thus stable incomes also required steady, full employment.  
But markets alone could not guarantee full employment. Therefore governments would have to step in to minimise fluctuations of price, output and employment. Economic stability could be ensured only through the intervention of the government.
2.    The second lesson related to a country’s economic links with the outside world. The goal of full employment could only be achieved if governments had power to control flows of goods, capital and Labour.
3.    Thus in brief, the main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.
Its framework was agreed upon at the United Nations Monetaryand Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.

Bretton Woods Institution
1.    The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (popularly known as the World Bank) was set up to finance postwar reconstruction. 
2.    The IMF and the World Bank are referred to as the Bretton Woods institutions or sometimes the Bretton Woods twins.
3.    Decision-making in these institutions is controlled by the Western industrial powers. The US has an effective right of veto over key IMF and World Bank decisions.
4.    The international monetary system is the system linking national currencies and monetary system. The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates. In this system, national currencies, for example the Indian rupee, were pegged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate.

The early post-war years
The Bretton Woods system inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth of trade and incomes for the Western industrial nations and Japan. World trade grew annually at over 8 per cent between 1950 and 1970 and incomes at nearly 5 per cent.
The growth was also mostly stable, without large fluctuation. For much of this period the unemployment rate, for example, averaged less than 5 per cent in most industrial countries.
These decades also saw the worldwide spread of technology and enterprise. Developing countries were in a hurry to catch up with the advanced industrial countries.

Decolonisation and independence
The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries. They were not equipped to cope with the challenge of poverty and lack of development in the former colonies. But as Europe and Japan rapidly rebuilt their economies, they grew less dependent on the IMF and the World Bank. Thus from the late 1950s the Bretton Woods institutions began to shift their attention more towards developing countries. 
Ironically, as newly independent countries facing urgent pressures to lift their populations out of poverty, they came under the guidance of international agencies dominated by the former colonial powers. Even after many years of decolonisation, the former colonial powers still, controlled vital resources such as minerals and land in many of their former colonies.
At the same time, most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth the-Western economies experienced in the 1950s and 1960s. Therefore they organised themselves as a group - the Group of  77 (or G-77) - to demand a new international economic order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

Illustration 10
    Which were the two opposite groups in II world war?
Solution
II world war was faught between Axis Powers (Germany, Japan and Italy) and Allies (Britain, France, Soviet Union and the U.S.)

Illustration 11
Which new super power blocks emerged in the world after II world war?
Solution
U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.

Illustration 12
Which institutions were called as Bretton woods Institution or Brettonwoods Twins.
Solution
    I.M.F. and World Bank.

Illustration 13
    What do you mean by NIEO?
Solution
New international economic order means a system that would give G-77 the real control over their natural resources, more developed assistance, fair prices raw materials and better access for their manufactured goods in developed country. 

The Inter war Economy (Great Depression).

The inter-war economy
Wartime transformations
On the one side were the Allies – Britain, France and Russia (later joined by the US); and on the opposite side were the Central Powers – Germany, Austria - Hungary and Ottoman Turkey.
This war was thus the first modern industrial war. It saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modern large- scale industry. To fight the war, millions of soldiers had to be recruited from around the world and moved to the frontlines on large ships and trains.
1.    These deaths and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe.
2.    With fewer numbers within the family, household incomes declined after the war. 
3.    During the war, industries were restructured to produce war-related goods. Entire societies were also reorganised for war - as men went to battle, women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do.
4.    The war led to the shapping of  economic links between some of the largest economic powers which were now fighting each other to pay for them. So Britain borrowed large sums from US banks as well as the US public.

Post-war recovery
Britain, which was the world’s leading economy in the pre-war period, in particular faced a prolonged crisis.
1. While Britain was preoccupied with war, industries had developed in India and Japan. After the war Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market, and to compete with Japan internationally. 
2. Moreover, to finance war expenditures Britain had borrowed liberally from the US. This meant that at the end of the war Britain was burdened with huge external debts.
3. The war had led to an economic boom, that is, to a large increase in demand, production and employment. When the war boom ended, production contracted and unemployment increased. At the same time the government reduced bloated war expenditures to bring them into line with peacetime revenues. These developments led to huge job losses.
4. Before the war, eastern Europe was a major supplier of wheat in the world market. When this supply was disrupted during the war, wheat production in Canada, America and Australia expanded dramatically, But once the war was over, production in eastern Europe revived and created a glut in wheat output. Grain prices fell, rural incomes declined, and farmers fell deeper into debt. 

Rise of mass production and consumption
One important feature of the US economy was that 1920s was mass production.
A well-known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford. He adapted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughterhouse to his new car plant in Detroit He realised that the ‘assembly line’ method would allow a faster and cheaper way of producing vehicles. 
1.    The assembly line forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously - such as fitting a particular part to the car - at a pace dictated by the conveyor belt. 
2.    This was a way of increasing the output per worker by speeding up the pace of work. 
3.    Standing in front of a conveyor belt no worker could afford to delay the motions, take a break, or even have a friendly word with a workmate. As a result, Henry Ford’s cars came off the assembly line at three-minute intervals, a speed much faster than that achieved by previous methods. The T-Model Ford was the world’s first mass-produced car.

At first workers at the Ford factory were unable to cope with the stress of working on assembly lines in which they could not control the pace of work. 
1.    So they quit in large numbers. In desperation Ford doubled the daily wage. 
2.    At the same time he banned trade unions from operating in his plants.
3.    Fordist industrial practices was also widely copied in Europe in the 1920s. Mass production lowered costs and prices of engineered goods. Thanks to higher wages, more workers could now afford to purchase durable consumer goods such as cars.
4.    Similarly, there was a spur in the purchase of refrigerators, washing machines, radios, gramophone players, all through a system of hire purchase’ (i.e., on credit repaid in weekly or monthly instalments).
In 1923, the US resumed exporting capital to the rest of the world and became the largest overseas lender. US imports and capital exports also boosted European recovery and world trade and income growth over the next six years.

The Great Depression
The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid – 1930s. During this period most parts of the world experienced catastrophic declines in production, employment, incomes and trade.
Agricultural regions and communities were the worst affected. This was because the fall in agricultural prices was greater and more prolonged than that In the prices of industrial goods.

Causes of The great depression
1.    First: agricultural overproduction remained a problem. This was made worse by falling agricultural prices. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production and bring a larger volume of produce to the market to maintain their overall income. This worsened the glut in the market, pushing down prices even further. Farm produce rotted for a lack of buyers.
2.    In the mid-1920s, many countries financed their investments throughloans from the US. While it was often extremely easy to raise loans in the US when the going was good, US overseas lenders panicked at the first sign of trouble. In the first half of 1928, US.overseas loans amounted to over $ 1 billion. A year later it was one quarter of that amount. Countries that depended crucial on US loans now faced an acute crisis.

Impact of great depression
    1.    In Europe it led to the failure of some major banks and the collapse of currencies such as the British pound sterling.
    2.    In Latin America and elsewhere it intensified the slump in agricultural and raw material prices.
    3.    With the fall in prices and the prospect of a depression, US banks had also slashed domestic lending and called back loans. 
    4.    Farms could not sell their harvests, households were ruined, and businesses collapsed.
    5.    Faced with falling incomes, many households in the US could not repay what they had borrowed, and were forced to give up their homes, cars and other consumer durables. 
    6.    The consumerist prosperity of the 1920s now disappeared in a puff of dust. 
    7.    As unemployment soared, people moved long distances looking for any work they could find. Ultimately, the US banking system itself collapsed. 
    8.    Unable to recover investments, collect loans and repay depositors, thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to closer.

India and the Great Depression
Impact

The depression immediately affected Indian trade. 
1.    India’s exports imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged. Between 1928 and 1934. As international prices, the prices in India fell by 50 per cent.
2.    Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. Peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit. 
3.    The jute producers of Bengal grew raw jute that was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags. But as gunny exports collapsed, the price of raw jute crashed more than 60 per cent. Peasants who borrowed in the hope of better times or to increase output in the hope of higher incomes faced even lower prices, and fell deeper and deeper into debt.
4.    Peasants’ indebtedness increased. They used up their savings, mortgaged lands, and sold whatever jewellery and precious metals they had to meet their expenses.
5.    Because of falling prices, those with fixed incomes - say town-dwelling landowners who received rents and middle-class salaried employees - now found themselves better off. Eventhing cost less.
6.    Industrial investment also grew as the government extended tarrif protection to industries, under the pressure of nationalist opinion.

Rebuilding a world economy: The post-war era
The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War. It was fought between the Axis powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy) and the Allies (Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the US.
1.    Once again death and destruction was enormous. At least 60 million people, or about 3 per cent of the world’s 1939 population, are believed to have been killed.
2.    Many more civilians than soldiers died from war-related “Casualties Vast parts of Europe and Asia were devastated, and several cities were destroyed by aerial bombardment or relentless artillery attacks. 
3.    The war caused an immense amount of economic devastation and social disruption. Reconstruction promised to be long and difficult.

Two crucial influences shaped post-war reconstruction. 
1.    The first was the US’s emergence as the dominant economic, political and military power in the Western world.
2.    The second was the dominance of the Soviet Union.
Post-war settlement and the bretton woods institution
Lessons from interwar eco - experiences

1.    First, an industrial society based on mass production cannot be sustained without mass consumption. But to ensure mass consumption, there was a need for high and stable incomes. Incomes could not be stable if employment was unstable. Thus stable incomes also required steady, full employment.  
But markets alone could not guarantee full employment. Therefore governments would have to step in to minimise fluctuations of price, output and employment. Economic stability could be ensured only through the intervention of the government.
2.    The second lesson related to a country’s economic links with the outside world. The goal of full employment could only be achieved if governments had power to control flows of goods, capital and Labour.
3.    Thus in brief, the main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.
Its framework was agreed upon at the United Nations Monetaryand Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.

Bretton Woods Institution
1.    The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (popularly known as the World Bank) was set up to finance postwar reconstruction. 
2.    The IMF and the World Bank are referred to as the Bretton Woods institutions or sometimes the Bretton Woods twins.
3.    Decision-making in these institutions is controlled by the Western industrial powers. The US has an effective right of veto over key IMF and World Bank decisions.
4.    The international monetary system is the system linking national currencies and monetary system. The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates. In this system, national currencies, for example the Indian rupee, were pegged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate.

The early post-war years
The Bretton Woods system inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth of trade and incomes for the Western industrial nations and Japan. World trade grew annually at over 8 per cent between 1950 and 1970 and incomes at nearly 5 per cent.
The growth was also mostly stable, without large fluctuation. For much of this period the unemployment rate, for example, averaged less than 5 per cent in most industrial countries.
These decades also saw the worldwide spread of technology and enterprise. Developing countries were in a hurry to catch up with the advanced industrial countries.

Decolonisation and independence
The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries. They were not equipped to cope with the challenge of poverty and lack of development in the former colonies. But as Europe and Japan rapidly rebuilt their economies, they grew less dependent on the IMF and the World Bank. Thus from the late 1950s the Bretton Woods institutions began to shift their attention more towards developing countries. 
Ironically, as newly independent countries facing urgent pressures to lift their populations out of poverty, they came under the guidance of international agencies dominated by the former colonial powers. Even after many years of decolonisation, the former colonial powers still, controlled vital resources such as minerals and land in many of their former colonies.
At the same time, most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth the-Western economies experienced in the 1950s and 1960s. Therefore they organised themselves as a group - the Group of  77 (or G-77) - to demand a new international economic order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

Illustration 10
    Which were the two opposite groups in II world war?
Solution
II world war was faught between Axis Powers (Germany, Japan and Italy) and Allies (Britain, France, Soviet Union and the U.S.)

Illustration 11
Which new super power blocks emerged in the world after II world war?
Solution
U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.

Illustration 12
Which institutions were called as Bretton woods Institution or Brettonwoods Twins.
Solution
    I.M.F. and World Bank.

Illustration 13
    What do you mean by NIEO?
Solution
New international economic order means a system that would give G-77 the real control over their natural resources, more developed assistance, fair prices raw materials and better access for their manufactured goods in developed country. 

The Inter war Economy (Great Depression).

The inter-war economy
Wartime transformations
On the one side were the Allies – Britain, France and Russia (later joined by the US); and on the opposite side were the Central Powers – Germany, Austria - Hungary and Ottoman Turkey.
This war was thus the first modern industrial war. It saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modern large- scale industry. To fight the war, millions of soldiers had to be recruited from around the world and moved to the frontlines on large ships and trains.
1.    These deaths and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe.
2.    With fewer numbers within the family, household incomes declined after the war. 
3.    During the war, industries were restructured to produce war-related goods. Entire societies were also reorganised for war - as men went to battle, women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do.
4.    The war led to the shapping of  economic links between some of the largest economic powers which were now fighting each other to pay for them. So Britain borrowed large sums from US banks as well as the US public.

Post-war recovery
Britain, which was the world’s leading economy in the pre-war period, in particular faced a prolonged crisis.
1. While Britain was preoccupied with war, industries had developed in India and Japan. After the war Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market, and to compete with Japan internationally. 
2. Moreover, to finance war expenditures Britain had borrowed liberally from the US. This meant that at the end of the war Britain was burdened with huge external debts.
3. The war had led to an economic boom, that is, to a large increase in demand, production and employment. When the war boom ended, production contracted and unemployment increased. At the same time the government reduced bloated war expenditures to bring them into line with peacetime revenues. These developments led to huge job losses.
4. Before the war, eastern Europe was a major supplier of wheat in the world market. When this supply was disrupted during the war, wheat production in Canada, America and Australia expanded dramatically, But once the war was over, production in eastern Europe revived and created a glut in wheat output. Grain prices fell, rural incomes declined, and farmers fell deeper into debt. 

Rise of mass production and consumption
One important feature of the US economy was that 1920s was mass production.
A well-known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford. He adapted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughterhouse to his new car plant in Detroit He realised that the ‘assembly line’ method would allow a faster and cheaper way of producing vehicles. 
1.    The assembly line forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously - such as fitting a particular part to the car - at a pace dictated by the conveyor belt. 
2.    This was a way of increasing the output per worker by speeding up the pace of work. 
3.    Standing in front of a conveyor belt no worker could afford to delay the motions, take a break, or even have a friendly word with a workmate. As a result, Henry Ford’s cars came off the assembly line at three-minute intervals, a speed much faster than that achieved by previous methods. The T-Model Ford was the world’s first mass-produced car.

At first workers at the Ford factory were unable to cope with the stress of working on assembly lines in which they could not control the pace of work. 
1.    So they quit in large numbers. In desperation Ford doubled the daily wage. 
2.    At the same time he banned trade unions from operating in his plants.
3.    Fordist industrial practices was also widely copied in Europe in the 1920s. Mass production lowered costs and prices of engineered goods. Thanks to higher wages, more workers could now afford to purchase durable consumer goods such as cars.
4.    Similarly, there was a spur in the purchase of refrigerators, washing machines, radios, gramophone players, all through a system of hire purchase’ (i.e., on credit repaid in weekly or monthly instalments).
In 1923, the US resumed exporting capital to the rest of the world and became the largest overseas lender. US imports and capital exports also boosted European recovery and world trade and income growth over the next six years.

The Great Depression
The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid – 1930s. During this period most parts of the world experienced catastrophic declines in production, employment, incomes and trade.
Agricultural regions and communities were the worst affected. This was because the fall in agricultural prices was greater and more prolonged than that In the prices of industrial goods.

Causes of The great depression
1.    First: agricultural overproduction remained a problem. This was made worse by falling agricultural prices. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production and bring a larger volume of produce to the market to maintain their overall income. This worsened the glut in the market, pushing down prices even further. Farm produce rotted for a lack of buyers.
2.    In the mid-1920s, many countries financed their investments throughloans from the US. While it was often extremely easy to raise loans in the US when the going was good, US overseas lenders panicked at the first sign of trouble. In the first half of 1928, US.overseas loans amounted to over $ 1 billion. A year later it was one quarter of that amount. Countries that depended crucial on US loans now faced an acute crisis.

Impact of great depression
    1.    In Europe it led to the failure of some major banks and the collapse of currencies such as the British pound sterling.
    2.    In Latin America and elsewhere it intensified the slump in agricultural and raw material prices.
    3.    With the fall in prices and the prospect of a depression, US banks had also slashed domestic lending and called back loans. 
    4.    Farms could not sell their harvests, households were ruined, and businesses collapsed.
    5.    Faced with falling incomes, many households in the US could not repay what they had borrowed, and were forced to give up their homes, cars and other consumer durables. 
    6.    The consumerist prosperity of the 1920s now disappeared in a puff of dust. 
    7.    As unemployment soared, people moved long distances looking for any work they could find. Ultimately, the US banking system itself collapsed. 
    8.    Unable to recover investments, collect loans and repay depositors, thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to closer.

India and the Great Depression
Impact

The depression immediately affected Indian trade. 
1.    India’s exports imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged. Between 1928 and 1934. As international prices, the prices in India fell by 50 per cent.
2.    Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. Peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit. 
3.    The jute producers of Bengal grew raw jute that was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags. But as gunny exports collapsed, the price of raw jute crashed more than 60 per cent. Peasants who borrowed in the hope of better times or to increase output in the hope of higher incomes faced even lower prices, and fell deeper and deeper into debt.
4.    Peasants’ indebtedness increased. They used up their savings, mortgaged lands, and sold whatever jewellery and precious metals they had to meet their expenses.
5.    Because of falling prices, those with fixed incomes - say town-dwelling landowners who received rents and middle-class salaried employees - now found themselves better off. Eventhing cost less.
6.    Industrial investment also grew as the government extended tarrif protection to industries, under the pressure of nationalist opinion.

Rebuilding a world economy: The post-war era
The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War. It was fought between the Axis powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy) and the Allies (Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the US.
1.    Once again death and destruction was enormous. At least 60 million people, or about 3 per cent of the world’s 1939 population, are believed to have been killed.
2.    Many more civilians than soldiers died from war-related “Casualties Vast parts of Europe and Asia were devastated, and several cities were destroyed by aerial bombardment or relentless artillery attacks. 
3.    The war caused an immense amount of economic devastation and social disruption. Reconstruction promised to be long and difficult.

Two crucial influences shaped post-war reconstruction. 
1.    The first was the US’s emergence as the dominant economic, political and military power in the Western world.
2.    The second was the dominance of the Soviet Union.
Post-war settlement and the bretton woods institution
Lessons from interwar eco - experiences

1.    First, an industrial society based on mass production cannot be sustained without mass consumption. But to ensure mass consumption, there was a need for high and stable incomes. Incomes could not be stable if employment was unstable. Thus stable incomes also required steady, full employment.  
But markets alone could not guarantee full employment. Therefore governments would have to step in to minimise fluctuations of price, output and employment. Economic stability could be ensured only through the intervention of the government.
2.    The second lesson related to a country’s economic links with the outside world. The goal of full employment could only be achieved if governments had power to control flows of goods, capital and Labour.
3.    Thus in brief, the main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.
Its framework was agreed upon at the United Nations Monetaryand Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.

Bretton Woods Institution
1.    The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (popularly known as the World Bank) was set up to finance postwar reconstruction. 
2.    The IMF and the World Bank are referred to as the Bretton Woods institutions or sometimes the Bretton Woods twins.
3.    Decision-making in these institutions is controlled by the Western industrial powers. The US has an effective right of veto over key IMF and World Bank decisions.
4.    The international monetary system is the system linking national currencies and monetary system. The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates. In this system, national currencies, for example the Indian rupee, were pegged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate.

The early post-war years
The Bretton Woods system inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth of trade and incomes for the Western industrial nations and Japan. World trade grew annually at over 8 per cent between 1950 and 1970 and incomes at nearly 5 per cent.
The growth was also mostly stable, without large fluctuation. For much of this period the unemployment rate, for example, averaged less than 5 per cent in most industrial countries.
These decades also saw the worldwide spread of technology and enterprise. Developing countries were in a hurry to catch up with the advanced industrial countries.

Decolonisation and independence
The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries. They were not equipped to cope with the challenge of poverty and lack of development in the former colonies. But as Europe and Japan rapidly rebuilt their economies, they grew less dependent on the IMF and the World Bank. Thus from the late 1950s the Bretton Woods institutions began to shift their attention more towards developing countries. 
Ironically, as newly independent countries facing urgent pressures to lift their populations out of poverty, they came under the guidance of international agencies dominated by the former colonial powers. Even after many years of decolonisation, the former colonial powers still, controlled vital resources such as minerals and land in many of their former colonies.
At the same time, most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth the-Western economies experienced in the 1950s and 1960s. Therefore they organised themselves as a group - the Group of  77 (or G-77) - to demand a new international economic order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

Illustration 10
    Which were the two opposite groups in II world war?
Solution
II world war was faught between Axis Powers (Germany, Japan and Italy) and Allies (Britain, France, Soviet Union and the U.S.)

Illustration 11
Which new super power blocks emerged in the world after II world war?
Solution
U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.

Illustration 12
Which institutions were called as Bretton woods Institution or Brettonwoods Twins.
Solution
    I.M.F. and World Bank.

Illustration 13
    What do you mean by NIEO?
Solution
New international economic order means a system that would give G-77 the real control over their natural resources, more developed assistance, fair prices raw materials and better access for their manufactured goods in developed country. 

Life of workers.

the peculiarities of industrial growth
    European Managing Agencies, which dominated industrial production in India, were interested in certain kinds of products. They established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheap rates from the colonial government; and they invested in mining, indigo and jute. Most of these were products required primarily for export trade and not for sale in India.

    Factors affected the pattern of Industrialisation in India
    (i)    Swadeshi movement gathered momentum, nationalists mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth. Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions.
    (ii)    The export of Indian yarn to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market So industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production. Cotton piece-goods production in India doubled between 1900 and 1912.
 

The effects of the first world war on Indian industry
    (i)    The First World War created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. 
    (ii)    Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply. 
    (iii)    As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. 
    (iv)    New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. 
    (v)    Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. 
    (vi)    Over the war years industrial production boomed.

    After the war, Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market
    Unable to modernise and compete with the US, Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fall dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

    Small-scale Industries Predominate
    While factory industries grew steadily after the war large industries formed only a small segment of the economy. Most of them about 67 per cent in 1911 - were located in Bengal and Bombay. 

    How did this happen?
    (i)    In the 20th century handloom cloth production expanded steadily. This was partly because of technological changes. By the second decade of the twentieth century we find weavers using looms with a fly shuttle. This increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand. 
    (ii)    By 1941, over 35 per cent of handlooms in India were fitted with fly shuttles: in regions like Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin, Bengal the proportion was 70 to 80 per cent. 
    (iii)    There were several other small innovations that helped weavers improve their productivity and compete with the mill sector.

    Coarser clothes and finer varieties of clothes
    (i)    The coarser cloth was bought by the poor and its demand fluctuated violently. In times of bad harvests and famines, when the rural poor had little to eat, and their cash income disappeared, they could not possibly buy cloth. 
    (ii)    The demand for the finer varieties bought by the well-to-do was more stable. The rich could buy these even when the poor starved. Famines did not affect the sale of Banarasi or Baluchari saris. Moreover, as  mills could not imitate specialised weaves. Saris with woven borders, or the famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, could not be easily displaced by mill production.

Lives of Indian weavers
    (i)     Weavers and other craftspeople who continued to expand production through the twentieth century, did not necessarily prosper. 
    (ii)     They lived hard lives and worked long hours. 
    (iii)    Very often the entire household - including all the women and children - had to work at various stages of the production process. 
    (iv)    But they were not simply remnants of past times in the age of factories. Their life and labour was integral to the process of industrialisation.

Life of workers.

the peculiarities of industrial growth
    European Managing Agencies, which dominated industrial production in India, were interested in certain kinds of products. They established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheap rates from the colonial government; and they invested in mining, indigo and jute. Most of these were products required primarily for export trade and not for sale in India.

    Factors affected the pattern of Industrialisation in India
    (i)    Swadeshi movement gathered momentum, nationalists mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth. Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions.
    (ii)    The export of Indian yarn to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market So industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production. Cotton piece-goods production in India doubled between 1900 and 1912.
 

The effects of the first world war on Indian industry
    (i)    The First World War created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. 
    (ii)    Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply. 
    (iii)    As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. 
    (iv)    New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. 
    (v)    Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. 
    (vi)    Over the war years industrial production boomed.

    After the war, Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market
    Unable to modernise and compete with the US, Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fall dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

    Small-scale Industries Predominate
    While factory industries grew steadily after the war large industries formed only a small segment of the economy. Most of them about 67 per cent in 1911 - were located in Bengal and Bombay. 

    How did this happen?
    (i)    In the 20th century handloom cloth production expanded steadily. This was partly because of technological changes. By the second decade of the twentieth century we find weavers using looms with a fly shuttle. This increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand. 
    (ii)    By 1941, over 35 per cent of handlooms in India were fitted with fly shuttles: in regions like Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin, Bengal the proportion was 70 to 80 per cent. 
    (iii)    There were several other small innovations that helped weavers improve their productivity and compete with the mill sector.

    Coarser clothes and finer varieties of clothes
    (i)    The coarser cloth was bought by the poor and its demand fluctuated violently. In times of bad harvests and famines, when the rural poor had little to eat, and their cash income disappeared, they could not possibly buy cloth. 
    (ii)    The demand for the finer varieties bought by the well-to-do was more stable. The rich could buy these even when the poor starved. Famines did not affect the sale of Banarasi or Baluchari saris. Moreover, as  mills could not imitate specialised weaves. Saris with woven borders, or the famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, could not be easily displaced by mill production.

Lives of Indian weavers
    (i)     Weavers and other craftspeople who continued to expand production through the twentieth century, did not necessarily prosper. 
    (ii)     They lived hard lives and worked long hours. 
    (iii)    Very often the entire household - including all the women and children - had to work at various stages of the production process. 
    (iv)    But they were not simply remnants of past times in the age of factories. Their life and labour was integral to the process of industrialisation.

Life of workers.

the peculiarities of industrial growth
    European Managing Agencies, which dominated industrial production in India, were interested in certain kinds of products. They established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheap rates from the colonial government; and they invested in mining, indigo and jute. Most of these were products required primarily for export trade and not for sale in India.

    Factors affected the pattern of Industrialisation in India
    (i)    Swadeshi movement gathered momentum, nationalists mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth. Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions.
    (ii)    The export of Indian yarn to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market So industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production. Cotton piece-goods production in India doubled between 1900 and 1912.
 

The effects of the first world war on Indian industry
    (i)    The First World War created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. 
    (ii)    Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply. 
    (iii)    As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. 
    (iv)    New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. 
    (v)    Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. 
    (vi)    Over the war years industrial production boomed.

    After the war, Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market
    Unable to modernise and compete with the US, Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fall dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

    Small-scale Industries Predominate
    While factory industries grew steadily after the war large industries formed only a small segment of the economy. Most of them about 67 per cent in 1911 - were located in Bengal and Bombay. 

    How did this happen?
    (i)    In the 20th century handloom cloth production expanded steadily. This was partly because of technological changes. By the second decade of the twentieth century we find weavers using looms with a fly shuttle. This increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand. 
    (ii)    By 1941, over 35 per cent of handlooms in India were fitted with fly shuttles: in regions like Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin, Bengal the proportion was 70 to 80 per cent. 
    (iii)    There were several other small innovations that helped weavers improve their productivity and compete with the mill sector.

    Coarser clothes and finer varieties of clothes
    (i)    The coarser cloth was bought by the poor and its demand fluctuated violently. In times of bad harvests and famines, when the rural poor had little to eat, and their cash income disappeared, they could not possibly buy cloth. 
    (ii)    The demand for the finer varieties bought by the well-to-do was more stable. The rich could buy these even when the poor starved. Famines did not affect the sale of Banarasi or Baluchari saris. Moreover, as  mills could not imitate specialised weaves. Saris with woven borders, or the famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, could not be easily displaced by mill production.

Lives of Indian weavers
    (i)     Weavers and other craftspeople who continued to expand production through the twentieth century, did not necessarily prosper. 
    (ii)     They lived hard lives and worked long hours. 
    (iii)    Very often the entire household - including all the women and children - had to work at various stages of the production process. 
    (iv)    But they were not simply remnants of past times in the age of factories. Their life and labour was integral to the process of industrialisation.

Life of workers.

the peculiarities of industrial growth
    European Managing Agencies, which dominated industrial production in India, were interested in certain kinds of products. They established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheap rates from the colonial government; and they invested in mining, indigo and jute. Most of these were products required primarily for export trade and not for sale in India.

    Factors affected the pattern of Industrialisation in India
    (i)    Swadeshi movement gathered momentum, nationalists mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth. Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions.
    (ii)    The export of Indian yarn to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market So industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production. Cotton piece-goods production in India doubled between 1900 and 1912.
 

The effects of the first world war on Indian industry
    (i)    The First World War created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. 
    (ii)    Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply. 
    (iii)    As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. 
    (iv)    New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. 
    (v)    Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. 
    (vi)    Over the war years industrial production boomed.

    After the war, Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market
    Unable to modernise and compete with the US, Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fall dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

    Small-scale Industries Predominate
    While factory industries grew steadily after the war large industries formed only a small segment of the economy. Most of them about 67 per cent in 1911 - were located in Bengal and Bombay. 

    How did this happen?
    (i)    In the 20th century handloom cloth production expanded steadily. This was partly because of technological changes. By the second decade of the twentieth century we find weavers using looms with a fly shuttle. This increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand. 
    (ii)    By 1941, over 35 per cent of handlooms in India were fitted with fly shuttles: in regions like Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin, Bengal the proportion was 70 to 80 per cent. 
    (iii)    There were several other small innovations that helped weavers improve their productivity and compete with the mill sector.

    Coarser clothes and finer varieties of clothes
    (i)    The coarser cloth was bought by the poor and its demand fluctuated violently. In times of bad harvests and famines, when the rural poor had little to eat, and their cash income disappeared, they could not possibly buy cloth. 
    (ii)    The demand for the finer varieties bought by the well-to-do was more stable. The rich could buy these even when the poor starved. Famines did not affect the sale of Banarasi or Baluchari saris. Moreover, as  mills could not imitate specialised weaves. Saris with woven borders, or the famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, could not be easily displaced by mill production.

Lives of Indian weavers
    (i)     Weavers and other craftspeople who continued to expand production through the twentieth century, did not necessarily prosper. 
    (ii)     They lived hard lives and worked long hours. 
    (iii)    Very often the entire household - including all the women and children - had to work at various stages of the production process. 
    (iv)    But they were not simply remnants of past times in the age of factories. Their life and labour was integral to the process of industrialisation.

Life of workers.

the peculiarities of industrial growth
    European Managing Agencies, which dominated industrial production in India, were interested in certain kinds of products. They established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheap rates from the colonial government; and they invested in mining, indigo and jute. Most of these were products required primarily for export trade and not for sale in India.

    Factors affected the pattern of Industrialisation in India
    (i)    Swadeshi movement gathered momentum, nationalists mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth. Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions.
    (ii)    The export of Indian yarn to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market So industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production. Cotton piece-goods production in India doubled between 1900 and 1912.
 

The effects of the first world war on Indian industry
    (i)    The First World War created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. 
    (ii)    Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply. 
    (iii)    As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. 
    (iv)    New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. 
    (v)    Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. 
    (vi)    Over the war years industrial production boomed.

    After the war, Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market
    Unable to modernise and compete with the US, Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fall dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

    Small-scale Industries Predominate
    While factory industries grew steadily after the war large industries formed only a small segment of the economy. Most of them about 67 per cent in 1911 - were located in Bengal and Bombay. 

    How did this happen?
    (i)    In the 20th century handloom cloth production expanded steadily. This was partly because of technological changes. By the second decade of the twentieth century we find weavers using looms with a fly shuttle. This increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand. 
    (ii)    By 1941, over 35 per cent of handlooms in India were fitted with fly shuttles: in regions like Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin, Bengal the proportion was 70 to 80 per cent. 
    (iii)    There were several other small innovations that helped weavers improve their productivity and compete with the mill sector.

    Coarser clothes and finer varieties of clothes
    (i)    The coarser cloth was bought by the poor and its demand fluctuated violently. In times of bad harvests and famines, when the rural poor had little to eat, and their cash income disappeared, they could not possibly buy cloth. 
    (ii)    The demand for the finer varieties bought by the well-to-do was more stable. The rich could buy these even when the poor starved. Famines did not affect the sale of Banarasi or Baluchari saris. Moreover, as  mills could not imitate specialised weaves. Saris with woven borders, or the famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, could not be easily displaced by mill production.

Lives of Indian weavers
    (i)     Weavers and other craftspeople who continued to expand production through the twentieth century, did not necessarily prosper. 
    (ii)     They lived hard lives and worked long hours. 
    (iii)    Very often the entire household - including all the women and children - had to work at various stages of the production process. 
    (iv)    But they were not simply remnants of past times in the age of factories. Their life and labour was integral to the process of industrialisation.

Life of workers.

the peculiarities of industrial growth
    European Managing Agencies, which dominated industrial production in India, were interested in certain kinds of products. They established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheap rates from the colonial government; and they invested in mining, indigo and jute. Most of these were products required primarily for export trade and not for sale in India.

    Factors affected the pattern of Industrialisation in India
    (i)    Swadeshi movement gathered momentum, nationalists mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth. Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions.
    (ii)    The export of Indian yarn to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market So industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production. Cotton piece-goods production in India doubled between 1900 and 1912.
 

The effects of the first world war on Indian industry
    (i)    The First World War created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. 
    (ii)    Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply. 
    (iii)    As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. 
    (iv)    New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. 
    (v)    Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. 
    (vi)    Over the war years industrial production boomed.

    After the war, Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market
    Unable to modernise and compete with the US, Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fall dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

    Small-scale Industries Predominate
    While factory industries grew steadily after the war large industries formed only a small segment of the economy. Most of them about 67 per cent in 1911 - were located in Bengal and Bombay. 

    How did this happen?
    (i)    In the 20th century handloom cloth production expanded steadily. This was partly because of technological changes. By the second decade of the twentieth century we find weavers using looms with a fly shuttle. This increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand. 
    (ii)    By 1941, over 35 per cent of handlooms in India were fitted with fly shuttles: in regions like Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin, Bengal the proportion was 70 to 80 per cent. 
    (iii)    There were several other small innovations that helped weavers improve their productivity and compete with the mill sector.

    Coarser clothes and finer varieties of clothes
    (i)    The coarser cloth was bought by the poor and its demand fluctuated violently. In times of bad harvests and famines, when the rural poor had little to eat, and their cash income disappeared, they could not possibly buy cloth. 
    (ii)    The demand for the finer varieties bought by the well-to-do was more stable. The rich could buy these even when the poor starved. Famines did not affect the sale of Banarasi or Baluchari saris. Moreover, as  mills could not imitate specialised weaves. Saris with woven borders, or the famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, could not be easily displaced by mill production.

Lives of Indian weavers
    (i)     Weavers and other craftspeople who continued to expand production through the twentieth century, did not necessarily prosper. 
    (ii)     They lived hard lives and worked long hours. 
    (iii)    Very often the entire household - including all the women and children - had to work at various stages of the production process. 
    (iv)    But they were not simply remnants of past times in the age of factories. Their life and labour was integral to the process of industrialisation.

Life of workers.

the peculiarities of industrial growth
    European Managing Agencies, which dominated industrial production in India, were interested in certain kinds of products. They established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheap rates from the colonial government; and they invested in mining, indigo and jute. Most of these were products required primarily for export trade and not for sale in India.

    Factors affected the pattern of Industrialisation in India
    (i)    Swadeshi movement gathered momentum, nationalists mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth. Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions.
    (ii)    The export of Indian yarn to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market So industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production. Cotton piece-goods production in India doubled between 1900 and 1912.
 

The effects of the first world war on Indian industry
    (i)    The First World War created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. 
    (ii)    Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply. 
    (iii)    As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. 
    (iv)    New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. 
    (v)    Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. 
    (vi)    Over the war years industrial production boomed.

    After the war, Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market
    Unable to modernise and compete with the US, Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fall dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

    Small-scale Industries Predominate
    While factory industries grew steadily after the war large industries formed only a small segment of the economy. Most of them about 67 per cent in 1911 - were located in Bengal and Bombay. 

    How did this happen?
    (i)    In the 20th century handloom cloth production expanded steadily. This was partly because of technological changes. By the second decade of the twentieth century we find weavers using looms with a fly shuttle. This increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand. 
    (ii)    By 1941, over 35 per cent of handlooms in India were fitted with fly shuttles: in regions like Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin, Bengal the proportion was 70 to 80 per cent. 
    (iii)    There were several other small innovations that helped weavers improve their productivity and compete with the mill sector.

    Coarser clothes and finer varieties of clothes
    (i)    The coarser cloth was bought by the poor and its demand fluctuated violently. In times of bad harvests and famines, when the rural poor had little to eat, and their cash income disappeared, they could not possibly buy cloth. 
    (ii)    The demand for the finer varieties bought by the well-to-do was more stable. The rich could buy these even when the poor starved. Famines did not affect the sale of Banarasi or Baluchari saris. Moreover, as  mills could not imitate specialised weaves. Saris with woven borders, or the famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, could not be easily displaced by mill production.

Lives of Indian weavers
    (i)     Weavers and other craftspeople who continued to expand production through the twentieth century, did not necessarily prosper. 
    (ii)     They lived hard lives and worked long hours. 
    (iii)    Very often the entire household - including all the women and children - had to work at various stages of the production process. 
    (iv)    But they were not simply remnants of past times in the age of factories. Their life and labour was integral to the process of industrialisation.

Industrialization in the colonies.

INTRODUCTION 
In the ninteenth century the different people started glorifying the industrial components and other inputs needed for development of industries. ET Paull music co., New York, England, 1900 produced a music book ‘Dawn of the century’ in which the image of a goddess like figure bearing the flag of 20th century has been shown with signs of progress : railway, camera machines, printing press and factory. Similarly the picture of ‘Two magicians’ was published in Inland printers on 26 Jan 1901.This topic deals with the history of industrialsation first in Britain and then in India. 

Industrialisation in the colonies
The Age of Indian Textiles
Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. Coarser cottons were produced in many countries.
But the finer varieties often came from India. 
Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, eastern Persia and Central Asia. Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the north-west frontier, through mountain passes and across deserts.

A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports
(i)    Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports. 
(ii)    Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports.
A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in this network of export trade - financing production, carrying goods and supplying exporters. 

Supply merchants linked the port towns to the inland regions
(i)    They gave advances to weavers,
(ii)    Procured the woven cloth from weaving villages, and 
(iii)    Carried the supply to the ports. 
At the port, big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.

What happened to weavers?
Before establishing political power in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1760s and 1770s, the East India Company had found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export.
Portuguese as well as the local traders competed in the market to secure woven cloth. So the weaver and supply merchants could bargain and try selling the produce to the best buyer. 
In their letters back to London, Company officials continuously complained of difficulties of supply and the high prices.

The East India Company established political power
(i)    It proceeded to develop a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. 

This it did through a series of steps.
(A) The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
(B)    Gomastha prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers by the System of advances
(i)      Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. 
 (ii)    Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. 
(iii)    They could not take it to any other trader and became permanent weavers of the company.
        
Reports of clashes between weavers and gomasthas. 
(i)    Earlier supply merchants had very often lived within the weaving villages, and had a close relationship with the weavers, looking after their needs and helping them in times of crisis.
 (ii)    The new gomasthas were outsiders, with no long-term social link with the village. 
 (iii)    They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply - often beating and flogging them. 
(iv)    The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers: the price they received from the Company was miserably low and the loans they had accepted tied them to the Company.

In many places in Carnatic and Bengal, weavers deserted villages and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relation Else where.
Weavers along with the village traders revolted, opposing the Company and its officials.
Over time many weavers began refusing loans, closing down their workshops and taking to agricultural labour.

Manchester comes to India
In 1772, Henry Patullo, a Company official, had ventured to say that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce, since no other nation produced goods of the same quality. 
By the beginning of the nineteenth century we see the beginning of a long decline of textile exports from India. 

In 1811-12 piece-goods accounted for 33 per cent of India’s exports; by 1850-51 it was no more than 3 percent
(i)    As cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups began worrying about imports from other countries. They pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing any competition from outside. 
Their export market collapsed, local market sharnk.
(ii)    At the same time industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian markets as well. Exports of British cotton goods increased dramatically in the early nineteenth century. At the end of the eighteenth century there had been virtually no import of cotton piece-goods into India. 
But by 1850 cotton piece-goods constituted over 31 per cent of the value of  India imports; and by the 1870s this figure was over 50 per cent.

Cotton weavers in India thus faced two problems at the same time
(i)    Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
(ii)    They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton  shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this, situation weaving could not pay.
(iii)    Factories in India began production, flooding the market with machine - goods weaving industries could not survive.

Illustration 9
    Mention the international trade of cotton textiles from India before the age of machine industries ?
Solution
    (i)     Armenian and persian traders took goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, to eastern persia and central Asia.
    (ii)     Bales of fine textile were carried on camel back via north west frontier province, through mountain passes and across deserts.
    (iii)     From Surat in Gujarat to the gulf and Red sea ports.
    (iv)     Masulipatnam on coromandal coast and Hoogly in Bengal traded with southeast Asia.
Illustration 10
    What led to the breaking down of the trade network of Indian merchants by 1750’s?
Solution
    By 1750’s the European companies gained power by –
    (i)     Securing a variety of concessions from local courts.
    (ii)     They obtained monopoly rights to trade.

Illustration 11
    Which two port of India decayed and which ports grew? What does it symbolices?
Solution
    Ports like Surat and Hoogly decayed and ports like Bombay and Calcutta grew. It was an indicator of growing colonial power.
Illustration 12
    Who were ‘gomasthas’?
Solution
    A paid servent appointed by the company to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine quality of cloths.

 

Industrialization in the colonies.

INTRODUCTION 
In the ninteenth century the different people started glorifying the industrial components and other inputs needed for development of industries. ET Paull music co., New York, England, 1900 produced a music book ‘Dawn of the century’ in which the image of a goddess like figure bearing the flag of 20th century has been shown with signs of progress : railway, camera machines, printing press and factory. Similarly the picture of ‘Two magicians’ was published in Inland printers on 26 Jan 1901.This topic deals with the history of industrialsation first in Britain and then in India. 

Industrialisation in the colonies
The Age of Indian Textiles
Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. Coarser cottons were produced in many countries.
But the finer varieties often came from India. 
Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, eastern Persia and Central Asia. Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the north-west frontier, through mountain passes and across deserts.

A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports
(i)    Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports. 
(ii)    Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports.
A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in this network of export trade - financing production, carrying goods and supplying exporters. 

Supply merchants linked the port towns to the inland regions
(i)    They gave advances to weavers,
(ii)    Procured the woven cloth from weaving villages, and 
(iii)    Carried the supply to the ports. 
At the port, big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.

What happened to weavers?
Before establishing political power in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1760s and 1770s, the East India Company had found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export.
Portuguese as well as the local traders competed in the market to secure woven cloth. So the weaver and supply merchants could bargain and try selling the produce to the best buyer. 
In their letters back to London, Company officials continuously complained of difficulties of supply and the high prices.

The East India Company established political power
(i)    It proceeded to develop a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. 

This it did through a series of steps.
(A) The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
(B)    Gomastha prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers by the System of advances
(i)      Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. 
 (ii)    Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. 
(iii)    They could not take it to any other trader and became permanent weavers of the company.
        
Reports of clashes between weavers and gomasthas. 
(i)    Earlier supply merchants had very often lived within the weaving villages, and had a close relationship with the weavers, looking after their needs and helping them in times of crisis.
 (ii)    The new gomasthas were outsiders, with no long-term social link with the village. 
 (iii)    They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply - often beating and flogging them. 
(iv)    The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers: the price they received from the Company was miserably low and the loans they had accepted tied them to the Company.

In many places in Carnatic and Bengal, weavers deserted villages and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relation Else where.
Weavers along with the village traders revolted, opposing the Company and its officials.
Over time many weavers began refusing loans, closing down their workshops and taking to agricultural labour.

Manchester comes to India
In 1772, Henry Patullo, a Company official, had ventured to say that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce, since no other nation produced goods of the same quality. 
By the beginning of the nineteenth century we see the beginning of a long decline of textile exports from India. 

In 1811-12 piece-goods accounted for 33 per cent of India’s exports; by 1850-51 it was no more than 3 percent
(i)    As cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups began worrying about imports from other countries. They pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing any competition from outside. 
Their export market collapsed, local market sharnk.
(ii)    At the same time industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian markets as well. Exports of British cotton goods increased dramatically in the early nineteenth century. At the end of the eighteenth century there had been virtually no import of cotton piece-goods into India. 
But by 1850 cotton piece-goods constituted over 31 per cent of the value of  India imports; and by the 1870s this figure was over 50 per cent.

Cotton weavers in India thus faced two problems at the same time
(i)    Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
(ii)    They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton  shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this, situation weaving could not pay.
(iii)    Factories in India began production, flooding the market with machine - goods weaving industries could not survive.

Illustration 9
    Mention the international trade of cotton textiles from India before the age of machine industries ?
Solution
    (i)     Armenian and persian traders took goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, to eastern persia and central Asia.
    (ii)     Bales of fine textile were carried on camel back via north west frontier province, through mountain passes and across deserts.
    (iii)     From Surat in Gujarat to the gulf and Red sea ports.
    (iv)     Masulipatnam on coromandal coast and Hoogly in Bengal traded with southeast Asia.
Illustration 10
    What led to the breaking down of the trade network of Indian merchants by 1750’s?
Solution
    By 1750’s the European companies gained power by –
    (i)     Securing a variety of concessions from local courts.
    (ii)     They obtained monopoly rights to trade.

Illustration 11
    Which two port of India decayed and which ports grew? What does it symbolices?
Solution
    Ports like Surat and Hoogly decayed and ports like Bombay and Calcutta grew. It was an indicator of growing colonial power.
Illustration 12
    Who were ‘gomasthas’?
Solution
    A paid servent appointed by the company to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine quality of cloths.

 

Industrialization in the colonies.

INTRODUCTION 
In the ninteenth century the different people started glorifying the industrial components and other inputs needed for development of industries. ET Paull music co., New York, England, 1900 produced a music book ‘Dawn of the century’ in which the image of a goddess like figure bearing the flag of 20th century has been shown with signs of progress : railway, camera machines, printing press and factory. Similarly the picture of ‘Two magicians’ was published in Inland printers on 26 Jan 1901.This topic deals with the history of industrialsation first in Britain and then in India. 

Industrialisation in the colonies
The Age of Indian Textiles
Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. Coarser cottons were produced in many countries.
But the finer varieties often came from India. 
Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, eastern Persia and Central Asia. Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the north-west frontier, through mountain passes and across deserts.

A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports
(i)    Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports. 
(ii)    Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports.
A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in this network of export trade - financing production, carrying goods and supplying exporters. 

Supply merchants linked the port towns to the inland regions
(i)    They gave advances to weavers,
(ii)    Procured the woven cloth from weaving villages, and 
(iii)    Carried the supply to the ports. 
At the port, big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.

What happened to weavers?
Before establishing political power in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1760s and 1770s, the East India Company had found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export.
Portuguese as well as the local traders competed in the market to secure woven cloth. So the weaver and supply merchants could bargain and try selling the produce to the best buyer. 
In their letters back to London, Company officials continuously complained of difficulties of supply and the high prices.

The East India Company established political power
(i)    It proceeded to develop a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. 

This it did through a series of steps.
(A) The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
(B)    Gomastha prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers by the System of advances
(i)      Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. 
 (ii)    Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. 
(iii)    They could not take it to any other trader and became permanent weavers of the company.
        
Reports of clashes between weavers and gomasthas. 
(i)    Earlier supply merchants had very often lived within the weaving villages, and had a close relationship with the weavers, looking after their needs and helping them in times of crisis.
 (ii)    The new gomasthas were outsiders, with no long-term social link with the village. 
 (iii)    They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply - often beating and flogging them. 
(iv)    The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers: the price they received from the Company was miserably low and the loans they had accepted tied them to the Company.

In many places in Carnatic and Bengal, weavers deserted villages and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relation Else where.
Weavers along with the village traders revolted, opposing the Company and its officials.
Over time many weavers began refusing loans, closing down their workshops and taking to agricultural labour.

Manchester comes to India
In 1772, Henry Patullo, a Company official, had ventured to say that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce, since no other nation produced goods of the same quality. 
By the beginning of the nineteenth century we see the beginning of a long decline of textile exports from India. 

In 1811-12 piece-goods accounted for 33 per cent of India’s exports; by 1850-51 it was no more than 3 percent
(i)    As cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups began worrying about imports from other countries. They pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing any competition from outside. 
Their export market collapsed, local market sharnk.
(ii)    At the same time industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian markets as well. Exports of British cotton goods increased dramatically in the early nineteenth century. At the end of the eighteenth century there had been virtually no import of cotton piece-goods into India. 
But by 1850 cotton piece-goods constituted over 31 per cent of the value of  India imports; and by the 1870s this figure was over 50 per cent.

Cotton weavers in India thus faced two problems at the same time
(i)    Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
(ii)    They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton  shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this, situation weaving could not pay.
(iii)    Factories in India began production, flooding the market with machine - goods weaving industries could not survive.

Illustration 9
    Mention the international trade of cotton textiles from India before the age of machine industries ?
Solution
    (i)     Armenian and persian traders took goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, to eastern persia and central Asia.
    (ii)     Bales of fine textile were carried on camel back via north west frontier province, through mountain passes and across deserts.
    (iii)     From Surat in Gujarat to the gulf and Red sea ports.
    (iv)     Masulipatnam on coromandal coast and Hoogly in Bengal traded with southeast Asia.
Illustration 10
    What led to the breaking down of the trade network of Indian merchants by 1750’s?
Solution
    By 1750’s the European companies gained power by –
    (i)     Securing a variety of concessions from local courts.
    (ii)     They obtained monopoly rights to trade.

Illustration 11
    Which two port of India decayed and which ports grew? What does it symbolices?
Solution
    Ports like Surat and Hoogly decayed and ports like Bombay and Calcutta grew. It was an indicator of growing colonial power.
Illustration 12
    Who were ‘gomasthas’?
Solution
    A paid servent appointed by the company to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine quality of cloths.

 

Industrialization in the colonies.

INTRODUCTION 
In the ninteenth century the different people started glorifying the industrial components and other inputs needed for development of industries. ET Paull music co., New York, England, 1900 produced a music book ‘Dawn of the century’ in which the image of a goddess like figure bearing the flag of 20th century has been shown with signs of progress : railway, camera machines, printing press and factory. Similarly the picture of ‘Two magicians’ was published in Inland printers on 26 Jan 1901.This topic deals with the history of industrialsation first in Britain and then in India. 

Industrialisation in the colonies
The Age of Indian Textiles
Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. Coarser cottons were produced in many countries.
But the finer varieties often came from India. 
Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, eastern Persia and Central Asia. Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the north-west frontier, through mountain passes and across deserts.

A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports
(i)    Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports. 
(ii)    Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports.
A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in this network of export trade - financing production, carrying goods and supplying exporters. 

Supply merchants linked the port towns to the inland regions
(i)    They gave advances to weavers,
(ii)    Procured the woven cloth from weaving villages, and 
(iii)    Carried the supply to the ports. 
At the port, big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.

What happened to weavers?
Before establishing political power in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1760s and 1770s, the East India Company had found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export.
Portuguese as well as the local traders competed in the market to secure woven cloth. So the weaver and supply merchants could bargain and try selling the produce to the best buyer. 
In their letters back to London, Company officials continuously complained of difficulties of supply and the high prices.

The East India Company established political power
(i)    It proceeded to develop a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. 

This it did through a series of steps.
(A) The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
(B)    Gomastha prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers by the System of advances
(i)      Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. 
 (ii)    Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. 
(iii)    They could not take it to any other trader and became permanent weavers of the company.
        
Reports of clashes between weavers and gomasthas. 
(i)    Earlier supply merchants had very often lived within the weaving villages, and had a close relationship with the weavers, looking after their needs and helping them in times of crisis.
 (ii)    The new gomasthas were outsiders, with no long-term social link with the village. 
 (iii)    They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply - often beating and flogging them. 
(iv)    The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers: the price they received from the Company was miserably low and the loans they had accepted tied them to the Company.

In many places in Carnatic and Bengal, weavers deserted villages and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relation Else where.
Weavers along with the village traders revolted, opposing the Company and its officials.
Over time many weavers began refusing loans, closing down their workshops and taking to agricultural labour.

Manchester comes to India
In 1772, Henry Patullo, a Company official, had ventured to say that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce, since no other nation produced goods of the same quality. 
By the beginning of the nineteenth century we see the beginning of a long decline of textile exports from India. 

In 1811-12 piece-goods accounted for 33 per cent of India’s exports; by 1850-51 it was no more than 3 percent
(i)    As cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups began worrying about imports from other countries. They pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing any competition from outside. 
Their export market collapsed, local market sharnk.
(ii)    At the same time industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian markets as well. Exports of British cotton goods increased dramatically in the early nineteenth century. At the end of the eighteenth century there had been virtually no import of cotton piece-goods into India. 
But by 1850 cotton piece-goods constituted over 31 per cent of the value of  India imports; and by the 1870s this figure was over 50 per cent.

Cotton weavers in India thus faced two problems at the same time
(i)    Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
(ii)    They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton  shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this, situation weaving could not pay.
(iii)    Factories in India began production, flooding the market with machine - goods weaving industries could not survive.

Illustration 9
    Mention the international trade of cotton textiles from India before the age of machine industries ?
Solution
    (i)     Armenian and persian traders took goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, to eastern persia and central Asia.
    (ii)     Bales of fine textile were carried on camel back via north west frontier province, through mountain passes and across deserts.
    (iii)     From Surat in Gujarat to the gulf and Red sea ports.
    (iv)     Masulipatnam on coromandal coast and Hoogly in Bengal traded with southeast Asia.
Illustration 10
    What led to the breaking down of the trade network of Indian merchants by 1750’s?
Solution
    By 1750’s the European companies gained power by –
    (i)     Securing a variety of concessions from local courts.
    (ii)     They obtained monopoly rights to trade.

Illustration 11
    Which two port of India decayed and which ports grew? What does it symbolices?
Solution
    Ports like Surat and Hoogly decayed and ports like Bombay and Calcutta grew. It was an indicator of growing colonial power.
Illustration 12
    Who were ‘gomasthas’?
Solution
    A paid servent appointed by the company to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine quality of cloths.

 

Industrialization in the colonies.

INTRODUCTION 
In the ninteenth century the different people started glorifying the industrial components and other inputs needed for development of industries. ET Paull music co., New York, England, 1900 produced a music book ‘Dawn of the century’ in which the image of a goddess like figure bearing the flag of 20th century has been shown with signs of progress : railway, camera machines, printing press and factory. Similarly the picture of ‘Two magicians’ was published in Inland printers on 26 Jan 1901.This topic deals with the history of industrialsation first in Britain and then in India. 

Industrialisation in the colonies
The Age of Indian Textiles
Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. Coarser cottons were produced in many countries.
But the finer varieties often came from India. 
Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, eastern Persia and Central Asia. Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the north-west frontier, through mountain passes and across deserts.

A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports
(i)    Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports. 
(ii)    Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports.
A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in this network of export trade - financing production, carrying goods and supplying exporters. 

Supply merchants linked the port towns to the inland regions
(i)    They gave advances to weavers,
(ii)    Procured the woven cloth from weaving villages, and 
(iii)    Carried the supply to the ports. 
At the port, big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.

What happened to weavers?
Before establishing political power in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1760s and 1770s, the East India Company had found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export.
Portuguese as well as the local traders competed in the market to secure woven cloth. So the weaver and supply merchants could bargain and try selling the produce to the best buyer. 
In their letters back to London, Company officials continuously complained of difficulties of supply and the high prices.

The East India Company established political power
(i)    It proceeded to develop a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. 

This it did through a series of steps.
(A) The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
(B)    Gomastha prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers by the System of advances
(i)      Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. 
 (ii)    Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. 
(iii)    They could not take it to any other trader and became permanent weavers of the company.
        
Reports of clashes between weavers and gomasthas. 
(i)    Earlier supply merchants had very often lived within the weaving villages, and had a close relationship with the weavers, looking after their needs and helping them in times of crisis.
 (ii)    The new gomasthas were outsiders, with no long-term social link with the village. 
 (iii)    They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply - often beating and flogging them. 
(iv)    The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers: the price they received from the Company was miserably low and the loans they had accepted tied them to the Company.

In many places in Carnatic and Bengal, weavers deserted villages and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relation Else where.
Weavers along with the village traders revolted, opposing the Company and its officials.
Over time many weavers began refusing loans, closing down their workshops and taking to agricultural labour.

Manchester comes to India
In 1772, Henry Patullo, a Company official, had ventured to say that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce, since no other nation produced goods of the same quality. 
By the beginning of the nineteenth century we see the beginning of a long decline of textile exports from India. 

In 1811-12 piece-goods accounted for 33 per cent of India’s exports; by 1850-51 it was no more than 3 percent
(i)    As cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups began worrying about imports from other countries. They pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing any competition from outside. 
Their export market collapsed, local market sharnk.
(ii)    At the same time industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian markets as well. Exports of British cotton goods increased dramatically in the early nineteenth century. At the end of the eighteenth century there had been virtually no import of cotton piece-goods into India. 
But by 1850 cotton piece-goods constituted over 31 per cent of the value of  India imports; and by the 1870s this figure was over 50 per cent.

Cotton weavers in India thus faced two problems at the same time
(i)    Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
(ii)    They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton  shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this, situation weaving could not pay.
(iii)    Factories in India began production, flooding the market with machine - goods weaving industries could not survive.

Illustration 9
    Mention the international trade of cotton textiles from India before the age of machine industries ?
Solution
    (i)     Armenian and persian traders took goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, to eastern persia and central Asia.
    (ii)     Bales of fine textile were carried on camel back via north west frontier province, through mountain passes and across deserts.
    (iii)     From Surat in Gujarat to the gulf and Red sea ports.
    (iv)     Masulipatnam on coromandal coast and Hoogly in Bengal traded with southeast Asia.
Illustration 10
    What led to the breaking down of the trade network of Indian merchants by 1750’s?
Solution
    By 1750’s the European companies gained power by –
    (i)     Securing a variety of concessions from local courts.
    (ii)     They obtained monopoly rights to trade.

Illustration 11
    Which two port of India decayed and which ports grew? What does it symbolices?
Solution
    Ports like Surat and Hoogly decayed and ports like Bombay and Calcutta grew. It was an indicator of growing colonial power.
Illustration 12
    Who were ‘gomasthas’?
Solution
    A paid servent appointed by the company to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine quality of cloths.

 

Industrialization in the colonies.

INTRODUCTION 
In the ninteenth century the different people started glorifying the industrial components and other inputs needed for development of industries. ET Paull music co., New York, England, 1900 produced a music book ‘Dawn of the century’ in which the image of a goddess like figure bearing the flag of 20th century has been shown with signs of progress : railway, camera machines, printing press and factory. Similarly the picture of ‘Two magicians’ was published in Inland printers on 26 Jan 1901.This topic deals with the history of industrialsation first in Britain and then in India. 

Industrialisation in the colonies
The Age of Indian Textiles
Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. Coarser cottons were produced in many countries.
But the finer varieties often came from India. 
Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, eastern Persia and Central Asia. Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the north-west frontier, through mountain passes and across deserts.

A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports
(i)    Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports. 
(ii)    Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports.
A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in this network of export trade - financing production, carrying goods and supplying exporters. 

Supply merchants linked the port towns to the inland regions
(i)    They gave advances to weavers,
(ii)    Procured the woven cloth from weaving villages, and 
(iii)    Carried the supply to the ports. 
At the port, big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.

What happened to weavers?
Before establishing political power in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1760s and 1770s, the East India Company had found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export.
Portuguese as well as the local traders competed in the market to secure woven cloth. So the weaver and supply merchants could bargain and try selling the produce to the best buyer. 
In their letters back to London, Company officials continuously complained of difficulties of supply and the high prices.

The East India Company established political power
(i)    It proceeded to develop a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. 

This it did through a series of steps.
(A) The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
(B)    Gomastha prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers by the System of advances
(i)      Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. 
 (ii)    Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. 
(iii)    They could not take it to any other trader and became permanent weavers of the company.
        
Reports of clashes between weavers and gomasthas. 
(i)    Earlier supply merchants had very often lived within the weaving villages, and had a close relationship with the weavers, looking after their needs and helping them in times of crisis.
 (ii)    The new gomasthas were outsiders, with no long-term social link with the village. 
 (iii)    They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply - often beating and flogging them. 
(iv)    The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers: the price they received from the Company was miserably low and the loans they had accepted tied them to the Company.

In many places in Carnatic and Bengal, weavers deserted villages and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relation Else where.
Weavers along with the village traders revolted, opposing the Company and its officials.
Over time many weavers began refusing loans, closing down their workshops and taking to agricultural labour.

Manchester comes to India
In 1772, Henry Patullo, a Company official, had ventured to say that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce, since no other nation produced goods of the same quality. 
By the beginning of the nineteenth century we see the beginning of a long decline of textile exports from India. 

In 1811-12 piece-goods accounted for 33 per cent of India’s exports; by 1850-51 it was no more than 3 percent
(i)    As cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups began worrying about imports from other countries. They pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing any competition from outside. 
Their export market collapsed, local market sharnk.
(ii)    At the same time industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian markets as well. Exports of British cotton goods increased dramatically in the early nineteenth century. At the end of the eighteenth century there had been virtually no import of cotton piece-goods into India. 
But by 1850 cotton piece-goods constituted over 31 per cent of the value of  India imports; and by the 1870s this figure was over 50 per cent.

Cotton weavers in India thus faced two problems at the same time
(i)    Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
(ii)    They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton  shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this, situation weaving could not pay.
(iii)    Factories in India began production, flooding the market with machine - goods weaving industries could not survive.

Illustration 9
    Mention the international trade of cotton textiles from India before the age of machine industries ?
Solution
    (i)     Armenian and persian traders took goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, to eastern persia and central Asia.
    (ii)     Bales of fine textile were carried on camel back via north west frontier province, through mountain passes and across deserts.
    (iii)     From Surat in Gujarat to the gulf and Red sea ports.
    (iv)     Masulipatnam on coromandal coast and Hoogly in Bengal traded with southeast Asia.
Illustration 10
    What led to the breaking down of the trade network of Indian merchants by 1750’s?
Solution
    By 1750’s the European companies gained power by –
    (i)     Securing a variety of concessions from local courts.
    (ii)     They obtained monopoly rights to trade.

Illustration 11
    Which two port of India decayed and which ports grew? What does it symbolices?
Solution
    Ports like Surat and Hoogly decayed and ports like Bombay and Calcutta grew. It was an indicator of growing colonial power.
Illustration 12
    Who were ‘gomasthas’?
Solution
    A paid servent appointed by the company to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine quality of cloths.

 

Industrialization in the colonies.

INTRODUCTION 
In the ninteenth century the different people started glorifying the industrial components and other inputs needed for development of industries. ET Paull music co., New York, England, 1900 produced a music book ‘Dawn of the century’ in which the image of a goddess like figure bearing the flag of 20th century has been shown with signs of progress : railway, camera machines, printing press and factory. Similarly the picture of ‘Two magicians’ was published in Inland printers on 26 Jan 1901.This topic deals with the history of industrialsation first in Britain and then in India. 

Industrialisation in the colonies
The Age of Indian Textiles
Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. Coarser cottons were produced in many countries.
But the finer varieties often came from India. 
Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, eastern Persia and Central Asia. Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the north-west frontier, through mountain passes and across deserts.

A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports
(i)    Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports. 
(ii)    Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports.
A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in this network of export trade - financing production, carrying goods and supplying exporters. 

Supply merchants linked the port towns to the inland regions
(i)    They gave advances to weavers,
(ii)    Procured the woven cloth from weaving villages, and 
(iii)    Carried the supply to the ports. 
At the port, big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.

What happened to weavers?
Before establishing political power in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1760s and 1770s, the East India Company had found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export.
Portuguese as well as the local traders competed in the market to secure woven cloth. So the weaver and supply merchants could bargain and try selling the produce to the best buyer. 
In their letters back to London, Company officials continuously complained of difficulties of supply and the high prices.

The East India Company established political power
(i)    It proceeded to develop a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. 

This it did through a series of steps.
(A) The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
(B)    Gomastha prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers by the System of advances
(i)      Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. 
 (ii)    Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. 
(iii)    They could not take it to any other trader and became permanent weavers of the company.
        
Reports of clashes between weavers and gomasthas. 
(i)    Earlier supply merchants had very often lived within the weaving villages, and had a close relationship with the weavers, looking after their needs and helping them in times of crisis.
 (ii)    The new gomasthas were outsiders, with no long-term social link with the village. 
 (iii)    They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply - often beating and flogging them. 
(iv)    The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers: the price they received from the Company was miserably low and the loans they had accepted tied them to the Company.

In many places in Carnatic and Bengal, weavers deserted villages and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relation Else where.
Weavers along with the village traders revolted, opposing the Company and its officials.
Over time many weavers began refusing loans, closing down their workshops and taking to agricultural labour.

Manchester comes to India
In 1772, Henry Patullo, a Company official, had ventured to say that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce, since no other nation produced goods of the same quality. 
By the beginning of the nineteenth century we see the beginning of a long decline of textile exports from India. 

In 1811-12 piece-goods accounted for 33 per cent of India’s exports; by 1850-51 it was no more than 3 percent
(i)    As cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups began worrying about imports from other countries. They pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing any competition from outside. 
Their export market collapsed, local market sharnk.
(ii)    At the same time industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian markets as well. Exports of British cotton goods increased dramatically in the early nineteenth century. At the end of the eighteenth century there had been virtually no import of cotton piece-goods into India. 
But by 1850 cotton piece-goods constituted over 31 per cent of the value of  India imports; and by the 1870s this figure was over 50 per cent.

Cotton weavers in India thus faced two problems at the same time
(i)    Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
(ii)    They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton  shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this, situation weaving could not pay.
(iii)    Factories in India began production, flooding the market with machine - goods weaving industries could not survive.

Illustration 9
    Mention the international trade of cotton textiles from India before the age of machine industries ?
Solution
    (i)     Armenian and persian traders took goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, to eastern persia and central Asia.
    (ii)     Bales of fine textile were carried on camel back via north west frontier province, through mountain passes and across deserts.
    (iii)     From Surat in Gujarat to the gulf and Red sea ports.
    (iv)     Masulipatnam on coromandal coast and Hoogly in Bengal traded with southeast Asia.
Illustration 10
    What led to the breaking down of the trade network of Indian merchants by 1750’s?
Solution
    By 1750’s the European companies gained power by –
    (i)     Securing a variety of concessions from local courts.
    (ii)     They obtained monopoly rights to trade.

Illustration 11
    Which two port of India decayed and which ports grew? What does it symbolices?
Solution
    Ports like Surat and Hoogly decayed and ports like Bombay and Calcutta grew. It was an indicator of growing colonial power.
Illustration 12
    Who were ‘gomasthas’?
Solution
    A paid servent appointed by the company to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine quality of cloths.

 

Early Entrepreneurs & workers.

factories come up
The first cotton mill in Bombay came up in 1854 and it went into production two years later. By 1862 four mills were at work with 94,000 spindles and 2,150 looms. 
Around the same time jute mills came up in Bengal, the first being set up in 1855 and another one seven years later, in 1862. 
In north India, the Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s, and a year later the first cotton mill of Ahmedabad was set up.
By 1874, the first spinning and weaving mill of Madras began production.

The Early Entrepreneurs
Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments. 

The first Indian Merchants of 19th century.
(A)    In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.
(B)    In Bombay, Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata built huge industrial empires in India, accumulated their initial wealth partly from exports to China, and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
(C)    Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917, also traded with China.

Capital was accumulated through other trade networks
Some merchants from Madras traded with Burma while others had links with the Middle East and East Africa.
There were yet other commercial groups, but they were not directly involved in external trade. They operated within India, earning goods from one place to another, banking money, transferring funds between cities, and financing traders. When opportunities of investment in industries opened up, many of them set up factories.
Till the First World War, European Managing Agencies in fact controlled a large sector of Indian industries. Three of the biggest ones were Bird Heiglers & Co., Andrew Yule, and Jardine Skinner & Co. These Agencies mobilised capital, set up joint-stock companies and managed them. 

Where did the workers come from?
Factories needed workers. With the expansion of factories, this demand increased. In 1901, there were 584,000 workers in Indian factories. By 1946 the number was over 2,436,000.
In most industrial regions workers came from the districts around. Peasants and artisans who found no work in the village went to the industrial centres in search of work. 
Over 50 per cent workers in the Bombay cotton industries in 1911 came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri, while the mills of Kanpur got most of their textile hands from the villages within the district of Kanpur. Most often millworkers moved between the village and the city, returning to their village homes during harvests and festivals.
Over time, as news of employment spread, workers travelled great distances in the hope of work in the mills. From the United Provinces, for instance, they went to work in the textile mills of Bombay and in the jute mills of Calcutta.
Getting jobs was always difficult, even when mills multiplied and the demand for workers increased. The numbers seeking work were always more than the jobs available. Entry into the mills was also restricted. Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits.
    (i)    The jobber was an old and trusted worker. 
    (ii)    He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in times of crisis. 
    (iii)    The jobber therefore became a person with some authority and power. 
    (iv)    He began demanding money and gifts for his favour and controlling the lives of workers.

Illustration 13
    How Indians were benifitted from trade with China?
Solution
Many Indians were benifitted with trade with China by trading, providing finances procuring supplies and shipping consignment.

Illustration 14
Name few traders or beneficiaries from Chinesse trade who became industrialists?
Solution
Dwarkanath Tagore, Dinshaw Petit, Jamsetjee Nusserwanji Tata, seth Hukumchand etc.

Illustration 15
What kind of economic activites were done with in India by the traders who were not directly involved in external trade?
Solution
They operated with in India, curring goods from one place to another, banking money, transfering funds between cities and financing traders. late with opportunities came up they set up factories.

Illustration 16
What happed when colonial control over Indian trade tightened? 
Solution
The space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited.
 

Early Entrepreneurs & workers.

factories come up
The first cotton mill in Bombay came up in 1854 and it went into production two years later. By 1862 four mills were at work with 94,000 spindles and 2,150 looms. 
Around the same time jute mills came up in Bengal, the first being set up in 1855 and another one seven years later, in 1862. 
In north India, the Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s, and a year later the first cotton mill of Ahmedabad was set up.
By 1874, the first spinning and weaving mill of Madras began production.

The Early Entrepreneurs
Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments. 

The first Indian Merchants of 19th century.
(A)    In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.
(B)    In Bombay, Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata built huge industrial empires in India, accumulated their initial wealth partly from exports to China, and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
(C)    Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917, also traded with China.

Capital was accumulated through other trade networks
Some merchants from Madras traded with Burma while others had links with the Middle East and East Africa.
There were yet other commercial groups, but they were not directly involved in external trade. They operated within India, earning goods from one place to another, banking money, transferring funds between cities, and financing traders. When opportunities of investment in industries opened up, many of them set up factories.
Till the First World War, European Managing Agencies in fact controlled a large sector of Indian industries. Three of the biggest ones were Bird Heiglers & Co., Andrew Yule, and Jardine Skinner & Co. These Agencies mobilised capital, set up joint-stock companies and managed them. 

Where did the workers come from?
Factories needed workers. With the expansion of factories, this demand increased. In 1901, there were 584,000 workers in Indian factories. By 1946 the number was over 2,436,000.
In most industrial regions workers came from the districts around. Peasants and artisans who found no work in the village went to the industrial centres in search of work. 
Over 50 per cent workers in the Bombay cotton industries in 1911 came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri, while the mills of Kanpur got most of their textile hands from the villages within the district of Kanpur. Most often millworkers moved between the village and the city, returning to their village homes during harvests and festivals.
Over time, as news of employment spread, workers travelled great distances in the hope of work in the mills. From the United Provinces, for instance, they went to work in the textile mills of Bombay and in the jute mills of Calcutta.
Getting jobs was always difficult, even when mills multiplied and the demand for workers increased. The numbers seeking work were always more than the jobs available. Entry into the mills was also restricted. Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits.
    (i)    The jobber was an old and trusted worker. 
    (ii)    He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in times of crisis. 
    (iii)    The jobber therefore became a person with some authority and power. 
    (iv)    He began demanding money and gifts for his favour and controlling the lives of workers.

Illustration 13
    How Indians were benifitted from trade with China?
Solution
Many Indians were benifitted with trade with China by trading, providing finances procuring supplies and shipping consignment.

Illustration 14
Name few traders or beneficiaries from Chinesse trade who became industrialists?
Solution
Dwarkanath Tagore, Dinshaw Petit, Jamsetjee Nusserwanji Tata, seth Hukumchand etc.

Illustration 15
What kind of economic activites were done with in India by the traders who were not directly involved in external trade?
Solution
They operated with in India, curring goods from one place to another, banking money, transfering funds between cities and financing traders. late with opportunities came up they set up factories.

Illustration 16
What happed when colonial control over Indian trade tightened? 
Solution
The space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited.
 

Early Entrepreneurs & workers.

factories come up
The first cotton mill in Bombay came up in 1854 and it went into production two years later. By 1862 four mills were at work with 94,000 spindles and 2,150 looms. 
Around the same time jute mills came up in Bengal, the first being set up in 1855 and another one seven years later, in 1862. 
In north India, the Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s, and a year later the first cotton mill of Ahmedabad was set up.
By 1874, the first spinning and weaving mill of Madras began production.

The Early Entrepreneurs
Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments. 

The first Indian Merchants of 19th century.
(A)    In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.
(B)    In Bombay, Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata built huge industrial empires in India, accumulated their initial wealth partly from exports to China, and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
(C)    Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917, also traded with China.

Capital was accumulated through other trade networks
Some merchants from Madras traded with Burma while others had links with the Middle East and East Africa.
There were yet other commercial groups, but they were not directly involved in external trade. They operated within India, earning goods from one place to another, banking money, transferring funds between cities, and financing traders. When opportunities of investment in industries opened up, many of them set up factories.
Till the First World War, European Managing Agencies in fact controlled a large sector of Indian industries. Three of the biggest ones were Bird Heiglers & Co., Andrew Yule, and Jardine Skinner & Co. These Agencies mobilised capital, set up joint-stock companies and managed them. 

Where did the workers come from?
Factories needed workers. With the expansion of factories, this demand increased. In 1901, there were 584,000 workers in Indian factories. By 1946 the number was over 2,436,000.
In most industrial regions workers came from the districts around. Peasants and artisans who found no work in the village went to the industrial centres in search of work. 
Over 50 per cent workers in the Bombay cotton industries in 1911 came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri, while the mills of Kanpur got most of their textile hands from the villages within the district of Kanpur. Most often millworkers moved between the village and the city, returning to their village homes during harvests and festivals.
Over time, as news of employment spread, workers travelled great distances in the hope of work in the mills. From the United Provinces, for instance, they went to work in the textile mills of Bombay and in the jute mills of Calcutta.
Getting jobs was always difficult, even when mills multiplied and the demand for workers increased. The numbers seeking work were always more than the jobs available. Entry into the mills was also restricted. Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits.
    (i)    The jobber was an old and trusted worker. 
    (ii)    He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in times of crisis. 
    (iii)    The jobber therefore became a person with some authority and power. 
    (iv)    He began demanding money and gifts for his favour and controlling the lives of workers.

Illustration 13
    How Indians were benifitted from trade with China?
Solution
Many Indians were benifitted with trade with China by trading, providing finances procuring supplies and shipping consignment.

Illustration 14
Name few traders or beneficiaries from Chinesse trade who became industrialists?
Solution
Dwarkanath Tagore, Dinshaw Petit, Jamsetjee Nusserwanji Tata, seth Hukumchand etc.

Illustration 15
What kind of economic activites were done with in India by the traders who were not directly involved in external trade?
Solution
They operated with in India, curring goods from one place to another, banking money, transfering funds between cities and financing traders. late with opportunities came up they set up factories.

Illustration 16
What happed when colonial control over Indian trade tightened? 
Solution
The space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited.
 

Early Entrepreneurs & workers.

factories come up
The first cotton mill in Bombay came up in 1854 and it went into production two years later. By 1862 four mills were at work with 94,000 spindles and 2,150 looms. 
Around the same time jute mills came up in Bengal, the first being set up in 1855 and another one seven years later, in 1862. 
In north India, the Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s, and a year later the first cotton mill of Ahmedabad was set up.
By 1874, the first spinning and weaving mill of Madras began production.

The Early Entrepreneurs
Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments. 

The first Indian Merchants of 19th century.
(A)    In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.
(B)    In Bombay, Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata built huge industrial empires in India, accumulated their initial wealth partly from exports to China, and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
(C)    Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917, also traded with China.

Capital was accumulated through other trade networks
Some merchants from Madras traded with Burma while others had links with the Middle East and East Africa.
There were yet other commercial groups, but they were not directly involved in external trade. They operated within India, earning goods from one place to another, banking money, transferring funds between cities, and financing traders. When opportunities of investment in industries opened up, many of them set up factories.
Till the First World War, European Managing Agencies in fact controlled a large sector of Indian industries. Three of the biggest ones were Bird Heiglers & Co., Andrew Yule, and Jardine Skinner & Co. These Agencies mobilised capital, set up joint-stock companies and managed them. 

Where did the workers come from?
Factories needed workers. With the expansion of factories, this demand increased. In 1901, there were 584,000 workers in Indian factories. By 1946 the number was over 2,436,000.
In most industrial regions workers came from the districts around. Peasants and artisans who found no work in the village went to the industrial centres in search of work. 
Over 50 per cent workers in the Bombay cotton industries in 1911 came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri, while the mills of Kanpur got most of their textile hands from the villages within the district of Kanpur. Most often millworkers moved between the village and the city, returning to their village homes during harvests and festivals.
Over time, as news of employment spread, workers travelled great distances in the hope of work in the mills. From the United Provinces, for instance, they went to work in the textile mills of Bombay and in the jute mills of Calcutta.
Getting jobs was always difficult, even when mills multiplied and the demand for workers increased. The numbers seeking work were always more than the jobs available. Entry into the mills was also restricted. Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits.
    (i)    The jobber was an old and trusted worker. 
    (ii)    He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in times of crisis. 
    (iii)    The jobber therefore became a person with some authority and power. 
    (iv)    He began demanding money and gifts for his favour and controlling the lives of workers.

Illustration 13
    How Indians were benifitted from trade with China?
Solution
Many Indians were benifitted with trade with China by trading, providing finances procuring supplies and shipping consignment.

Illustration 14
Name few traders or beneficiaries from Chinesse trade who became industrialists?
Solution
Dwarkanath Tagore, Dinshaw Petit, Jamsetjee Nusserwanji Tata, seth Hukumchand etc.

Illustration 15
What kind of economic activites were done with in India by the traders who were not directly involved in external trade?
Solution
They operated with in India, curring goods from one place to another, banking money, transfering funds between cities and financing traders. late with opportunities came up they set up factories.

Illustration 16
What happed when colonial control over Indian trade tightened? 
Solution
The space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited.
 

Early Entrepreneurs & workers.

factories come up
The first cotton mill in Bombay came up in 1854 and it went into production two years later. By 1862 four mills were at work with 94,000 spindles and 2,150 looms. 
Around the same time jute mills came up in Bengal, the first being set up in 1855 and another one seven years later, in 1862. 
In north India, the Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s, and a year later the first cotton mill of Ahmedabad was set up.
By 1874, the first spinning and weaving mill of Madras began production.

The Early Entrepreneurs
Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments. 

The first Indian Merchants of 19th century.
(A)    In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.
(B)    In Bombay, Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata built huge industrial empires in India, accumulated their initial wealth partly from exports to China, and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
(C)    Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917, also traded with China.

Capital was accumulated through other trade networks
Some merchants from Madras traded with Burma while others had links with the Middle East and East Africa.
There were yet other commercial groups, but they were not directly involved in external trade. They operated within India, earning goods from one place to another, banking money, transferring funds between cities, and financing traders. When opportunities of investment in industries opened up, many of them set up factories.
Till the First World War, European Managing Agencies in fact controlled a large sector of Indian industries. Three of the biggest ones were Bird Heiglers & Co., Andrew Yule, and Jardine Skinner & Co. These Agencies mobilised capital, set up joint-stock companies and managed them. 

Where did the workers come from?
Factories needed workers. With the expansion of factories, this demand increased. In 1901, there were 584,000 workers in Indian factories. By 1946 the number was over 2,436,000.
In most industrial regions workers came from the districts around. Peasants and artisans who found no work in the village went to the industrial centres in search of work. 
Over 50 per cent workers in the Bombay cotton industries in 1911 came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri, while the mills of Kanpur got most of their textile hands from the villages within the district of Kanpur. Most often millworkers moved between the village and the city, returning to their village homes during harvests and festivals.
Over time, as news of employment spread, workers travelled great distances in the hope of work in the mills. From the United Provinces, for instance, they went to work in the textile mills of Bombay and in the jute mills of Calcutta.
Getting jobs was always difficult, even when mills multiplied and the demand for workers increased. The numbers seeking work were always more than the jobs available. Entry into the mills was also restricted. Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits.
    (i)    The jobber was an old and trusted worker. 
    (ii)    He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in times of crisis. 
    (iii)    The jobber therefore became a person with some authority and power. 
    (iv)    He began demanding money and gifts for his favour and controlling the lives of workers.

Illustration 13
    How Indians were benifitted from trade with China?
Solution
Many Indians were benifitted with trade with China by trading, providing finances procuring supplies and shipping consignment.

Illustration 14
Name few traders or beneficiaries from Chinesse trade who became industrialists?
Solution
Dwarkanath Tagore, Dinshaw Petit, Jamsetjee Nusserwanji Tata, seth Hukumchand etc.

Illustration 15
What kind of economic activites were done with in India by the traders who were not directly involved in external trade?
Solution
They operated with in India, curring goods from one place to another, banking money, transfering funds between cities and financing traders. late with opportunities came up they set up factories.

Illustration 16
What happed when colonial control over Indian trade tightened? 
Solution
The space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited.
 

Early Entrepreneurs & workers.

factories come up
The first cotton mill in Bombay came up in 1854 and it went into production two years later. By 1862 four mills were at work with 94,000 spindles and 2,150 looms. 
Around the same time jute mills came up in Bengal, the first being set up in 1855 and another one seven years later, in 1862. 
In north India, the Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s, and a year later the first cotton mill of Ahmedabad was set up.
By 1874, the first spinning and weaving mill of Madras began production.

The Early Entrepreneurs
Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments. 

The first Indian Merchants of 19th century.
(A)    In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.
(B)    In Bombay, Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata built huge industrial empires in India, accumulated their initial wealth partly from exports to China, and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
(C)    Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917, also traded with China.

Capital was accumulated through other trade networks
Some merchants from Madras traded with Burma while others had links with the Middle East and East Africa.
There were yet other commercial groups, but they were not directly involved in external trade. They operated within India, earning goods from one place to another, banking money, transferring funds between cities, and financing traders. When opportunities of investment in industries opened up, many of them set up factories.
Till the First World War, European Managing Agencies in fact controlled a large sector of Indian industries. Three of the biggest ones were Bird Heiglers & Co., Andrew Yule, and Jardine Skinner & Co. These Agencies mobilised capital, set up joint-stock companies and managed them. 

Where did the workers come from?
Factories needed workers. With the expansion of factories, this demand increased. In 1901, there were 584,000 workers in Indian factories. By 1946 the number was over 2,436,000.
In most industrial regions workers came from the districts around. Peasants and artisans who found no work in the village went to the industrial centres in search of work. 
Over 50 per cent workers in the Bombay cotton industries in 1911 came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri, while the mills of Kanpur got most of their textile hands from the villages within the district of Kanpur. Most often millworkers moved between the village and the city, returning to their village homes during harvests and festivals.
Over time, as news of employment spread, workers travelled great distances in the hope of work in the mills. From the United Provinces, for instance, they went to work in the textile mills of Bombay and in the jute mills of Calcutta.
Getting jobs was always difficult, even when mills multiplied and the demand for workers increased. The numbers seeking work were always more than the jobs available. Entry into the mills was also restricted. Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits.
    (i)    The jobber was an old and trusted worker. 
    (ii)    He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in times of crisis. 
    (iii)    The jobber therefore became a person with some authority and power. 
    (iv)    He began demanding money and gifts for his favour and controlling the lives of workers.

Illustration 13
    How Indians were benifitted from trade with China?
Solution
Many Indians were benifitted with trade with China by trading, providing finances procuring supplies and shipping consignment.

Illustration 14
Name few traders or beneficiaries from Chinesse trade who became industrialists?
Solution
Dwarkanath Tagore, Dinshaw Petit, Jamsetjee Nusserwanji Tata, seth Hukumchand etc.

Illustration 15
What kind of economic activites were done with in India by the traders who were not directly involved in external trade?
Solution
They operated with in India, curring goods from one place to another, banking money, transfering funds between cities and financing traders. late with opportunities came up they set up factories.

Illustration 16
What happed when colonial control over Indian trade tightened? 
Solution
The space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited.
 

Early Entrepreneurs & workers.

factories come up
The first cotton mill in Bombay came up in 1854 and it went into production two years later. By 1862 four mills were at work with 94,000 spindles and 2,150 looms. 
Around the same time jute mills came up in Bengal, the first being set up in 1855 and another one seven years later, in 1862. 
In north India, the Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s, and a year later the first cotton mill of Ahmedabad was set up.
By 1874, the first spinning and weaving mill of Madras began production.

The Early Entrepreneurs
Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments. 

The first Indian Merchants of 19th century.
(A)    In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.
(B)    In Bombay, Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata built huge industrial empires in India, accumulated their initial wealth partly from exports to China, and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
(C)    Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917, also traded with China.

Capital was accumulated through other trade networks
Some merchants from Madras traded with Burma while others had links with the Middle East and East Africa.
There were yet other commercial groups, but they were not directly involved in external trade. They operated within India, earning goods from one place to another, banking money, transferring funds between cities, and financing traders. When opportunities of investment in industries opened up, many of them set up factories.
Till the First World War, European Managing Agencies in fact controlled a large sector of Indian industries. Three of the biggest ones were Bird Heiglers & Co., Andrew Yule, and Jardine Skinner & Co. These Agencies mobilised capital, set up joint-stock companies and managed them. 

Where did the workers come from?
Factories needed workers. With the expansion of factories, this demand increased. In 1901, there were 584,000 workers in Indian factories. By 1946 the number was over 2,436,000.
In most industrial regions workers came from the districts around. Peasants and artisans who found no work in the village went to the industrial centres in search of work. 
Over 50 per cent workers in the Bombay cotton industries in 1911 came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri, while the mills of Kanpur got most of their textile hands from the villages within the district of Kanpur. Most often millworkers moved between the village and the city, returning to their village homes during harvests and festivals.
Over time, as news of employment spread, workers travelled great distances in the hope of work in the mills. From the United Provinces, for instance, they went to work in the textile mills of Bombay and in the jute mills of Calcutta.
Getting jobs was always difficult, even when mills multiplied and the demand for workers increased. The numbers seeking work were always more than the jobs available. Entry into the mills was also restricted. Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits.
    (i)    The jobber was an old and trusted worker. 
    (ii)    He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in times of crisis. 
    (iii)    The jobber therefore became a person with some authority and power. 
    (iv)    He began demanding money and gifts for his favour and controlling the lives of workers.

Illustration 13
    How Indians were benifitted from trade with China?
Solution
Many Indians were benifitted with trade with China by trading, providing finances procuring supplies and shipping consignment.

Illustration 14
Name few traders or beneficiaries from Chinesse trade who became industrialists?
Solution
Dwarkanath Tagore, Dinshaw Petit, Jamsetjee Nusserwanji Tata, seth Hukumchand etc.

Illustration 15
What kind of economic activites were done with in India by the traders who were not directly involved in external trade?
Solution
They operated with in India, curring goods from one place to another, banking money, transfering funds between cities and financing traders. late with opportunities came up they set up factories.

Illustration 16
What happed when colonial control over Indian trade tightened? 
Solution
The space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited.
 

The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth.

The peculiarities of industrial growth
European Managing Agencies, which dominated industrial production in India, were interested in certain kinds of products. They established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheap rates from the colonial government; and they invested in mining, indigo and jute. Most of these were products required primarily for export trade and not for sale in India.

Factors affected the pattern of Industrialisation in India
(i) Swadeshi movement gathered momentum, nationalists mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth. Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions.
(ii) he export of Indian yarn to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market So industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production. Cotton piece-goods production in India doubled between 1900 and 1912.

The effects of the first world war on Indian industry
(i)    The First World War created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. 
(ii)    Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply. 
(iii)    As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. 
(iv)    New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. 
(v)    Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. 
(vi)    Over the war years industrial production boomed.

After the war, Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market
Unable to modernise and compete with the US, Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fall dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

Small-scale Industries Predominate
While factory industries grew steadily after the war large industries formed only a small segment of the economy. Most of them about 67 per cent in 1911 - were located in Bengal and Bombay. 

How did this happen?
(i)    In the 20th century handloom cloth production expanded steadily. This was partly because of technological changes. By the second decade of the twentieth century we find weavers using looms with a fly shuttle. This increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand. 
(ii)    By 1941, over 35 per cent of handlooms in India were fitted with fly shuttles: in regions like Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin, Bengal the proportion was 70 to 80 per cent. 
(iii)    There were several other small innovations that helped weavers improve their productivity and compete with the mill sector.

Coarser clothes and finer varieties of clothes
(i)    The coarser cloth was bought by the poor and its demand fluctuated violently. In times of bad harvests and famines, when the rural poor had little to eat, and their cash income disappeared, they could not possibly buy cloth. 
(ii)    The demand for the finer varieties bought by the well-to-do was more stable. The rich could buy these even when the poor starved. Famines did not affect the sale of Banarasi or Baluchari saris. Moreover, as  mills could not imitate specialised weaves. Saris with woven borders, or the famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, could not be easily displaced by mill production.

Lives of Indian weavers
(i)     Weavers and other craftspeople who continued to expand production through the twentieth century, did not necessarily prosper. 
(ii)     They lived hard lives and worked long hours. 
(iii)    Very often the entire household - including all the women and children - had to work at various stages of the production process. 
 (iv)    But they were not simply remnants of past times in the age of factories. Their life and labour was integral to the process of in