1. Bonding in Carbon

Bonding in Carbon: The Covalent bond, Electron dot structure, Physical properties of organic compounds, Allotropes of Carbon.

Hard Water

Hard water contains salts of calcium and magnesium, principally as bicarbonates, chlorides, and sulphates. When soap is added to hard water, calcium and magnesium ions of hard water react with soap forming insoluble curdy white precipitates of calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids.

2C17H35COONa+MgCl2 → (C17H35COO)2Mg+2NaCl

2C17H35COONa+CaCl2 → (C17H35COO)2Ca+2NaCl

These precipitates stick to the fabric being washed and hence, interfere with the cleaning ability of the soap. Therefore, a lot of soap is wasted if the water is hard.

Covalent Bonds

Difficulty of Carbon to Form a Stable Ion

To achieve the electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas, He, if the carbon atom loses four of its valence electrons, a huge amount of energy is involved. C4+ ion hence formed will be highly unstable due to the presence of six protons and two electrons.

If the carbon atom gains four electrons to achieve the nearest electronic configuration of the noble gas, Ne, C4− ion will be formed. But again, a huge amount of energy is required. Moreover, in C4+ ion it is difficult for 6 protons to hold 10 electrons. Hence, to satisfy its tetravalency, carbon shares all four of its valence electrons and forms covalent bonds.

Ionic Bond

Ionic bonding involves the transfer of valence electron/s, primarily between a metal and a nonmetal. The electrostatic attractions between the oppositely charged ions hold the compound together.

Ionic compounds:

Are usually crystalline solids (made of ions)

Have high melting and boiling points

Conduct electricity when melted

Are mostly soluble in water and polar solvents

Covalent Bond

A covalent bond is formed when pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms. It is primarily formed between two same nonmetallic atoms or between nonmetallic atoms with similar electronegativity.

Lewis Dot Structure

Lewis structures are also known as Lewis dot structures or electron dot structures.

These are basically diagrams with the element’s symbol in the centre. The dots around it represent the valence electrons of the element.

Lewis structures of elements with atomic number 5-8

Covalent Bonding in H2, N2 and O2

Formation of a single bond in a hydrogen molecule:

Each hydrogen atom has a single electron in the valence shell. It requires one more to acquire the nearest noble gas configuration (He).

Therefore, both the atoms share one electron each and form a single bond.


 Formation of a double bond in an oxygen molecule:

Each oxygen atom has six electrons in the valence shell (2, 6). It requires two electrons to acquire the nearest noble gas configuration (Ne).

Therefore, both the atoms share two electrons each and form a double bond.

Formation of a triple bond in a nitrogen molecule:

Each nitrogen atom has five electrons in the valence shell (2, 5). It requires three electrons to acquire the nearest noble gas configuration (Ne).

Therefore, both atoms share three electrons each and form a triple bond.

Single, Double and Triple Bonds and Their Strengths

A single bond is formed between two atoms when two electrons are shared between them

A double bond is formed between two atoms when four electrons are shared between them, i.e., one pair of electrons from each participating atom. It is depicted by double lines between the two atoms.

A triple bond is formed between two atoms when six electrons are shared between them, i.e., two pairs of electrons from each participating atom. It is depicted by triple lines between the two atoms.

Bond strength:

  The bond strength of a bond is determined by the amount of energy required to break a bond.

This is to signify that the energy required to break three bonds is higher than that for two bonds or a single bond.

Bond length:

Bond length is determined by the distance between nuclei of the two atoms in a bond.

The order of bond length for multiple bonds is: Triple bond<double bond<single bond

The distance between the nuclei of two atoms is least when they are triple bonded.

Covalent Bonding of N, O with H and Polarity

In ammonia (NH3), the three hydrogen atoms share one electron each with the nitrogen atom and form three covalent bonds.

1.Ammonia has one lone pair.

2.This causes the N atom to acquire a slight negative charge and H atom a slight positive charge

3.All three N-H covalent bonds are polar in nature.N atom is more electronegative than

the H atom. Thus, the shared pair of electrons lies more towards N atom.


In water (H2O), the two hydrogen atoms share one electron each with the oxygen atom and form two covalent bonds.

 Covalent Bonding in Carbon

A methane molecule (CH4) is formed when four electrons of carbon are shared with four hydrogen atoms as shown below.


Diamond has a regular tetrahedral geometry. This is because each carbon is connected to four neighbouring carbon atoms via single covalent bonds, resulting in a single unit of a crystal. These crystal units lie in different planes and are connected to each other,  resulting in a rigid three-dimensional cubic pattern of the diamond.


1.Has a high density of 3.5g/cc.

2.Has a very high refractive index of 2.5.

3.Is a good conductor of heat.

4.Is a poor conductor of electricity.


In graphite, each carbon atom is bonded covalently to three other carbon atoms, leaving each carbon atom with one free valency. This arrangement results in hexagonal rings in a single plane and such rings are stacked over each other through weak Van der Waals forces.


1.Has a density of 2.25 g/cc.

2.Has a soft and slippery feel.

3.Is a good conductor of electricity.


C60, also known as Buckminsterfullerene, is the very popular and stable form of the known fullerenes. It is the most common naturally occurring fullerene and can be found in small quantities in soot. It consists of 60 carbon atoms arranged in 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons, like in a soccer ball.

1. Bonding in Carbon



Carbon:-  (i)Most carbon compounds are poor conductors of electricity. Therefore, the bonding in these componds does not give rise to any ions

  1. They have low melting and boiling points as compared to ionic compounds
  2. Forces of attraction between the molecules are not very strong.
  3. The atomic number of carbonis
  4. It has four elements I its outermost shell and needs to gain or lose four electrons to attain noble gas configuration.

If carbon were to gain lose electrons:-

  • It  could gain four electrons forming C4-  anion. But it would be difficult for the nucleus with six protons to hold on to ten electrons.
  • It could lose four electrons forming C4+ cation. But it would require a large amount of energy to remove electrons. Carbon overcomes this problem by sharing its valences electrons with other of carbon or with atoms of other elements.

 Bonding in carbon

 Carbon form covalent bounds.  

  • Covalent bound formation involves sharing of electrons between bonding atoms which may be either same or different.
  • The number of lectrons contributed by an atom for sharing is known as its covalency.

       For example 

  1. Molecule of hydrogen  

  2. Molecule of oxygen

  1. Molecule of Nitrogen

  1. Structure of methane

Methane CH4  is widely used as a fixed and is a major component of bio-gas and compressed natural gas ( CNG) .

  1. These compounds are molecula in nature  i.e. , they exist as single molecules)
  2. These are insoluble in water and soluble in benzene , kerosence and petrol etc.
  3. These compounds are poor conductor of electricity.

Allotropes of carbon

  The property due to which an element exists intwo or more forms, which differ in their physical and chemical properties is known as ‘Allotropes’ and the various forms are called “Allotropes”.

  • carbon exists in two allotropic  form
  • (i) crystalline                 (ii)  amorphous.

The crystalline forms are diamond and graphite the amorphous forms are coat , characol etc.

  • In diamound , each carbon is bonded to for other carbon atoms forming rigid 3-D dtructure. Diamond is the nardest substance. * in graphite each carbon is bonded to three other carbon atom. Graphite structure is formed by the hexagonal arrays. Graphite is smooth and slippery . it is very good conductor of electricity.
  • Fullerenes form another class of carbon allotropes. The first one to be identified was C-60, which has carbon atoms arranged in the shape of a football.

2. Nature of Carbon Compounds

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

Most of the organic compounds have low boiling and melting point, due to the weak force of attraction (i.e., the inter-molecular force of attraction) between these molecules. Most carbon compounds are poor conductors of electricity, due to the absence of free electrons and free ions.

Chains, Branches and Rings

Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Saturated hydrocarbons: These hydrocarbons have all carbon-carbon single bonds. These are known as alkanes. General formula = CnH2n+2 where n = 1, 2, 3, 4.…..

Unsaturated hydrocarbons: These hydrocarbons have at least one carbon-carbon double or triple bond.

Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-carbon double bond are called alkenes. General formula = CnH2n where n = 2, 3, 4…..

Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-carbon triple bond are called alkynes. General formula = CnH2n−2 where n = 2, 3, 4…..

Chains, Rings and Branches

Carbon chains may be in the form of straight chains, branched chains or rings.

In cyclic compounds,

 Structural Isomers

The compounds with the same molecular formula and different physical or chemical properties are known as isomers and the phenomenon is known as isomerism.

 The isomers that differ in the structural arrangement of atoms in their molecules are called structural isomers and the phenomenon is known as structural isomerism.


Benzene is the simplest organic, aromatic hydrocarbon.

Physical properties: colourless liquid, pungent odour, flammable, volatile.


Cyclic in nature with chemical formula, C6H6, i.e., each carbon atom in benzene is arranged in a six-membered ring and is bonded to only one hydrogen atom.

It includes 3-double bonds which are separated by a single bond.

 Hence, this arrangement is recognized to have conjugated double bonds and two stable resonance structures exist for the ring.

Functional Groups and Nomenclature

Functional Groups

An atom or a group of atoms which when present in a compound gives specific physical and chemical properties to it regardless of the length and nature of the carbon chain is called a functional group.

Classification of Functional Groups

Main Functional Groups:

(i) Hydroxyl group (-OH): All organic compounds containing -OH group are known as alcohols. For example, Methanol (CH3OH), Ethanol (CH3−CH2−OH), etc.

(ii) Aldehyde group (-CHO): All organic compounds containing -CHO group are known as aldehydes. For example, Methanal (HCHO), Ethanal (CH3CHO), etc.

(iii) Ketone group (-C=O): All organic compounds containing (-C=O) group flanked by two alkyl groups are known as ketones. For example, Propanone (CH3COCH3), Butanone (CH3COCH2CH3), etc.

(iv) Carboxyl group (-COOH): All organic acids contain a carboxyl group (-COOH). Hence, they are also called carboxylic acids.

For example, Ethanoic acid (CH3COOH), Propanoic acid (CH3CH2COOH), etc.

(v) Halogen group (F, CI, Br, I): The alkanes in which one or more than one hydrogen atom is substituted by- X (F, CI, Br or I) are known as haloalkanes. For example, Chloromethane (CH3Cl), Bromomethane (CH3Br), etc.

Homologous Series

Homologous series constitutes organic compounds with the same general formula, similar chemical characteristics but different physical properties. The adjacent members differ in their molecular formula by −CH2.

Physical Properties

The members of any particular family have almost identical chemical properties due to the same functional group. Their physical properties such as melting point, boiling point, density, etc., show a regular gradation with the increase in the molecular mass. 

2. Nature of Carbon Compounds

Nature of carbon compounds.

Catenation:-     The property of elements to form long chains or rings by self linking of their own atoms through covalentbonds is called catenation. These compounds may have long, branched chains of carbon atoms may be linked by single, double or triple bound. The extent of catenation depends upon the strength of the bounds between the atoms involved in catenation.

Saturated and unsaturated compounds

  • Compounds of carbon which are linked by only single bonds between carbon atoms are called saturated compounds.

For example,    C   -    C  

Carbon atom linked together with single bound.

But the valencies of each carbon atom remain unsatisfied , so each carbon atom is bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms:-

atom is bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms:-

 C2H6 is called methane.

Electron dot structure of ethane

Compounds of carbon having double or triple bounds between their carbon atoms are called unsaturated compounds.

For example,      

C 2 H 2  is called ethyne

.To satisfy the valency , carbon form double bond.

Strength of compound

The bonds that carbon forms with other elements are very strong, so these    compounds because very stable. Carbon form strong bonds is due to its small size. Nucleus hold shaired pair of electrons strougly.

Chains , branches and rings,

Straight chain compounds: the compounds which conatin straight chain of carbon atom e.g butane (c4H10 ) petane ( C5H12) etc.

Branched chain compounds:   Those compounds which are branched.

E.g.    ISO- butane  ( C4H10), isopentane ( C5H12)

Ring compounds:-  they  are also known as closd chain compounds.

Cyclic compounds are called ring coumpounds.

  E.g.  cyclohexane (C6H12)

           Cyclopropane ( C3H6)    etc. 

Hydrocarbons :-  All those compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbon. The saturated hydrocarbon which contain single bond are called alkanes. The unsaturated hydro carbons which contain one or more double bonds are called alkanes those containing one or more triple bounds are called alkynes.

Functional group:-  The atoms or group of atoms which determine the properties of a copmpond is known as functional group.   

E.g.  –Cl  ,  -Br  ( choro/ bromo alkane

             -OH (alcohol) 

Homologous series :-  A series of compounds in which the same functional group substitutes hydrogen ina carbon chain is called a homologous series.   E.g   ,     CH3C1    and   C2H5C1     these differ by a     CH2 unit. 

 Nomenclature :-   For naming organic compounds based on their structures, are followed by UPSC rules.

IUPAC name of an organic compounds consists of 3 parts –

  1. Prefix :- in case functional group is present , it is indicated in the name of the compound with either as a prefix or as a suffix.
  2. Word root :- A word root indicates the nature of basic carbon skeleton.
  3. Suffix :- while adding the suffix to the word rrot, the terminal ‘e’ of carbon chain is removed . if the carbon chain is unsaturated , then final ‘are’ is substituted by ‘en and yne’ respectively for double and triple bonds.

3. Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

Chemical Properties

Combustion Reactions

Combustion means burning of carbon or carbon-containing compounds in the presence of air or oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, heat and light.

Flame Characteristics

Saturated hydrocarbons give clean flame while unsaturated hydrocarbons give smoky flame. In the presence of limited oxygen, even saturated hydrocarbons give smoky flame.



The reactions in which two molecules react to form a single product having all the atoms of the combining molecules are called addition reactions.
The hydrogenation reaction is an example of the addition reaction. In this reaction, hydrogen is added to a double bond or a triple bond in the presence of a catalyst like nickel, palladium or platinum.


The reaction in which an atom or group of atoms in a molecule is replaced or substituted by different atoms or group of atoms is called substitution reaction. In alkanes, hydrogen atoms are replaced by other elements.

CH4+Cl2+Sunlight → CH3Cl+HCl

3. Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds


(i)  Combustion :- carbon burns in oxygen to give carbon dioxide along with the release of heat and heat .

 C  +   O2         CO2 +  heat and light.

CH4  +  O2       CO2  +  H2O + heat and light

CH3CH2OH + O2   CO2 + H2O + heat and light

Saturated hydrocarbon will give a clean flame unsaturated carbon compounds will give a yellow flame with lots of balck soke. The gas slove used at home has inlets for air so that a sufficiently oxygen-rich mixture is burnt to give a clean blue flame. Fuel such as  coal  and  petroleum  have some amount of nitrogen and sulphur in them. The combustion results in the formation of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen which are major pollutants in the environment.

•  Coal Coal and petroleum has been formed from biomass. Coal is the remains of trees, forms that lived millions of year ago . oil and gas are the remains of millions of tiny plants and animals that lived in the sea.

(ii) Oxidation :-   The substance which are used for oxidation are known as oxidizing agent.

E.g  alkaline kMnO4  , acidifed  k2 Cr2O7 .


(iii) Addition Reaction  unsatured hydrocarbons ( alkenes and alkynes) add hydrogen in the presence of catalysts to give saturated hydrocarbons. 

Catalyst are substance that cause a reaction to occur or proced ata different rate without the reaction itself being affected

  (IV) Substitution Reaction 

Saturated hydrocarbons give substitution reaction e.g methane in presence of sunlight undergo chlorination.

CH4  +  Cl2        CH3Cl +  Hcl (in the presence of sunlight )

4. Carbon Compounds- Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid

Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid


(i) Ethanol, C2H5OH is a colourless liquid having a pleasant smell.

(ii)   It boils at 351 K.

(iii)  It is miscible with water in all proportions.


1. As a solvent in the manufacture of paints, dyes, medicines, soaps and synthetic rubber.

2. As a solvent to prepare the tincture of iodine.

How Do Alcohols Affect Human Beings?

(i)     It causes addiction, damages the liver if taken in excess.

(ii)    High consumption of ethanol may even cause death.

Reactions of Ethanol with Sodium

Ethanol reacts with sodium to produce hydrogen gas and sodium ethoxide. This reaction supports the acidic character of ethanol.

  2C2H5OH+2Na → 2C2H5ONa+H2(↑)

Elimination Reaction

An elimination reaction is a type of reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule. These reactions play an important role in the preparation of alkenes.

Dehydration Reaction

Ethanol reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid at 443 K to produce ethylene. This reaction is known as dehydration of ethanol because, in this reaction, a water molecule is removed from the ethanol molecule.


(reaction taking place in presence of Conc.H2SO4)

Ethanoic Acid or Acetic Acid

(i)        Molecular formula: CH3COOH

(ii)       It dissolves in water, alcohol and ether.


SaponificationWhen a carboxylic acid is refluxed with alcohol in the presence of a small quantity of conc.H2SO4, a sweet-smelling ester is formed. This reaction of ester formation is called esterification.

 A soap is a sodium or potassium salt of long-chain carboxylic acids (fatty acid). The soap molecule is generally represented as RCOONa, where R = non-ionic hydrocarbon group and  −COO−Na+ ionic group. 

Reaction of Ethanoic Acid with Metals and Bases

Ethanoic acid (Acetic acid) reacts with metals like sodium, zinc and magnesium to liberate hydrogen gas.


It reacts with a solution of sodium hydroxide to form sodium ethanoate and water.


Carboxylic acids react with carbonates and bicarbonates with the evolution of CO2 gas. For example, when ethanoic acid (acetic acid) reacts with sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, CO2 gas is evolved.



Friendly Carbon

Why Carbon Can Form so Many Compounds

Catenation occurs most readily with carbon due to its small size, electronic configuration and unique strength of carbon-carbon bonds. Tetravalency, catenation and tendency to form multiple bonds with other atoms account for the formation of innumerable carbon compounds.


Catenation is the self-linking property of an element by which an atom forms covalent bonds with the other atoms of the same element to form straight or branched chains and rings of different sizes. It is shown by carbon, sulphur and silicon.


In its native state, sulphur show catenation up to 8 atoms in the form of S8 molecule. It

4. Carbon Compounds- Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid

Carbon compounds ethanol and ethanoio acid

 Alcohol :-  compounds containing –OH group attached to a carbon atom are known as alcohol.

E.g, Ethanol ( C2H5OH ) : Commonly known as alcohol.

 Properties of ethanol

Ethanol is a liquid at room temperature and is soluble n a water . in take of ever a small quantity of pure ethanol ( called absolute alcohol ) can be lethal.

Reactions of ethanol

2Na  +  2CH3CH2OH       2CH3CH2ONa+  +  H2 

                                                 Sodium ethoxide

Ethanol reacts with sodium to liberate H2 gas.

Reaction with cone. H2SO4

Heating ethanol at 443 K with excess concentrated sulphuric acid results in the dehydration of ethane to give ethane.

                              HO+ conc

Alcohol as a fuel :- alcohol (ethanol) is added to petrol up to  20% and the mixture is called gasol.

Harmful effects of drinking  Alcohol :

  • If the alcohol is used for drinking purpose conatins some methyl alcohol ( CH3OH) as impurity then it may cause series poisoning and loss of eye sight.
  • It damage liven if taken regularly in large quantities.
  • Dyes are also added to colour the alcohol blue so that it can be identified easily.
  • This is called denatured alcohol.

Ethanoic Acid :-  Ethanoic acid, commercially known as acetic acid belongs to a group of a acids called carboxylic acid. 

Reactions of ethanoic  acid :

  1. Esterification Reaction :- ethanoic acid reacts with absolute ethanol in the presence of an acid catalyst to give an ester.

Ester are sweet – smelling substances.

These are used in making perfums.

•  Saponification :-   ester is converted back to alcohol and sodium salt of carboxylic acid . this reactionis known as saponification because it is used in the preparation of soap.

  1. Reaction with a base

  NaOH  +  CH3COONa  +  H2O

  1. Reaction with carbonates and bicarbonates

Ethanoic acid reacts with carbonates and hydrogencarbonates to give rise toa salt, carbon dioxide and water . the salt produced is commonly called sodium acetate.

   2CH3COOH  +  Na2CO3         2CH3COONa +  H2O + CO2

  CH3COOH +  NaHCO3          CH3COONa + H2O +  CO2

5. Soaps and Detergents

Soaps and Detergents

Cleansing Action of Soap

When soap is added to water, the soap molecules uniquely orient themselves to form spherical shape micelles.

 The agitation or scrubbing of the fabric helps the micelles to carry the oil or dirt particles and detach them from the fibres of the fabric.

5. Soaps and Detergents


Soap :-   soaps are sodium or potassium molecules is towards the oil droplet while the ionic- end faces outsides. The soap micelle thus helps in pulling out the dirt in water and clothes can be cleaned. salts of long chain acid carboxylic acid. Structures of soap molecules called micelle , where one end of the

Micelles :-  soaps re the molecules in which the two ends have differing properties, one I hydrophilic, it interacts with water , while the other end is hydrophobic i.e it interacts with hydrocarbons. These molecules have a unique orientation that keeps the hydrocarbon portion out of water . this is called

Detergent :- they are ammonium or sulphate salts of long chain carboxylic acids. The charged ends of these compounds do not form insoluble precipitates with the calcium and magnesium oins  in hard water. Thus, they remain effective in hard water. Detergents are used to make shampoos and products for cleaning soaps.